A. V. Rakov's research while affiliated with Russian Academy of Sciences and other places

Publications (137)

Article
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A classification of test objects for use in calibration of scanning electron microscopes in the nanometric range is created. The shape of the relief profile of the elements of the test objects and the relationship of the profile to the physical mechanisms underlying the formation of the signal generated by a microscope functioning in a mode for the...
Article
In this paper, we propose a new method of measuring parameters of features of relief nanostructures. The method is based on the dependence of the length of the control intervals between certain bend points on video signal curves on the effective diameter of an electron probe. These video signals are obtained in the secondary electron imaging mode o...
Conference Paper
New results for dimensional measurements of nanostructures obtained using the method of defocusing of the SEM electron probe are presented. The method is extended to nanostructures representing the protrusions of the trapezoidal form with the small size of the top base and the features (protrusions and trenches) with nearly vertical sidewalls. It i...
Article
Results of measurements of the thickness of natural oxide on a silicon structure in the form of a set of elements (protrusions) with trapezoidal profile, 2 mu m step, width of upper base 10 nm, height of elements 500 nm, and tilt angle of lateral side of element relative to its base 54.7A degrees are presented. The entire structure is covered with...
Article
This is a study of the influence of contamination in an S-4800 scanning electron microscope at electron energies of 1 keV on the profile of the surface relief elements of an MShPS-2.0K standard gauge. The observed width of the upper base of the relief elements is found to increase with electron irradiation dose in different irradiation modes.
Article
A new test object for calibrating the transmission electron microscope and scanning transmission microscope is suggested. The test was fabricated by means of cutting the silicon relief structure with the attested sizes of relief elements, which allowed us to use it both in the range of large magnifications (with the direct observation of the crysta...
Article
A reference relief pitch structure formed on a single-crystal silicon surface is investigated. The structure consists of trapezoidal elements (protrusions) with a pitch of 2 μm. The protrusions with upper bases of about 100 and 10 nm are located in one chip. The lateral surface of the element is tilted relative to its base by an angle of 54.7°. The...
Conference Paper
The study was performed on a test step relief structure of monocrystalline silicon. There was experimentally measured the thickness of the natural oxide on this structure consisting of a set of elements (protrusions) with a trapezoidal profile and 2.0 μm step size, upper base about 10 nm, height about 500 nm. The tilt angle of side face with respec...
Article
A prototype standard sample GSO 10030-2011 for the stepped parameters of thin layers of single crystal silicon is developed and certified. It is intended for calibration of transmission electron microscopes at magnifications of 1000–1,500,000×. The certified parameters are the step size of the stepped structure and the distance between the (111) pl...
Article
Results from studies of the influence of contamination in S-4800 scanning electron microscopes on the profile of relief elements in monocrystalline silicon are presented. It is shown that the form of the profile of relief elements varies as a result of irradiation by electrons with energy 20 keV. The dependences of the dimensional parameters of the...
Article
The scan nonlinearity of scanning electron microscopes is estimated with the use of a relief element with known geometric form of the profile. The mean value of the step of the test relief structure, which is determined as a test sample is moved along the scanning axis X, is measured. It is experimentally demonstrated that with a 5× magnification,...
Article
The nonlinearity of scanning on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) of nanorelief elements with known geometric profile shapes is estimated. The average pitch value of the relief test structure is measured, when the studied sample is shifted along the X-axis (scanning axis). As an index that characterizes the nonlinearity of the SEM scanning with...
Article
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Estimation of the procedural error of measurements of the geometric parameters of objects by a method involving defocusing of the electron probe of a scanning electron microscope is carried out. The procedural error is caused by the dependence of the results of measurements on the parameters of the probe. It is shown that this error may be reduced...
Article
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It is shown experimentally that it is possible to use a method of measuring the geometrical dimensions of nanorelief elements, based on defocusing of the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope, in order to measure the upper base of a trapezoidal protuberance with a width close to the beam diameter.
Article
A method is proposed for nanoscale dimensional metrology with the scanning electron microscope in the case of an array of trapezoidal ridges on a silicon surface, the minimum feature size being comparable with the effective beam diameter. The method is tested by measuring the top width of an individual ridge, which lies between 14 and 24 nm. The me...
Article
We propose a new type of reference material as a magnification standard of a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a scanning transmission electron microscope. The reference material represents a thin cross-section of a silicon relief structure with certified sizes of its elements. It is fabricated using ion milling. Such reference material ca...
Article
Solitary silicon nanorelief elements with different widths are studied with the use of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). From the video signal curves obtained in the secondary-slow-electron mode of SEM measurements, the dependences of the length of check segments G p (D ef) and L p (D ef), where D ef is the effective diameters of the SEM prob...
