Abdul G Dulloo's research while affiliated with Université de Fribourg and other places

Publications (223)

Chapter
Obesity is often considered to result from the failure of homeostatic mechanisms that regulate body weight to cope with an environment that encourages overeating and sedentarity. Understanding how short‐term deviations in body weight are corrected by changes in energy intake, energy expenditure (EE), or both, still remains a challenging issue for h...
Chapter
For most of their evolutionary history, humans have been faced with frequent periods of food scarcity and famine, specific nutrient deficiencies and sometimes food abundance. In such a lifestyle of famine-and-feast, it is conceivable that adaptive mechanisms—operating through adjustments in energy expenditure and in management of the body's main en...
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Societal erosion of daily life low-level physical activity has had a great influence on the obesity epidemic. Given that low fat oxidation is also a risk factor for obesity, we investigated, in a repeated measures design, the dynamics of fat oxidation from a resting state to a light-intensity leg cycling exercise (0–50 watts) in inactive, healthy y...
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Refeeding after caloric restriction induces weight regain and a disproportionate recovering of fat mass rather than lean mass (catch-up fat) that, in humans, associates with higher risks to develop chronic dysmetabolism. Studies in a well-established rat model of semistarvation-refeeding have reported that catch-up fat associates with hyperinsuline...
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Since its publication in 1950, the Biology of Human Starvation, which describes the classic longitudinal Minnesota Experiment of semistarvation and refeeding in healthy young men, has been the undisputed source of scientific reference about the impact of long-term food deprivation on human physiology and behavior. It has been a guide in developing...
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Several areas of research into the prevention and treatment of obesity today can be traced to one or more of the scientific works pioneered by Ancel Keys between the 1930s to 1970s in fields that cut across the physiology of extremes and public health nutrition. These range from his classical studies into how body and mind respond to chronic exposu...
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The most appropriate type of diets to maintain or lose body weight over the medium to long term has been a matter of controversy and debates for more than half a century. Both voluntarily and coercive food restriction, resulting in negative energy and macronutrient balance and hence weight loss, have not been designed to be maintained for the long...
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It is now recognized that the amount and type of dietary fat consumed play an important role in metabolic health. In humans, high intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been associated with reductions in cardiovascular disease risk, improvements in glucose homeostasis, and changes in body composition that involve reductions in central ad...
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Background/Objectives Catch-up growth, an important risk factor for later obesity and type 2 diabetes, is often characterized by a high rate of fat deposition associated with hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance. We tested here the hypothesis that refeeding on a high-fat diet rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (ePUFA) improves glucos...
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The notion that dieting makes some people fatter has in the past decade gained considerable interest from both epidemiological predictions and biological plausibility. Several large-scale prospective studies have suggested that dieting to lose weight is associated with future weight gain and obesity, with such predictions being stronger and more co...
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Background/objectives: In the tropical island of Mauritius, the rise in obesity has accelerated in the past decades, and could be contributed by low physical activity and increased sedentary behavior. The study objectives were to generate the first dataset of total energy expenditure (TEE), to estimate physical activity in Mauritian children, and...
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It is increasingly recognized that the use of body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for diagnosing obesity and proxy measures for body fatness in a given population needs to take into account the potential impact of ethnicity on the BMI-Fat% relationship in order to avoid adiposity status misclassification. This relationship was studied here in 377...
Article
The recovery of body weight after substantial weight loss or growth retardation is often characterized by a disproportionately higher rate of fat mass vs lean mass recovery, with this phenomenon of 'preferential catch-up fat' being contributed by energy conservation (thrifty) metabolism. To test the hypothesis that a low core body temperature (Tc)...
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Implementation of efficacious dietary interventions to regulate energy balance requires understanding of the determinants of individual response. To date, information regarding individual variability in response to elevated meal protein content is lacking. This study investigates whether sex and/or oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use play a role in t...
