A.J. Howard's research while affiliated with Horticulture Institute of New Zealand and other places

Publications (9)

Article
A bioassay to test the ovipositional responses of the generalist herbivore, Epiphyas postvittana, was developed, and various non-chemical factors that influenced the laying, and number of eggs laid, by females were tested. In choice experiments using various models, surface texture was found to be an important factor influencing ovipositional behav...
Article
The polyphagous leafroller moth, Epiphyas postvittana, is a pest of many fruit crops in New Zealand. Since the larva is highly mobile, host selection in this insect may involve both the adult female and the larva. In order to test the relative importance of the adult female and the neonate larva in the selection of host plants, the ovipositional pr...
Article
The effects of mating, age at mating, the presence or absence of a plant leaf, and the deprivation of a suitable ovipositional substrate during when the first ovipositional bout after mating would normally take place, on the lifetime fecundity and fertility (percentage of fertile eggs laid) of female Epiphyas postvittana were investigated. Mating h...
Article
The flight tracks (plan view) of male Epiphyas postvittana flying in a sex pheromone plume in a wind tunnel were recorded. With increasing source dosages (10, 100, 300 μg), males steered a more upwind course, with corresponding track angles more upwind, and had smaller intertrack reversal distances (i.e., they showed less lateral movement). Althoug...
Article
The polyphagous leafroller moth, Epiphyas postvittana, is a pest of many fruit crops in New Zealand. Since the larva is highly mobile, host selection in this insect may involve both the adult female and the larva. In order to test the relative importance of the adult female and the neonate larva in the selection of host plants, the ovipositional pr...
Article
Stimuli from the plant Camellia japonica that influence the host-finding and acceptance behaviors of adult females of the generalist herbivore Epiphyas postvittana were investigated. In a binary choice test in a small (35-cm-diam.) arena, females discriminated between a plant and a laminated card model, laying many more eggs on the plant. Observati...
Article
Age‐related changes in the reproductive characters, proportions, durations, and temporal patterning of copulation in females, mean sex pheromone titre of females, number of eggs laid in relation to age at first mating of female, and the flight responses of male moths, were studied in adults of four species of tortricid moths. Adults of the moth, Ct...

Citations

... Once neonates establish feeding sites beneath the epidermis of host plant leaves they may be less susceptible to some mortality factors (Zalucki et al. 2002), but the time between egg hatch and establishment of the first feeding site is the most critical period for the neonates (Foster andHoward 1999, Shelomi et al. 2010). Generally, neonates are dependent on their mother for host plant selection (Löhr and Gathu 2002). ...
... Even, the role of olfaction is well documented in moths due to their typical nocturnal lifestyle (Cunningham et al. 1999). Visual (Barragán-Fonseca et al. 2020), olfactory (Lucas-Barbosa et al. 2016Das et al. 2019), tactile (Foster and Howard 1998), and gustatory (Feng et al. 2017) cues can themselves or in combinations with each other enhanced behaviors in host selection for oviposition as well as for larval feeding (Carlsson et al. 1999;Bandoly et al. 2015). Although, resistant cabbage (NY 8329) with glossy leaves having triterpenols α-and β-amyrin in the waxes reduced acceptance of the neonate P. xylostella (Eigenbrode et al. 1991). ...
... Since our model aims to give a general picture of the dynamics of Lepidoptera moth reproduction without focusing on a single species, we group all relevant estimates reviewed in Umbers et al. [17] for calling duration (Kou and Chow [40], Mazor and Dunkelblum [41], Ming et al. [42]) and pheromone titer (Mazor and Dunkelblum [41], Ming et al. [42], Giebultowicz et al. [43], Tang et al. [44], Foster et al. [45]), to estimate the following: ...
... Another example of metronome-like timing of counterturns was demonstrated in Epiphyas postvittana (Tortricidae). Foster and Howard (1999) found that its turning frequency held near 5-6 turns s −1 across treatments varying in pheromone concentration, wind speeds, and a variety of visual conditions. It may be, however, that when the moth is headed off of the wind line, a visually perceived change in the direction of transverse image flow induces the turn and the narrow band of the timing of turns simply reflects the minimum time to execute each turn, rather than output of an endogenous turn generator. ...
... Based on previous studies, movement of early instar lepidopteran larvae on host plants largely determines where feeding sites become established 17,[21][22][23] . Knowledge of on-plant movement also aids understanding of where the insects are throughout the day, when and where to sample, and when and how to treat when necessary, allowing the most e cacious spraying 11,16,[23][24][25] . ...
... More specifically, Rojas et al. 29 found strong tactile stimuli for grooved and pitted surfaces on which FAW oviposit regardless the presence of chemical cues. Similar observation has been recorded for the generalist moths, Spodoptera exigua 31 , and Epiphyas postvittana (Tortricidae) 32 , where tactile stimuli seem to be as important as the chemical cues in terms of ovipositional behavior and preference. ...
... Delayed mating means that insects can't mate at normal time due to a variety of environmental factors 49 , and this behavior is very common in insects. Delayed mating has a significant influence on the mating rate, preoviposition time, oviposition time, number of eggs laid, and egg viability in many insects, such as Epiphyas postvittana Tortricidae, Plodia interpunctella Hübener, Mnesampela private Guenee, and Nauphoeta cinerea Olivier, in which delayed mating reduces fecundity [50][51][52][53][54][55] . In this study, delayed mating of C. japonicus reduced the number of eggs laid and increased the preoviposition time. ...