A.P. Moloney's research while affiliated with University College Dublin and other places

Publications (309)

Chapter
Growth in animals is an increase in the mass of diverse tissues that continues at various rates during the lifetime of an animal. The patterns and processes of growth will be briefly described. Methods to measure growth and the influence of “animal” factors including physiological age, gender and breeding on growth will be summarized. “Nonanimal” f...
Article
Increasing the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in beef enhances its nutritional value but may compromise its oxidative shelf life. In this experiment, the impact of inclusion of rumen protected fish oil (PFO) in the finishing diet of late-maturing bulls on muscle fatty acid profile, antioxidant content, lipid stability, colour a...
Article
Full-text available
Carcasses from pasture-finished early-maturing (EM), rather than late-maturing (LM), breed bulls may be more suited to meet the minimum carcass fatness classification of 2+ (6.0 on a 15-point scale) required for some markets. The comparative colour and eating quality of beef from grass-fed bulls of different maturities are unknown. Sixty yearling s...
Article
The effect of sous vide cooking or grilling longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) on the intramuscular fatty acid concentrations of lambs raised at pasture (Pasture), fed a cereal concentrate-based diet (Concentrate) or fed a cereal concentrate-based diet with a protected linseed oil supplement (Linseed) was assessed using GC-FID. Sous vide and gr...
Article
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The primary objective of this study was to compare the colour of muscle from bulls finished at pasture or indoors on a high concentrate diet. The ancillary objectives were to identify possible explanations for any differences in the colour observed and the potential of muscle colour to discriminate between bull beef from different production system...
Article
In the production of meat products fortified with omega-3 fatty acids using plant oils, different oil incorporation methods may be used to off-set potential negative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the sensory quality of the products. Using flaxseed oil to deliver alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) at a level sufficient to meet the European Food...
Article
CONTEXT Demand for environmentally sustainable produced beef, especially ‘grass-fed’, is rising. Bull-beef production is a desirable alternative to steers due to large inherent growth and feed efficiency advantages. Compared to conventional indoor high-concentrate diets, pasture-finishing of bulls is low-cost, but carcass fat cover may not meet mar...
Article
Context Their growth and feed efficiency advantages make bull beef production systems attractive alternatives for producers of beef from steers. Finishing bulls from pasture is less costly and would allow bull beef to be marketed as ‘grass-fed’. However, such carcasses may not meet the minimum fatness classification of 6.0 (on a 15-point scale) req...
Article
The objective was to determine the effect of pre-grazing herbage mass (PGHM) on herbage production and nutritive value, intake and growth of suckler-bred steers in a rotational stocking system, and the residual effects on intake, growth and carcass traits during subsequent indoor finishing. A total of 108 yearling steers previously offered grass si...
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The influence of modifying a traditional 24-mo dairy steer calf to beef production system on the fatty acid composition of the longissimus muscle and its potential to authenticate beef provenance was examined. Fifty-four male calves (n = 18 per sire breed), progeny of Holstein-Friesian cows mated with Holstein-Friesian (HF), Aberdeen Angus (AA) and...
Article
Grazing sward structure can influence animal performance in forage-only and forage plus concentrate-based production systems. The objective was to determine the effects of pre-grazing herbage mass (PGHM), post-grazing sward height (PGSH) and indoor finishing diet on performance of weaned, spring-born beef steers. Steers (n = 96, ca. 12 months of ag...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the effects of post-grazing sward height (PGSH, 4 or 6 cm) on herbage production, its nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake, grazing behaviour and growth of early- (EM) and late-maturing (LM) breed suckler steers (n = 72), and the subsequent effect of indoor finishing diet (grass silage + 3.8 kg concentrate DM/head daily (SC)...
Article
Meeting the food demands of a growing global population within planetary boundaries is a challenge. Sustainably producing animal-sourced foods while supplying sufficient protein to meet the requirements of a healthy diet is a particular challenge. This paper informs the development of pathways to sustainable animal production by examining trends in...