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Objective: The recovery of body composition after weight loss is characterized by an accelerated rate of fat recovery (preferential catch-up fat) resulting partly from an adaptive suppression of thermogenesis. Although the skeletal muscle has been implicated as an effector site for such thrifty (energy conservation) metabolism driving catch-up fat,...
Conference Paper
Background: There is a need to establishthe range of proteinintake that would constitute an acceptable ‘high-protein’ diet for weight management, particularly towards the prevention of obesity and weight relapse. The pilot study described here aimed to (i) define the dose–response relationship between meal protein content and postprandial thermogen...
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Increasing lifestyle energy expenditure has long been advocated in the prevention and treatment of obesity, as embodied in the ancient prescription of Hippocrates (the ‘father of modern medicine’) that people with obesity should eat less and exercise more. However, the long‐term outcome of exercise alone or in combination with dieting in obesity ma...
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As yet, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not added much to our understanding of the mechanisms of body weight control and of the etiology of obesity. This shortcoming is widely attributed to the complexity of the issues. The appeal of this explanation notwithstanding, we surmise that (i) an oversimplification of the phenotype (namely by...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, with the rising prevalence amongst young women of child-bearing age of particular concern. Whilst the underlying mechanism for this gender disparity is largely unknown, oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use may be a factor that contributes to the alteration in energy balance in young...
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Although Switzerland is considered a small country, it has its share in discoveries, inventions and developments for the assessment of energy metabolism. This includes seminal contributions to respiratory and metabolic physiology and to devices for measuring energy expenditure by direct and indirect calorimetry in vivo in humans and small animals (...
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Aim: Tea is usually consumed at two temperatures (as hot tea or as iced tea). However, the importance of drink temperature on the cardiovascular system and on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses to the ingestion of caffeinated herbal tea (Yer...
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Collateral fattening refers to the process whereby excess fat is deposited as a result of the body's attempt to counter a deficit in lean mass through overeating. Its demonstration and significance to weight regulation and obesity can be traced to work on energy budget strategies in growing mammals and birds, and to men recovering from experimental...
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Purpose: There is increasing interest into the potentially beneficial effects of galactose for obesity and type 2 diabetes management as it is a low-glycemic sugar reported to increase satiety and fat mobilization. However, fructose is also a low-glycemic sugar but with greater blood pressure elevation effects than after glucose ingestion. Therefo...
Article
Recent body composition studies on the island of Mauritius in young adults belonging to the two main ethnicities—Indians (South Asian descent) and Creoles (African/Malagasy descent)—have shown gender-specific ethnic differences in their body mass index (BMI)-Fat% relationships. We investigated here whether potential gender and ethnic differences in...
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Objective: There is much interest in the role of dietary protein for weight control. However, there remains a need to characterize individual determinants of the thermogenic effects of protein. This study aimed to investigate the influence of menstrual cycle phase and the combined, monophasic oral contraceptive pill on the thermogenic response to...
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There is increasing recognition that low-intensity physical activities of daily life play an important role in achieving energy balance and that their societal erosion through substitution with sedentary (mostly sitting) behaviors, whether occupational or for leisure, impact importantly on the obesity epidemic. This has generated considerable inter...
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Background There is increasing interest in the use of pill-sized ingestible capsule telemetric sensors for assessing core body temperature (Tc) as a potential indicator of variability in metabolic efficiency and thrifty metabolic traits. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of measuring Tc using the CorTemp® system....
Conference Paper
Introduction: Successful approaches to weight control should elicit effects on both sides of the energy balance equation, i.e., energy intake and expenditure. For this reason there has been much interest in the role of dietary protein, which has been demonstrated to favourably affect satiety, thermogenesis, body weight and body composition. However...
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Standardized approaches to assess human energy expenditure (EE) are well defined at rest and at moderate to high‐intensity exercise, but not at light intensity physical activities energetically comparable with those of daily life (i.e., 1.5–4 times the resting EE, i.e., 1.5–4 METs). Our aim was to validate a graded exercise test for assessing the e...
