A.R. Bean's scientific contributions

Publications (24)

Chapter
This chapter focusses on photometric measurements. In taking photometric measurements on fittings, there is a need to achieve results that are as accurate as possible. For instance, most of the readings taken on indoor fittings are used to calculate utilization factors, and from these illumination values in lighting installations are calculated. Ev...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the illumination concept. The physical brightness is termed as luminance, while the term luminosity is reserved for the apparent brightness as evaluated by the eye. Luminance is generally defined as the intensity of a source or element of a source in a given direction divided by the orthogonally projected area of the source o...
Chapter
This chapter describes the concept of luminous intensity and flux. The purpose of a lighting fitting and the associated light source is to produce an illumination and luminance pattern within the space surrounding the unit. The lighting unit defines the center of the sphere and thus, the illumination values can be related to a system of angular coo...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the direct flux and inter-reflections. Inter-reflection calculations require knowledge of the direct flux to the floor, walls, ceiling, and the light output of the sources. The zonal multiplier method has been devised to solve this problem for rectangular rooms with regular layouts of lighting units. Most of the methods of fl...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the subjects of optical design from a practical standpoint. It discusses the problems set to the designer by various common applications of lighting, and how the tools of optical control can be used to solve them. Optical design very often involves practical work and theoretical work. To find the effect of the uncertainties,...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the mechanical, thermal and electrical design, and also reviews testing. A detailed knowledge of the mechanical design of lighting fittings cannot be obtained just from a textbook. Equipment must be examined and manufacturers' catalogue descriptions must be consulted. In some fittings such as industrial reflector units for fl...
Chapter
This chapter describes various lighting calculations. The most frequently used method of calculation for interior lighting schemes is the lumen or flux method. The calculation is based on the average illumination value required on the working plane. The method is useful where the symmetry in the layout of lighting fittings ensures that the illumina...

Citations

... Osvetljenost mora biti čim bolj enakomerna po vsem prostoru in primerna za različne dejavnosti, kot so igranje, pisanje in branje (Yener 2011). Ravni dnevne svetlobe so zaradi dnevnega ciklusa in vremenskih sprememb večinoma izražene v obliki povprečnega faktorja dnevne svetlobe (D av ) (CIE 1970;Simons in Bean 2001) in ne v obliki osvetljenosti (E). Študije so pokazale, da je vrednost D av , pri kateri uporabniki občutijo vizualno ugodje in z lahkoto opravljajo vizualne naloge, med 2 % in 5 %. ...
... Yansıtıcı tasarımı ile ilgili literatürde yer alan çalışmalarda genelde yansıtıcı gerecinin düzgün yansıma yaptığı, ışık kaynağının ise boyutsuz ve ışık yeğinlik dağılımının küre olduğu varsayılır [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. Bu araştırma kapsamında yapılan yansıtıcı tasarımlarında, ışığı düzgün yansıtan gerecin yanı sıra karışık yansıma yapan yansıtıcı gereci de kullanılmış, ışık kaynağı olarak ise gerçek lambaların boyutları, ışık yeğinlik dağılımları ve değerleri dikkate alınmıştır. ...