Article
Demand for beef produced from pasture-based diets is rising as it is perceived to be healthier, animal friendly and good for the environment. Animals reared on a solely grass forage diet, however, have a lower growth rate than cereal-fed animals and consequently are slaughtered at an older age. This study focused on the former by conducting life cy...
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Full-text available
Background Grazed grass is an important component of the majority of beef production systems used in temperate climates. Compared to concentrate-fed beef, “grass-fed” beef can command a premium in some markets based on perceived differences in appearance and sensory characteristics. The influence of grazed grass per se, and the duration of grazing,...
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The potential of diet-induced differences in the fatty acid profile of muscle to discriminate beef from different feeding systems and its potential use as an authentication tool was investigated. Three canonical discriminant models were built and validated using the fatty acid profile of beef from animals fed solely on pasture or cereal-based conce...
Article
White clover (WC) offers an alternative source of nitrogen (N) for pasture-based systems. Substituting energy- and carbon-intensive synthetic N fertilizers with N derived from biological fixation by WC has been highlighted as a promising environmental mitigation strategy through the omission of emissions, pollutants, and energy usage during the pro...
Article
BACKGROUND Concentrate supplementation of a grass silage‐based ration is a typical practice employed for indoor winter finishing of beef cattle in many temperate countries. Plant by‐products, such as dried corn gluten feed (CGF), can be utilised to replace conventional feedstuffs in a concentrate supplement to enhance the sustainability of ruminant...
Article
Full-text available
The effects on tenderness of extended ageing of longissimus thoracis (LT, striploin) muscle that differed in structure and composition were examined. Spring-born Angus × Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 48) and Belgian Blue × Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 48) were slaughtered, within sire breed, at 20 or 25 mo of age. Approximately 48 h post-mortem,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Due to perceived differences in sensory properties, steer beef is considered by many consumers to be a superior product to bull beef and they are willing to pay a premium for this product. There is an urgent need therefore for analytical methods that can reliably ensure that beef labelled as “steer beef” is genuine. Chemical methods generally are s...
Article
Thirty-six steers were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments fed ad libitum grass silage and concentrate supplements containing either barley/soybean meal (CON), 80% DM corn (CDGS)-or 80% DM wheat (WDGS)-dried distillers' grains with solubles for 124 days pre-slaughter. Chemical and fatty acid composition, shelf-life, and eating qual...
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Full-text available
A survey was conducted to determine the content of cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFAs) and ω-cyclohexyl fatty acids (CHFAs) by using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) techniques in various meat samples from different species, including commercial samples and complex and thermally processed pro...
Article
In bulls, with a genetic predisposition for leanness and reared in a grass-based production system dietary fish oil may further enhance the nutritional value of beef by increasing the concentration of the omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA). The impact of including rumen protected fis...
Article
The hypothesis that inclusion of a rumen-inert fat in the diet of dairy-origin bulls would enhance EUROP carcass fat classification and tissue fatty acid composition was tested. Sixty bulls (age = 508 days, s.d. 29.1) were offered ad libitum, a barley-based concentrate ration that contained 0, (control) 26 (MEGA1) or 81 g (MEGA2) calcium salts of p...
Article
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND The use of bulls rather than steers from the dairy herd offers a more profitable and environmentally friendly option; however, the beef eating quality from bulls is an issue of concern. This study assessed the effect of two tenderization techniques: pelvic suspension and ageing on three different muscles of Holstein‐Friesian ma...
Article
Full-text available
There is a requirement in some beef markets to slaughter bulls at under 16 months of age. This requires high levels of concentrate feeding. Increasing the slaughter age of bulls to 19 months facilitates the inclusion of a grazing period, thereby decreasing the cost of production. Recent data indicate few quality differences in longissimus thoracis...