Article
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Test objects for calibration of scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) and atomic force microscopes (AFMs) operating in the nanometer range are analyzed. All the test objects can be divided into three groups: (a) structures with right-angled profiles; (b,c) structures with trapezoidal profiles and small/large angles of sidewalls inclination. Calibrat...
Article
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We consider features and restrictions of ellipsometry as applied to the system consisting of a silicon dioxide film on silicon, which is widely used in nanoelectronics. A method is developed for ellipsometric determination of the presence or absence of the "film-substrate" interfacial layer. Contributions of various factors into the total measureme...
Article
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The new method of measurement of linear sizes of nanorelief elements is presented. The applicability of this method to linear measurements of nanorelief elements with trapezoid profile and wide and small inclination angles of side walls is demonstrated. The results of developed method and direct measurements are compared. Examples of measurements o...
Article
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We discuss the formation of the system of nanoscale dimensional measurements in Russia. The traceability of the nanoscale measurements to the primary standard of the unit of length (the meter) is shown. Russian state standards that provide the standardization basis for such dimensional measurements are discussed.
Article
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We are describing a method of measuring thickness of a native silicon dioxide film using a scanning electron microscope. The method consists of etch removal of native silicon dioxide from the surface of trenches in silicon with a right-angled profile, with a subsequent measurement of an increase in trench width. The thickness of a native silicon di...
Article
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We created a test object of the linewidth with three different certified sizes. Relief structures of the test object are individual steps and protrusions, as well as pitch structures with trapezoidal profile, created by anisotropic etching of monosilicon. The orientation of the silicon surface coincides with the (1 0 0) crystallographic plane. The...
Article
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A method of determination and control over the constancy of the characteristics of the micro-probes of atomic-force microscopes in the course of their operation is proposed. Results of comparative studies of the characteristics of ordinary silicon cantilevers and cantilevers with a thread-like tip made of carbon are presented. Thread-like cantileve...
Article
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Results of studies of the influence of the energy of the probe electrons in the range 0.3–20 keV on the image of a line width test object in the nanometric range in a scanning electron microscope are presented. It is shown that the range of energies of the primary electrons may be divided into three sub-ranges. At electron energies less than 2.5 ke...
Article
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Two types of test objects for automated measurements of critical dimensions with scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) are described. The first type can be used for SEM calibration along two coordinates in a wide range of magnifications (to perform dimensional measurements in the range from 10 nm to 100 mum without making recalibration), including d...
Article
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In order to provide the uniformity of measurements at the nanoscale, seven national standards have been developed in the Russian Federation. Of these seven standards, three standards specify the procedures of fabrication and certification of linear measures with the linewidth lying in the nanometer range. The other four standards specify the proced...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of ensuring uniformity of measurements in nanotechnology is discussed. A functional block diagram is developed for length unit size transfer from the primary length standard (meter) to the nanometric range. The first six Russian national standards are presented, which ensure this transfer using scanning electron and atomic force microsc...
Article
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Methods for calibrating atomic force microscopes (AFMs) using an AFM signal and its first derivative are discussed.
Article
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We propose a method of calibration of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in a wide range of magnifications. We also describe a method of SEM measurements of linear dimensions of relief elements of micro- and nanostructures without performing a special calibration of SEM magnification, which can lie in a wide range. The methods are based on the us...
Article
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We studied the effect of focusing of the electron probe of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), operating in the mode of collection of slow secondary electrons, on the form of a signal obtained when scanning elements of nanorelief of two kinds of objects with electron probe: (a) resist masks, and (b) protrusions and trenches on silicon. The shift...
Article
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Measurements of the line width of one and the same test object under high- and low-voltage scanning electron microscopes are performed.
Article
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A geometric study of image generation in the AFM is reported. The relationship of an AFM waveform to the surface morphology being examined is determined, allowing for the influence of the radius and the vertex and obliquity angles of the tip. AFM calibration procedures are proposed and experimentally validated on trapezoidal surface patterns. Metho...
Article
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A test object for a scanning electron microscope, which has a trapezoidal profile of the relief with large angles of inclination of the side walls, is developed. The test object contains elements (protrusions) with three certified dimensions of the linewidth, situated in two mutually perpendicular directions.
Article
Full-text available
A method for objective monitoring of the quality of fabrication of test objects with a trapezoidal profile and large angles of inclination of the sidewalls is proposed. The test objects are created by anisotropic etching of silicon. The method is based on the correlation analysis of the results of experiments performed with scanning electron micros...
Article
Full-text available
Results of investigations in the field of measurements of geometrical characteristics of the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) are presented. Methods for determining the electron beam diameter are developed and tested on various microscopes. Besides, methods for obtaining the dependence of the electron beam diameter on the beam...