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PurposeDue to sedentarity-associated disease risks, there is much interest in methods to increase low-intensity physical activity. In this context, it is widely assumed that altering posture allocation can modify energy expenditure (EE) to impact body-weight regulation and health. However, we have recently shown the existence of two distinct phenot...
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Aims: The recovery of body weight after a period of caloric restriction is accompanied by an enhanced efficiency of fat deposition and hyperinsulinemia—which are exacerbated by isocaloric refeeding on a high fat diet rich in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA-MUFA), and poor in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and associated with a b...
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Isometric thermogenesis as applied to human energy expenditure refers to heat production resulting from increased muscle tension. While most physical activities consist of both dynamic and static (isometric) muscle actions, the isometric component is very often essential for the optimal performance of dynamic work given its role in coordinating pos...
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Among the multitude of dietary and lifestyle behaviours that have been proposed to contribute to the obesity epidemic, those that have generated considerable research scrutiny in the past decade are centred upon sleep behaviours, sedentary behaviours (sitting or lying while awake) and diminished low-level physical activities of everyday life, with...
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In his last review entitled "Some Adventures in Body Composition," Gilbert Forbes reminded us that "lean body mass and body fat are in a sense companions." To what extent the lean body mass (or fat-free mass) component in this companionship impacts on energy intake is rarely a topic for discussion, amid a dominant adipocentric view of appetite cont...
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While putative feedback signals arising from adipose tissue are commonly assumed to provide the molecular links between the body’s long-term energy requirements and energy intake, the available evidence suggests that the lean body or fat-free mass (FFM) also plays a role in the drive to eat. A distinction must, however, be made between a ‘passive’...
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Background and Aims Global estimates of overweight and obesity prevalence are based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) body mass index (BMI) cut-off values of 25 and 30 kg m⁻², respectively. To validate these BMI cut-offs for adiposity in the island population of Mauritius, we assessed the relationship between BMI and measured body fat mass in...
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Globally, the popularity of energy drinks is steadily increasing. Scientific interest in their effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems in humans is also expanding and with it comes a growing number of case reports of adverse events associated with energy drinks. The vast majority of studies carried out in the general population report...
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Physiological processes at adulthood, such as energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity may originate before or weeks after birth. These underlie the concept of fetal and/or neonatal programming of adult diseases, which is particularly relevant in the case of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a perina...
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Uninephrectomy (UniNX) in rats on a fixed food intake leads to increased lipolysis and a low-grade inflammation with an increased subset of circulating cytokines. Because UniNX ablates renal nerves on the side of the removed kidney, we tested the contribution of unilateral renal denervation in the phenotype of UniNX. We compared Sham-operated contr...
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Low-intensity physical activity is increasingly promoted as an alternative to sedentary behavior. However, much research to date has focused on moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, and in particular dynamic work, with the effect of low-intensity isometric exercise (<4 METs) on substrate utilization yet to be explored. Here we investig...
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Background and aim: There is increasing recognition about the importance of enhancing energy expenditure (EE) for weight control through increases in low-intensity physical activities comparable with daily life (1.5-4 METS). Whole-body vibration (WBV) increases EE modestly and could present both a useful adjuvant for obesity management and tool fo...
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Circumstantial evidence suggests that substitution of glucose or sucrose by the low-glycaemic index sugar galactose in the diet may lead to greater thermogenesis and/or fat oxidation. Using ventilated hood indirect calorimetry, we investigated, in twelve overnight-fasted adults, the resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) for...
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Background/objectives: Drinking large amounts of water is often recommended for weight control. Whether water intake stimulates energy and fat metabolism is, however, controversial with some studies reporting that drinking half a litre or more of water increases resting energy expenditure (REE) by 10-30% and decreases respiratory quotient (RQ), wh...
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Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after...
