A.C. Graesser's research while affiliated with The University of Memphis and other places

Publications (32)

Preprint
Twenty-first century literacy includes a mixture of digital and print literacy skills and strategies.AutoTutor for Adult Reading Comprehension is a web-based intelligent tutoring system that isdesigned to help adult learners develop effective reading comprehension strategies. Lessons spanbasic reading skills (vocabulary, word parts), comprehension...
Chapter
Twenty-five years ago my colleagues and I (the first author of this chapter) were in an intense debate over what inferences are generated during text comprehension. It was a lively debate. At the one end there was the minimalist position that predicted the only inferences that were encoded were those that were activated quickly by associations in l...
Article
Formality is an important dimension of language style. Texts of different genres tend to have different degrees of formality. F-score (formality-score) is a most popular measure for formality to differ genres. It uses a method of combining proportions of words of different types, with nouns, adjectives, articles and prepositions as positive element...
Article
This paper compared the linguistic and psychological word uses in English and Chinese languages with LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count) programs. A Principal Component Analysis uncovered six linguistic and psychological components, among which five components were significantly correlated. The correlated components were ranked as Negative Val...
Article
Deep learning and problem solving are emotionally rich experiences. Students experience boredom when the material does not appeal to them, confusion when they have difficulty comprehending the material and are unsure about how to proceed, frustration when they make mistakes and get stuck, and perhaps even despair and anxiety when their efforts seem...
Article
Coh-Metrix is among the broadest and most sophisticated automated textual assessment tools available today. Automated Evaluation of Text and Discourse with Coh-Metrix describes this computational tool, as well as the wide range of language and discourse measures it provides. Section I of the book focuses on the theoretical perspectives that led to...
Article
Students interacted with an Intelligent Tutoring System called Operation ARIES!,which involves two agents interacting with the human in natural language trialogs. We investigated the conditions in which the length of the students' contributions is correlated with learning. Word count and the proportional learning gains scores were correlated, espec...
Article
Full-text available
We present and test a theory of cognitive disequilibrium to explain the dynamics of the cognitive-affective states that emerge during deep learning activities. The theory postulates an important role for cognitive disequilibrium, a state that occurs when learners face obstacles to goals, contradictions, incongruities, anomalies, uncertainty, and sa...
Article
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Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) have been producing consistent learning gains for decades. The authors describe here a conceptual framework that provides a guide to how adding game-based features and components may improve the effectiveness of ITS learning environments by improving students’ motivation to engage with the system. A problem consi...
Chapter
Macrostructures are global textual structures that form the global meaning of the text. They are created by applying macrorules (deletion, generalization, and construction) to a sequence of propositions derived from the text. The result is a set of macropropositions that form the gist of the text. Empirical evidence for macrostructures comes from s...
Article
Full-text available
This project augments an existing intelligent tutoring system (AutoTutor) that helps learners construct explanations by interacting with them in natural language and helping them use simulation environments. The research aims to develop an agile learning environment that is sensitive to a learner's affective state, presuming that this will promote...
Article
Full-text available
g framework. We observed six different affect states that occur during the process of learning introductory computer literacy with an intelligent tutoring system, Tutor. Observational analyses revealed a significant relationship between confusion (present versus absent) and manifested in learning outcome measures (effect size = 1.34 sigma). The lin...
Chapter
Full-text available
One way to organize an introduction to a handbook is to divide it into the past, present, and future. This is precisely the approach we have adopted. We start with a short history that documents how the field of discourse processes emerged. Next we describe the current trends in investigating discourse processes. We end with our forecast of how the...

