A. Yu. Rozanov's research while affiliated with Russian Academy of Sciences and other places

Publications (121)

Article
The main directions and results of the Paleontological Institute’s activities over the past 40 years are considered. The demand for paleontological research conducted by the Institute’s scientists has shifted from stratigraphy and geological surveying towards the study of the evolution of the biosphere and evolution�ary developmental biology. It is...
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The Orgueil meteorite was studied using a TESCAN VEGA 3 scanning electron microscope. As a result, new microfossils were found, including a fragment of a pennate diatom shell, tubular structures with double porous cell walls (prasinophytes?), hollow spheres with a process (acritarchs?), and spore-like structures. The problem of the cometary origin...
Book
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The results of thorough bacterialpaleontological study of the Orgueil meteorite are presented in this illustrated Atlas of microfossils (both prokaryotic and eukaryotic) found within freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorite. More than 60 images obtained with Scanning Electron Microscope are presented.
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The formation of nucleosides in abiotic conditions is a major hurdle in origin-of-life studies. We have determined the mechanism of a general reaction leading to the one-pot synthesis of ribo- and 2’-deoxy-ribonucleosides from sugars and purine nucleobases under proton irradiation in the presence of a chondrite meteorite. These conditions simulate...
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We report the discovery of frustules of pennate diatoms embedded in a freshly fractured interior surface of the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorite. Images and element composition by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy were obtained with the TESCAN VEGA 3 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) in the Astrobiology Sector of the Laboratory of Radiation B...
Article
The internal structure of an olivine‐rich fragment of the Seymchan meteorite was studied using neutron tomography. The differences in the neutron attenuation coefficients of constituent elements of the studied pallasite and the application of modern mathematical algorithms for a three‐dimensional (3‐D) imaging data analysis allow us to obtain a spa...
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Formamide (NH2CHO) has been irradiated in condensed phase at 273 K by 11B-boron beams in the presence of powdered meteorites of the chondrite and stony-iron types. Relative to the controls (no radiation or no catalysis), a variegate panel of compounds was observed, including purine and pyrimidine nucleobases (uracil, cytosine, adenine, and guanine)...
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Fossilized cyanobacteria(?) represented by trichomes enclosed in common sheaths were detected in early Proterozoic iron banded formations of the Kursk magnetic anomaly (limonite–martite ores of the Lebedinsky mine and iron banded formations of the Korobkovskoye deposit). These fossils morphologically similar to current representatives of the genus...
Article
A brief characterization of the key events of the 100-year-long history of the Russian (later All-Russia and All-Union) Paleontological Society from its foundation in 1916 that determined the features of its diverse scientific and organizing activities in the respective periods is given. The current problems of the Society and prospects of the deve...
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A neutron radiography and tomography facility have been developed recently at the IBR-2 high flux pulsed reactor. The facility is operated with the CCD-camera based detector having maximal field of view of 20x20 cm, and the L/D ratio can be varied in the range 200 – 2000. The first results of the radiography and tomography experiments with industri...
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Significance Modern research on the origin of life started with Urey–Miller’s 1953 report on the spontaneous formation of amino acids upon application of electric discharge on a model of the pristine Earth atmosphere. Formamide provides a chemically sound starting material for the syntheses of prebiotic compounds; its role in prebiotics is becoming...
Article
Acritarchs are a group of organic-walled, acid-resistant microfossils of uncertain or unknown origin. Some are thought to represent the cysts or resting stages of unicellular protists (possibly dinoflagellates), chrysophytes (green algae) or other planktonic eukaryotic algae. Acritarchs are found throughout the geologic column extending back as far...
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During the past two years, the world has lost two great pioneers of the field of Astrobiology-Dr. David Stewart McKay who worked at the NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, USA and Academician Georgy Alexandrovich Zavarzin of the Institute of Microbiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Professor of the Moscow State University in Mos...
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The weathering crusts are markers of continental sedimentation. The question of land colonization by bacteria is interesting in itself and studies in this field are rather fruitful. An active role of bacteria in the for� mation of ancient weathering crusts has already been shown and land colonization by bacteria is proposed to start at the onset of...
Article
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Existence of diverse microorganisms, bacteria (? Cyanobacteria) in the Early Precambrian (Archaean and Early Proterozoic) weathering crusts is determined. Presence of eukaryots can’t be excluded also. So it is possible to speak about the colonization of land by microbes already at that time and about existence of single series from weathering crust...
Article
Recent studies of comets and cometary dust have confirmed the presence of biologically relevant organic molecules along with clay minerals and water ice. It is also now well established by deuterium/hydrogen ratios that the CI1 carbonaceous meteorites contain indigenous extraterrestrial water. The evidence of extensive aqueous alteration of the min...