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The role of mild kidney dysfunction in altering lipid metabolism and promoting inflammation was investigated in uninephrectomized rats (UniNX) compared to Sham-operated controls rats. The impact of UniNX was studied 1, 2, and 4 weeks after UniNX under mild food restriction at 90% of ad libitum intake to ensure the same caloric intake in both groups...
Article
Dieting and exercise are likely to remain the core approaches in the management of obesity in the foreseeable future despite their well-documented failures for achieving long-term weight loss. Explanations for such poor prognosis are centered on patient’s self-regulatory failure and lack of compliance to the prescribed diet or exercise regimen. Whi...
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An acute surplus of carbohydrates, and other substrates, can be converted and safely stored as lipids in adipocytes via de novo lipogenesis (DNL). However, in obesity, a condition characterized by chronic positive energy balance, DNL in non-adipose tissues may lead to ectopic lipid accumulation leading to lipotoxicity and metabolic stress. Indeed,...
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Indirect calorimetry, the measurement of O2 consumption and CO2 production, constitutes an invaluable tool as the most common method for analyzing whole body energy expenditure, and also provides an index of the nature of macronutrient substrate oxidation, namely carbohydrate (CHO) versus fat oxidation. The latter constitutes a key etiological fact...
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The energy drink Red Bull (RB) has recently been shown to elevate resting blood pressure (BP) and double product (reflecting increased myocardial load). However, the extent to which these effects can be explained by the drink's caffeine and sugar content remains to be determined. We compared the cardiovascular impact of RB to those of a comparable...
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Every year, scores of millions of people - as diverse as obese and lean, teenagers and older adults, sedentary and elite athletes, commoners and celebrities - attempt to lose weight on some form of diet. They are often encouraged by their parents, friends, health professionals, training coaches, a media that promotes a slim image and a diet-industr...
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Despite the poor prognosis of dieting in obesity management, which often results in repeated attempts at weight loss and hence weight cycling, the prevalence of dieting has increased continuously in the past decades in parallel to the steadily increasing prevalence of obesity. However, dieting and weight cycling are not limited to those who are obe...
Article
Whether dieting makes people fatter has been a subject of considerable controversy over the past 30 years. More recent analysis of several prospective studies suggest, however, that it is dieting to lose weight in people who are in the healthy normal range of body weight, rather than in those who are overweight or obese, that most strongly and cons...
Article
Objective Consumption of energy drinks is increasing amongst athletes and the general public. By virtue of their bioactive ingredients (including caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone, and B-group vitamins) and paucity of calories, sugar-free “diet” versions of these drinks could be a useful aid for weight maintenance. Yet little is known about the a...
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cations of using BMI are profound. The cut-off points of BMI of <18.5 kg/m 2 , 18.5–24.9 kg/m 2 , 25.0–29.9 kg/m 2 , 30.0–34.9 kg/m 2 , 35.0–39.9 kg/m 2 and 40.0+ kg/m 2 define categories usually referred to as underweight, normal weight, overweight (pre-obese) and obese (grades I, II and III). These cut-off points therefore define the number of in...
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Background & aims: An important consequence of ageing is a tendency for postprandial blood pressure to decline, which can lead to fainting. As a possible countermeasure, we investigated in healthy older adults the impact of drinking water before a breakfast meal on postprandial cardiovascular and autonomic functions. Methods: After a stable card...
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Oxytocin has been suggested as a novel therapeutic against obesity, because it induces weight loss and improves glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rodents. A recent clinical pilot study confirmed the oxytocin-induced weight-reducing effect in obese nondiabetic subjects. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved and the impact on the main comorbidi...
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Recently, we have provided indirect evidence for a decreased cardiac workload in young and healthy subjects in response to ingestion of 500 mL cold (3°C)- or room (22°C)-tempered water, but not to body-tempered (37°C) water. This conclusion was based on the observation of a reduced heart rate and a decreased rate-pressure double product, a marker f...