Citations

... The encoding principle assumes that information that has been encoded and stored in longterm memory cannot simply be erased or replaced and therefore has some potential to be subsequently reactivated; this assumption was adopted from global models of memory (Gillund & Shiffrin, 1984;Hintzman, 1986;Ratcliff & McKoon, 1988) and is consistent with existing models of comprehension (e.g., the CI Model, Kintsch, 1988). The passive-activation principle assumes that information in long-term memory can be reactivated via passive processes (Myers & O'Brien, 1998;O'Brien & Myers, 1999). Specifically, incoming information serves as a signal to all of long-term memory, and long-term memory contents that resonate with that signal as a function of featural overlap become reactivated. ...
... They encourage deep learning as students need to explain their reasoning and reflect on their basic approach to solving a problem. The impact of conversational ITS s can be augmented by the use of animated agents [7]. For instance, among the most popular chatbot technologies are ALICE [29] and ChatScript [24]. ...
... This is the main issue we address in the present set of experiments. A particular challenge for the design of computer-based instruction is how to elicit appropriate emotional responses in learners (Graesser et al., 2014;Plass & Kaplan, 2016;Tettegah & Gartmeier, 2016). Thus, educational technology is central to our research question because our focus is on evoking positive emotions in a computer-based learning environment. ...
... The principal difference in this study was the added focus on multimodal elements of the text segments in comprehension assessment. Because there is evidence that multiple representations can increase cognitive demands (Cromley et al., 2016;McNamara et al., 2012), we wanted to test their effects with more competent readers who are likely more equipped to deal with the added complexity than younger or struggling readers. Further, we incorporated an additional calibration measure in this study that centered on topic knowledge. ...
... However, in the meantime, an alternative view to Lakoff and Johnson (1980) has been proposed by a number of studies on metaphor from the field of applied linguistics (Cameron and Low 1999;Low and Cameron 2002;Cameron 2003;Deignan 2005Deignan , 2010Charteris-Black 2004;Caballero Rodriguez 2006;Koller 2004), cognitive linguistics (Cienki, Luka, and Smith 2001;Cienki and Müller 2008;Müller 2008;Grady 2000;Kövecses 2005), conversation and discourse analysis (Musolff 2004;Semino 2008;Steen et al. 2010), interactional sociolinguistics (Drew and Holt 1998), artificial intelligence (Barnden 2008), psycholinguistics (Katz et al. 1998;Giora 2003;Glucksberg 2001Glucksberg , 2008Gibbs 1994Gibbs , 1999Gibbs , 2006, and psychology of discourse (Kintsch 1998;Steen 2004Steen , 2006Van Dijk 2008;Macnamara and Magliano 2009;Graesser and Millis 2011). These perspectives have showed that the peculiar communicative dimension of metaphor cannot be conflated or reduced to the linguistic and conceptual aspects of metaphor (Steen 2008(Steen , 2011Gola and Ervas 2016). ...
... Only those readers who were prompted to judge for inconsistencies or to respond to questions about a causal relation in the text generated inferences. Thus, reading processes heavily depend on learners' goals and the nature of the reading task (Graesser, Haiying, & Feng, 2015). ...
... Five major dimensions of Coh-Metrix have been used to represent language style ranging from informal (conversational) to formal (academic) according to: word use (Word Concreteness), syntax (Syntactic Simplicity), the explicit textbase (Referential Cohesion), the referential situation model (also called the mental model; Deep Cohesion), and the discourse genre and rhetorical structure (the type of discourse and its composition; Genre) [7,10]. These measures have effectively differentiated writing in different genres (narrative versus scientific) and at different grade levels [7,14]. This study adopts the following five Coh-Metrix dimensions to measure students' writing proficiency: ...
... For analyzing non-English corpora, however, LIWC dictionaries need to be especially designed, which adds to the complexity of analyzing data in relatively rare languages or in languages with graphically unique characters. An example is the development of the Chinese LIWC dictionary by the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology in 2007 (Li, Cai, Graesser, & Duan, 2012). In other words, if the data obtained need to be translated from the participants' mother tongue into English (or into any other globally used language), the undeniable advantage of analyzing writers' and speakers' authentic language samples is rendered null and void. ...
... We propose to consider the narrative, textual quality as an essential formal characteristic of life stories and to use it to measure the development of the ability to narrate one's life across adolescence McAdams, 1985). Whereas the semantic macrostructure of texts is understood to be its gist (Louwerse & Graesser, 2006), we introduce the term temporal macrostructure of a narrative text to denote its overall temporal order and the elaboration of its beginnings and endings. Beginnings and endings anchor life narratives in the past and in the present. ...
... Koelstra et al. created the DEAP dataset, which measures two types of emotional states obtained from potentiation and arousal [16]. D'Mello et al. pointed out that, although the six basic emotions proposed by Ekman et al. [12] are common in our daily life, most of them do not exist for the study time of 30 min to 2 h; hence, six learning emotions (i.e., boredom, engagement, confusion, frustration, delight, and surprise) are defined and further ranked in an ascending order of persistence on a time scale: (delight = surprise) < (confusion = frustration) < (boredom = engagement) [17]. Meanwhile, Graesser et al. proposed that, for college students, the main emotions centered on learning include confusion, frustration, boredom, engagement, curiosity, anxiety, delight, and surprise [18]. ...