Article
This study investigated the quality composition, oxidative stability and sensory attributes of beef (longissimus thoracis, LT) from steers offered grass silage and a concentrate supplement in which barley was replaced by 40% and 80% (as-fed basis) of dried citrus pulp (DCP). Dietary treatment did not influence the antioxidant status (α-tocopherol a...
Article
Full-text available
The increased use of Holstein genetic material in the Irish dairy herd has consequences for beef production. In all, 42 spring-born steers [14 Holsteins (HO), 14 Friesian (FR) and 14 Charolais × Holstein-Friesian (CH)] were reared to slaughter at between 26 and 37 mo of age. Carcass weight was higher and the lipid concentration of m. longissimus th...
Article
Context. Diet is one the most important pre-slaughter factors that potentially influences meat quality, but its effect on flavour quality remains equivocal. Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of diet composition on the flavour and sensory quality of meat from Texel · Scottish Blackface ram lambs. Methods. Groups of 11 l...
Article
Scope: High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity impairs macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or alpha linolenic acid (ALA) would prevent HFD-impaired RCT by modulating hepatic protein pathways. Methods and results...
Article
Background: Lamb diets can alter the fatty acid (FA) profile of muscle and adipose tissue, which may affect the sensory quality and consumer acceptability of the meat. In this study, lambs received one of four pre-slaughter diets: a barley/maize/soya-based concentrate (C), supplemented with a saturated fat source (Megalac®) (SAT), or supplemented...
Article
Context The finishing of late-maturing bulls on grass is economically more favourable than finishing on cereal concentrates but it may have a negative effect on oxidative stability. Aim To determine the effect of varying levels of pasture feeding during the finishing period on the oxidative stability of bull beef. Methods Groups of eight late-matur...
Article
Objective: To apply a dietary modelling approach to investigate the impact of substituting beef intakes with three types of alternative fatty acid (FA) composition of beef on population dietary fat intakes. Design: Cross-sectional, national food consumption survey - the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). The fat content of the beef-containi...
Article
Full-text available
Finishing late-maturing bulls on grass may alter the antioxidant/prooxidant balance leading to beef with higher susceptibility to lipid oxidation and a lower colour stability compared to bulls finished on cereal concentrates. In this context, lipid oxidation and colour stability of beef from late-maturing bulls finished on pasture, with or without...
Article
Background: This study was conducted to assess if there are differences in consumer liking of beef. Samples were collected from different groups and analyses were conducted, including quantitative descriptive analysis, consumer panels and instrumental analyses. Palatability traits, such as aroma liking (AL), tenderness (TE), juiciness (JU), flavou...
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Full-text available
Abstract: The objective was to compare the quality of beef from bulls reared in typical Irish indoor systems or in novel grass-based systems. Bulls were assigned to one of the following systems: (a) grass silage plus barley-based concentrate ad libitum(CON); (b) grass silage ad libitumplus 5 kg of concentrate (SC); (c) grazed grass without suppleme...
Article
The effects of two fertiliser nitrogen (N) application rates - 15 (LN) or 80 (HN) kg N/ha - to Lolium perenne dominant swards in spring, on grass dry matter (DM) intake, digestion, rumen fermentation, microbial N production and N-balance in beef cattle, and in vitro fermentation and methane production were studied. Sixteen Charolais steers with a m...
Article
DOWNLOAD PAPER FREE UNTIL JULY 25 2019 AT https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1ZAj9_,ivKz8Vw. The intensification of agricultural production systems to produce food for the growing world population is envisaged to result in the increase in nitrous oxide emissions (N2O). The goal of this study was therefore to assess the effect of different management pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Palatability assurance is key for meat consumer confidence and therefore optimum texture levels must be ensured when studying new production systems. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of two different post-slaughter interventions: pelvic suspension and meat ageing on Longissimus thoracis muscle in order to provide market...