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Environmental (ESEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) investigations have resulted in the detection of a large number of complex filaments in a variety of carbonaceous meteorites. Many of the filaments were observed to be clearly embedded the rock matrix of freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorites. The high resol...
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Microbiological analysis of several cold-preserved tissue samples from the Siberian baby mammoth known as Lyuba revealed a number of culturable bacterial strains that were grown on anaerobic media at 3 oC. Lactic acid produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria) group, usually by members of the genera Carnobacterium and Lactosphera, appears to be a wonde...
Article
According to the recent data, carbonaceous chondrites occasionally have pseudomorphoses after microbes. The meteorite ages suggest that life had developed earlier than the Earth was formed. Key wordsPseudomorphoses–microbes–meteorites–origin of life
Article
The organization level of Precambrian fossils is the most reliable indicator of the state and parameters of the biosphere, such as the atmosphere composition, average temperature of the earth’s surface, and others. At present, cyanobacteria, unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, and coelomates are considered to appear in the geological history...
Book
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The Cambrian is a single system in the International Stratigraphic Scale without commonly accepted and officially approved subunits of the stage rank. In the stratigraphic practice specialists use regional stages, which are restricted to a single region or sedimentation basin. Due to favorable paleogeographic conditions and extremely rich assemblag...
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Different methods for the investigation of ancient microfossils - in macerates, in thin sections and in fresh chips in scanning electronic microscope - are discussed. The overwhelming advantage of the Scanning Electron Microscopy method is shown.
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Pillow lavas volcanic glasses (ancient and recent) and traces of life in them. Astafieva* M.M., Rozanov* A.Yu., Sharkov** E.V., Chistyakov** A.V., Bogina** M.M. * Paleontological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Profsoyusnaya 123, Moscow, Russia; ** Institute of Geology of Ore deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of R...
Chapter
Existence of morphologically diverse microorganisms, bacteria, perhaps, cyanobacteria in the Early Precambrian (Archaean and Early Proterozoic) weathering crusts is determined. Presence of eucaryots can’t be excluded also.
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Newly found biomorphic microstructures from the Upper Archaean (Lopian) rocks from Northern Karelia are described. Various microorganisms of a bacterial nature and even cyanobacteria (and possibly eukaryotic forms) are recognized. The importance of electron microscopy, along with traditional methods, for the study of the earliest manifestations of...
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The strata of the Permotriassic Trappean Complex of Siberia (Ilimpeya River and Kapchan locality) are studied. The water-lava and water-tuff boundaries are shown to be promising for bacterial paleontological studies. The analysis of fossilized microbial communities shows that they vary depending on sedimentation conditions. This example is importan...
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Bacterial paleontology provides vast opportunities for the study of all types of sedimentary and volcanic-sedimentary rocks, at any stage of metamorphism and of any age. Bacteria are shown to play an important role in weathering, transfer, sedimentation, and diagenesis of the sediments and in the formation of many minerals that have previously been...
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Weathering crusts are the only reliable evidences of continental conditions existence, and often are the only source of information about exogenous processes and subsequently about conditions under which the development of biosphere occurred. Complex of diverse fossil microorganisms was discovered in result of electronic-microscope investigations....
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in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia. The main purpose of the meeting was to show the stratotype and reference sections of the Cambrian in the Siberian Platform to a group of spe-cialists. Several intervals of these sections will be pro-posed as GSSP candidates for stage and series bound-aries of the Cambrian System of the International Strat...
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It is shown on the example of Early Proterozoic pillow-lavas of South-Africa that the boundary lava - water is very interesting from the point of view of bacterial paleontology. In the rocks, corresponding to this boundary, such forms as bacteria, including cyanobacteria, developed, cyanobacterial or bacterial mats formed and probably even such hig...
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The set of discovered Archaean organisms does not indicate anaerobic atmosphere as early as 3.5 Ga. The RNA-world must have existed at least at 3.9 GA and, likely, close to the beginning of degasification and appearance of water on the Earth surface. The earliest cellular organisms (membranes) also appeared before 4.0 Ga. Possibilities of evaluatio...
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An investigation of the Early Proterozoic pillow lavas of South-Africa shows that the lava-water boundary is very interesting from the point of view of bacterial paleontology. In the pillow selvages corresponding to this boundary, forms such as bacteria (including cyanobacteria) developed. Cyanobacterial or bacterial mats formed and probably even s...
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Eukaryotic organisms discovered from the earliest Lower Proterozoic phosphorites (2.04 Ga) of the Kola Peninsula are described. These are fossil forms Pechengia melezhiki gen. et sp. nov., which are tentatively assigned to green algae of the class Prasinophyceae.
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It was a serious mistake when subdivision stratotypes had been disposed of in practice of constructing the General stratigraphic scale, because they cannot be substituted by the boundary stratotypes. A subdivision stratotype and respective GSSP are complementary parts characterizing any stratigraphic unit. The best candidates for stage stratotypes...