Article
This study was commissioned to assess if there are regional differences in the acceptability of beef between consumers from Northern Ireland (NI), Republic of Ireland (ROI) and Great Britain (GB). Palatability traits were affected by socioeconomic and behavioural factors such as preferred cooking endpoint, animal welfare, value, health aspects of b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Consumers today have growing concerns around environmental sustainability and ethical food production. Pasture-based systems have come to be regarded by some consumers as more environmentally and animal welfare friendly alternatives to intensive/feedlot systems of production (Li et al., 2016). Animal products labelled as “grass-based”, can command...
Article
Beef cattle partition dietary nitrogen (N) into meat or excrete it mainly in faeces and urine, which can contribute significantly to water and air pollution. The effects of two inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer application rates—15 (LN) or 80 (HN) kg N/ha—to Lolium perenne‐dominant swards in autumn, on herbage chemical composition, intake, digestio...
Article
Animal production factors can affect the sensory quality of lamb meat. The study investigated the effect of diet composition and duration of consumption on the proximate analysis, volatile profile and sensory quality of lamb meat. Ninety-nine male Texel × Scottish Blackface lambs were raised at pasture for 10 months before being assigned in groups...
Article
Nitrogen (N) excretion from cattle contributes to water and air pollution. The objective was to determine the effects of inorganic fertiliser N application rate to mid-season grass (July-August) on herbage chemical composition, and intake, digestion and N-balance in beef cattle. Sixteen Charolais steers (live weight 568 kg, S.D. 22.1) were used in...
Article
The proximate composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and antioxidant capacity of beef from steers fed varying inclusion levels of dried corn gluten feed (CGF) were examined. Forty-eight Charolais and Limousin-sired steers (424.0 ± 39.0 kg), blocked by breed and body weight, were randomly assigned to one of four concentrate rations (n = 12 steers/trea...
Article
Beef cattle partition dietary nitrogen (N) into tissues or excrete it in feces and urine, which contributes significantly to water and air pollution. The objectives were to examine the effects of supplementing fresh grass herbage with a low crude-protein, high-energy supplement - citrus pulp - on intake, digestion and N-balance in beef cattle. Sixt...
Article
The chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and antioxidant potential of beef from steers fed corn (CDG) or wheat (WDG) dried distillers’ grains were determined. Thirty-six Charolais and Limousin-sired steers (421.9 ± 38.9 kg) were blocked by breed and body weight and randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (n = 12 steers/treatme...
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Full-text available
Consumption of grazed pasture compared to concentrates results in higher concentrations, in beef muscle, of fatty acids considered to be beneficial to human health. Little information is available on the influence of the type of grazed forage. Our objectives were to determine 1) the effect of inclusion of white clover in a grazing sward on the fatt...
Article
Fatty acids (g/100 g total fatty acids) in M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and total branched chain fatty acids (μg/g fat) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of rams and castrates from Scottish Blackface (SB) or Texel × Scottish Blackface (T × SB) lambs, slaughtered at mean ages of 196, 242, 293, 344 or 385 days were determined. Lambs w...
Article
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of castration and slaughter age on the volatile profile of cooked meat from Scottish Blackface (SB) and Texel × Scottish Blackface (T × SB) lambs. M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum was sampled at slaughter and subjected to volatile analysis by SPME‐GC‐MS. Rams had higher relative proportions, express...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Finishing male Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle as bulls at 19 months of age can be more profitable than finishing similar animals as the more traditional steers at 24 months of age [1], but there is a perception that beef from such bulls is less tender and darker than beef from the steers. Pelvic suspension of the carcass has been shown to improve te...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Some European markets for bulls from the suckler beef cow herd require that they be < 20 months of age and have a carcass fat classification of ≥6 on a 1 (leanest)-15 (fattest) scale. Grazing of late-maturing breed bulls for 100 days prior to indoor finishing on concentrates for 100 days achieved this fat classification [1]. Since grazed grass is t...