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It was a serious mistake when subdivision stratotypes had been disposed of in practice of constructing the General stratigraphic scale, because they cannot be substituted by the boundary stratotypes. A subdivision stratotype and respective GSSP are complementary parts characterizing any stratigraphic unit. The best candidates for stage stratotypes...
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The main goal of the conference was the demonstration of stratotype and reference sections of the Cambrian System on the Siberian Platform. Some of them are pro-posed or currently in preparation as GSSPs for Cambrian stages and series in the Interna-tional Stratigraphic Scale. The conference was organized and sponsored by the Ministry of Natural Re...
Conference Paper
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Finds of authentic remains of eucaryotic organisms remains in ancient (Early Protero-zoic and Archaean) rocks are of great significance for understanding of the history of development of organic world on the early stages of the Earth and for evaluation of Earth environments of this time. Numerous indications on the early appearance of eucaryots (an...
Article
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No principal differences have been found between microfossils described from Cambrian and Phanerozoic and the 2000 Ma phosphorites. Numerous samples revealed diverse microbial microstructures interpreted as cyanobacterial mats consisting of filamentous (1-3 mum in diameter, 20 mum in length), coccoidal (0.8-1.0 mum) and ellipsoidal or rod-shaped mi...
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Ancient Archaean and Proterozoic rocks are model objects for the investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. Three types of fossil microorganisms found in Archaean rocks of Karelia are determined: 1. forms found in situ, in other words microorganisms of the same-age as the rock matrix, that is valid Archaean fossils, 2. endolithic fossil micr...
Article
The appearance of Bacteria sensu lato, Eukaryota, Metaphyta, Metazoa, etc., along with the oxygenization of the atmosphere, are shown to have occurred much earlier than was previously assumed. Paleontological data clearly indicate that the difference between surface temperature of the Earth in the Archaen and now was no more than 30°C.
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The study of samples from the McArthur River complex ore deposit (Middle Proterozoic, 1.64 Ga), one of the largest zinc-lead mineral deposits in the world, suggests a possible biogenic origin of sulfides in this deposit and a likelihood that the rocks studied formed in the marine photic zone.
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Framboidal structures are common both in terrestrial rocks and in meteorites (carbonate chondrites). The paper discusses the main origins of these structures. The role of biogenic factors in the formation of framboids is evaluated. Crystallites composing natural framboids are compared with those obtained under laboratory conditions. It is proposed...
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Desert varnish and silica rock coatings have perplexed investigators since Humboldt and Darwin. They are found in arid regions and deserts on Earth but the mechanism of their formation remains challenging (see Perry et al. this volume). One method of researching this is to investigate natural coatings, but another way is to attempt to produce coati...
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Desert varnish is a black, manganese-rich rock coating that is widespread on Earth. The mechanism underlying its formation, however, has remained unresolved. We present here new data and an associated model for how desert varnish forms, which substantively challenges previously accepted models. We tested both inorganic processes (e.g. clays and oxi...
Article
Cyanobacteria (cyanophyta, cyanoprokaryota, and blue-green algae) are an ancient, diverse and abundant group of photosynthetic oxygenic microorganisms. Together with other bacteria and archaea, the cyanobacteria have been the dominant life forms on Earth for over 3.5 billion years. Cyanobacteria occur in some of our planets most extreme environment...
Article
The appearance of Bacteria, Eukaryotes, Metaphyta, Metazoa, etc., as well as the oxygenation of the atmosphere, took place much earlier than was formerly believed. The paleontological data clearly indicate that the difference in the surface temperature on the Earth from the Archaean to the present time was no more than 35-45° C.
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Full-text available
Cyanobacteria (cyanophyta, cyanoprokaryota, and blue-green algae) are an ancient, diverse and abundant group of photosynthetic oxygenic microorganisms. Together with other bacteria and archaea, the cyanobacteria have been the dominant life forms on Earth for over 3.5 billion years. Cyanobacteria occur in some of our planets most extreme environment...
Article
Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. The Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats, where living microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due...
Article
Full-text available
Newly found biomorphic microstructures from the Upper Archaean (lopian) rocks from Northern Karelia are described. The presence of various microorganisms of bacterial nature and even cyanobacteria (and possibly eukaryotic forms) is suggested. The necessity of employing methods of electron microscopy, as well as traditional methods, while studying t...
Article
Indigenous embedded microbial filaments, bacterial cells and other microfossils were found in the Orgueil, Ivuna (CI1), Murchison, and Bells (CM2) carbonaceous meteorites. Biominerals, biofilms, framboids, magnetite platelets, and curious elemental iron ovoids covered with minute fibrils and carbon sheaths were also found. The S-4100 Hitachi Field...