Article
Meat from ram lambs is often considered inferior to meat from castrated lambs, especially in older or heavier animals. This study aimed to determine if differences exist in the sensory quality and acceptability of meat from rams and castrates, slaughtered at mean ages of 196 or 385 days. Rams had higher average daily gain, feed conversion efficienc...
Article
Full-text available
Growth in demand for foods with potentially beneficial effects on consumer health has motivated increased interest in developing strategies for improving the nutritional quality of ruminant-derived products. Manipulation of the rumen environment offers the opportunity to modify the lipid composition of milk and meat by changing the availability of...
Article
Full-text available
Rations (dry matter basis) for spring born male lambs consisting of concentrates ad libitum (CON), 50:50 (50% concentrate:50% forage) and forage ad libitum (FORG) were evaluated across feeding periods of 3 durations (36 d, 54 d and 72 d). Lambs on CON diets were offered ad libitum access to concentrate along with 400g of fresh weight silage (daily)...
Article
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The practice of crossbreeding using a terminal sire and the use of intact rather than castrated animals has the potential to increase the productivity of lambs produced from the hill sheep sector. The objective of this study was to compare the production and carcass characteristics of purebred Scottish Blackface (SB) and Texel cross Scottish Blackf...
Article
The authenticity of meat is now an important consideration in the multi-step food chain from production of animals on farm to consumer consumption of the final meat product. A range of techniques, involving analysis of elemental and molecular constituents of meat, fingerprint profiling and multivariate statistical analysis exists and these techniqu...
Article
Visible-near infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) has been suggested to have potential for authentication of food products. The aim of the present preliminary study was to assess if this technology can be used to authenticate the ageing time (3, 7, 14 and 21 days post mortem) of beef steaks from three different muscles (M. Longissimus thoracis, M. Glut...
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Full-text available
The Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI) recently convened a European Workshop in Milan to discuss some of the key challengesfacing the beef industry, with more than 80 people from the beef industry and research communities across Europe attending. The meeting wasorganised by AFBI with the University of Milan, funded by the UK Science and Inn...
Chapter
Growth in animals is an increase in tissue mass that is continuous during the lifetime of an animal. The processes and patterns of growth will be briefly described. Methods to measure growth will be summarized and the influence of “animal” factors, including physiological age, gender, and breeding on growth. “Nonanimal” factors including systems fo...
Article
Compared with conventional indoor rations, consumption of grazed grass by cattle improved the fatty acid profile of beef, by increasing the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations and decreasing the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio (French et al., 2000). Supplementation of grazing cattle with sunflower oil (S), increas...
Article
This study assessed the effect of castration and slaughter age (196–385 days old) on sensory quality of lamb meat from two sheep breeds (Scottish Blackface, SB; Texel x Scottish Blackface, TxSB). Results obtained using a trained sensory panel showed small but statistically significant differences due to castration, with rams having higher scores fo...
Article
Full-text available
This experiment aimed to assess the effect of different indoor winter growth rates (WGR) followed by different concentrate supplementation levels at pasture on meat quality of 90 bulls. During the first winter, bulls were offered grass silage ad libitum and either 3 kg (WGR3) or 6 kg (WGR6) of concentrates. After turn-out to pasture, bulls were off...
Article
This study aimed to compare the quality of beef from suckler bulls raised on a high-energy concentrate ration and slaughtered at different carcass weights (CW)/ages. In total, 42 spring-born, Charolais and Limousin-sired, weaned suckler bulls were provided with a finishing diet of ad libitum concentrates and grass silage until they reached target C...
Article
This study aimed to examine the effects of replacing rolled barley (high in starch) with citrus pulp (high in digestible fibre) in a supplement on intake and performance of young growing cattle offered grass silage ad libitum for 101 days. Weaned, early- and late-maturing breed, male suckled beef calves ( n =120) were blocked by sire breed, gender...