Article
We present additional evidence for the presence of indigenous microfossils in carbonaceous meteorites scanning electron micrograph studies of freshly fractured interior surfaces of pristine samples of the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous meteorite have revealed forms in-situ that are recognizable as biofilms as well as complex and highly structured forms...
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Full-text available
Investigation of the samples of the McArthur River complex ore deposit, one of the most zinc-lead mineralised provinces in the world, brings us to conclusion about the possibility of the biogenic origin of sulfides in McArthur River ore deposit and to make suppositions about the formation of the studied rocks in the photic zone of sea.
Article
During the past six years, we have conducted extensive scanning electron and optical microscopy investigations and x-ray analysis to determine the morphology, life cycle processes, and elemental distributions in living and fossil cyanobacteria, bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae sampled from terrestrial environments relevant to Astrobiology. Biomi...
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Framboidal structures are common both in Earth rocks and in meteorites - carbonaceous chondrites. The main methods of formation of these structures are discussed. The role of biologic factors in formation of framboids is evaluated. Comparison of crystal forms comprising framboids formed in laboratory conditions and in nature is provided. On the bas...
Article
Secondary and backscatter electron images and x-ray spectral data of selected CI (Alais, Orgueil, and Tagish Lake) and CO3 (Rainbow and Dar a1 Gani 749) carbonaceous meteorites have recently been obtained using Field Emission and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopes These studies indicate the presence of a large assemblage of biomarkers and...
Article
During the past few years, there has appeared much new and interesting data concerning the distribution of bacteriomorphic structures in both meteorites (carbonaceous chondrites) and in earth rocks of different ages (Archean to Recent). The bacterial forms studied are of very diverse morphologies and they are represented by cocci, filaments, rod-sh...
Article
Full-text available
During the past six years, we have conducted extensive scanning electron and optical microscopy investigations and x-ray analysis to determine the morphology, life cycle processes, and elemental distributions in living and fossil cyanobacteria, bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae sampled from terrestrial environments relevant to Astrobiology. Biomi...
Article
Full-text available
Most bodies of our Solar System are "Frozen Worlds" where the prevailing surface temperature remains at or below freezing. On Earth there are vast permanently frozen regions of permafrost, polar ice sheets, and glaciers and the deep oceans and deep-sea marine sediments have remained at 2-4 °C for eons. Psychrophilic and psychrotrophic microbiota th...
Chapter
Many years of studying of fossil mats and biofilms have resulted us to conclusion that almost always, when these formations were present in basins, they could be well preserved also in rocks. Thus necessary to mean, that preservation of fossilized bacteria rather different depending on a composition of rocks. The best preservation of microbes is wa...
Article
The discovery of traces of life in the ancient Mars meteorite triggered the development of the rapidly emerging field of Astrobiology. Astrobiologists are seeking to develop conclusive methods to recognize biosignatures and microfossils of bacteria and other microbiota as well as to understand the spatial, temporal, environmental and chemical limit...
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We review the development of Bacterial Paleontology and consider its relevance of the rapidly emerging field of Astrobiology. We present electron microscopic images of fossil bacteria in different states of preservation in Earth rocks and Astromaterials.
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Astrobiologists are working to develop methodologies for the recognition of bacterial microfossils, biominerals, and chemical biomarkers in terrestrial rocks, to provide a basis for the scientific assessment of possible microfossils in meteorites and other Astromaterials. During the past 5 years, we have conducted electron microscopy investigations...
Article
The discovery of traces of life in the ancient Mars meteorite triggered the development of the rapidly emerging field of Astrobiology. Astrobiologists are seeking to develop conclusive methods to recognize biosignatures and microfossils of bacteria and other microbiota as well as to understand the spatial, temporal, environmental and chemical limit...
Article
Full-text available
We review prior studies of chemical and morphological biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites and present recently obtained ESEM images of microfossils and nanofossils in-situ in freshly fractured surfaces of Nogoya and pristine samples of Murchison as further evidence of indigenous microfossils in meteorites.
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In the meteorites - Murchison, Efremovka, Murray, Nagoya etc. - was found biomorphic structures like cyanobacteria and other microorganisms. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
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Chemical, mineral and morphological biomarkers and microfossils are present in a wide variety of ancient rocks and meteorites. We discuss previous results and present images of microfossils of cyanobacteria, magnetotactic bacteria, and acritarchs detected in the Orgueil, Mighei, Nogoya, and Murchison carbonaceous meteorites.
Book
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Cambrian biostratigraphy of South Australia (Stansbury and Arrowie basins) is outlined judging by ranges of archaeocyath, small shelly fossil, mollusc, brachiopod, and acritarch assemblages as well as by some data on trilobites and bradoriids. Advanced correlation of lithological units within and between basins is suggested. 7 new acritarchs specie...