Article
The performance of early-maturing breed sired suckler bulls finished at pasture, with or without concentrate supplementation, at 15 or 19 months of age was evaluated. In total, 60 Aberdeen Angus-sired bulls were assigned to a two (slaughter age (SA): 15 (S15) or 19 (S19) months)×two (finishing strategies (FS): grass only or grass+barley-based conce...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The performance and beef quality characteristics of under 16 month bulls from 4 different production systems: [ad libitum concentrates offered indoors (AD), grass silage ad libitum plus 5 kg of supplementary concentrate offered indoors (S+C5), grazed grass plus 50% of the dietary intake as concentrates (G+C50) and grazed grass exclusively (G+CO)] w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Growth, and muscle colour, fibre type and metabolic profile were measured in late-maturing breed sired suckler bulls finished on pasture or indoors and slaughtered at 19 months of age. When compared to bulls finished indoors and offered a high concentrate-ration, the carcass weight of grazing bulls was lower, their carcasses were leaner and their l...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The effects of a novel " all grass-based " diet and the more traditional concentrate/silage-diets on the fatty acid composition of cooked beef muscle were compared. Early maturing heifers (n=15/group) were offered either : barley/soya ration ad libitum + 10kg grass silage (CONC), grazed grass followed by grass silage ad libitum + 2 kg of the above...
Poster
The effects of a novel “all grass-based” diet and the more traditional concentrate/silage-diets on the fatty acid composition of cooked beef muscle were compared. Early maturing heifers (n=15/group) were offered either : barley/soya ration ad libitum + 10kg grass silage (CONC), grazed grass followed by grass silage ad libitum + 2 kg of the above co...
Article
A variety of feedstuffs of varying carbohydrate composition are available to rectify deficiencies in nutrient supply for growing cattle fed grass silage-based diets. The objective was to examine the effects of replacing rolled barley (starch) with citrus pulp (digestible fiber) in a supplement on intake and performance of young growing cattle offer...
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate combined effects of (i) milk replacer (MR) fat content during rearing and (ii) cereal type and (iii) fat supplementation of the finishing ration on performance and carcass composition of young dairy bred bulls. Holstein-Friesian bull calves (n = 120) offered a high (30%) or low (18%) fat content MR from 2...
Article
There is increasing interest in enhancing the nutritional value of ruminant-derived foods for human consumption. Beef from grass-fed cattle contains more fatty acids considered to benefit human health, including the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), and cis-9, trans-11 CLA, than beef from con...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Report of the workshop " Sustainable beef quality for Europe II – A workshop for industry and scientists " The Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI) recently convened a European Workshop in Milan to discuss some of the key challenges facing the beef industry, with more than 80 people from the beef industry and research communities across Europ...
Article
The proximate composition, organoleptic quality, metabolic enzyme activity and fibre characteristics of longissimus thoracis muscle from suckler bulls assigned to three target indoor winter (from 9 to 13 months of age approximately) growth rates (average daily gain of 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 kg n = 14/group) were investigated. The feeding regimes to achie...
Article
Fatty acids, volatile compounds and sensory attributes of beef from bulls fed concentrates to slaughter (C), grass silage for 120 days (GS) followed by C (GSC), or GS followed by 100 days at pasture and then C (GSPC) and slaughtered at 3 target carcass weights were determined. Total intramuscular fat (IMF) was lower for GSPC than for GSC and C. C18...
Article
ABSTRACTTo elucidate the influence of dietary carnosic acid (CA) and vitamin E on animal performance, immune response indicators and haematological parameters before and after transport stress, 24 lambs were individually fed ad libitum with milk replacer (MR) using an auto-feeder. Once daily the lambs received MR alone (Group CON, n = 8), MR + 0.09...
Article
The effect of feed restriction (99 days) followed by compensatory growth during a 200 day re-alimentation period on the colour and sensory characteristics of meat from Aberdeen Angus × Holstein-Friesian (AN) and Belgian Blue × Holstein-Friesian (BB) steers was examined. Compensatory growth had no effect on muscle pH and temperature decline, chemica...