Article
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Comparison is made for parameters and properties of test objects based on the relief structures with right-angled and trapezoidal profiles, which are used for calibration of scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) and atomic force microscopes (AFMs). Methods of calibration of SEMs and AFMs with help of this test objects are presented. Comparative anal...
Article
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Data are given on the test object for scanning electron microscopy in which the components (ridges) are of trapezoidal profile and have large angles of inclination for the side walls. The width of the top surface of a projection is less than 10 nm. Methods have been developed for measuring such dimensions of test objects on standard scanning electr...
Article
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A method is proposed for calibrating a scanning electron microscope that corresponds completely to national standards providing unification of measurements in nanotechnology.
Article
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A method is presented for measuring the scan linearity in an atomic-force microscope, which uses the first derivative of the signal. The method has been tested on a standard microscope and has shown good results.
Article
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A study has been made on the effects of scanning electron microscope parameters on the accuracy in measuring the linear dimensions in microtechnology and nanotechnology. Definitions are given of the errors with which these parameters should be known for using such microscopes in such technologies.
Article
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The article includes the results of the study of image formation in atomic force microscope (AFM). The influence of radius and angle characteristics of cantilever tip as well as the relief of the surface studied on the signal waveform is shown. The authors demonstrate the techniques of AFM calibration and direct measurement of linear sizes of trape...
Article
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A method for directly measuring linewidth with an atomic force microscope using the first derivative of the signal is presented. The method showed that it is possible to make a direct measurement of the size of the upper base of a trapezoidal protrusion down to 30 nm.
Article
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A method of calibrating an atomic force microscope with respect to three coordinates using a single certified dimension of a test object is proposed. The method corresponds completely to the State Standards, which ensure the unity of measurements in nanotechnologies.
Article
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The single elements of relief (protrusions and steps) fabricated by anisotropic etching of the surface of the silicon wafer congruent the crystallographic plane (100) in the scanning electron microscope have been studied. The image registration in the low energy secondary electron collection mode was carried out, and the influence of the probe elec...
Article
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Metrology and standardization have a crucial role in the development of nanotechnologies. First Russian standards for nanotechnologies are considered. These standards are based on the use of silicon test objects–measures of small length at the nanoscale level. Characteristics of these test objects are presented.
Article
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We present results of the study of forming the image in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effects of the electron beam energy and of the beam diameter on the signal profile are demonstrated. Methods of SEM calibration including the measurement of the electron beam diameter are presented. The formulas relating the size of the trapezoidal str...
Article
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The results of the study of a test object on scanning electron microscopes and atomic force microscopes are presented. The test object presents a relief on a monosilicon surface, and it is fabricated by the anisotropic etching of monosilicon. The relief elements have a trapezoidal profile with large angles of inclination of the sidewalls. The sides...
Article
Full-text available
The results of the study of image formation in atomic force microscope (AFM) are presented. Effects of the radius and the angular characteristics of the cantilever tip, as well as of the relief of the surface being studied, on the signal shape are discussed. Methods of AFM calibration, including the calibration of all three scales with the use of o...
Article
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Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a standard method for linewidth (CD) metrology. For structure sizes smaller than 0.1 µm the information volume of the scanning electron probe is of the same order of magnitude as the structure size and the resulting SEM signal profile is a superposition of structural information from the whole structure. Evalua...
Article
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At the IX Session of the Commission of Length in September 1997, the values of the frequency and wavelength of He–Ne laser emission, stabilized by a saturated absorption line in molecular iodine, ν = 473 612 214 705 kHz, λ = 632.991 398 22 nm, were recommended. The emission of such lasers is used all over the world as a material bearer of a length...
Chapter
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IntroductionGWPS SpecimenSEM InstrumentationSEM image formation and ModelingSEM Measurement Method Measurement ResultsConclusion References
Article
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The relationship between nanotechnology and metrology of the nanometer range—nanometrology—is discussed. It is shown that the development of nanotechnology is impossible without the rapid development of nanometrology, including its main part—metrology of linear measurements in the nanometer range. In order to assure the uniformity of linear measure...
Article
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We present an analysis for the existing linear measures in micro- and nanometer ranges, including the use of these measures in scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. It is shown that the only measure that has the certified linewidth in the nanometer range is the measure MShPS-2.0K. The design of the measure MShPS-2.0K, as well...
Article
Full-text available
Formation of the image of the relief of right-angled and trapezoidal structures of micro- and nanometer ranges in a scanning electron microscope is considered. Methods of calibration of scanning electron microscopes with the help of such structures are presented. These methods include the determination of the linearity of scanning of a sample under...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the formation of the image of the relief of trapezoidal structures of micrometer and nanometer ranges in an atomic force microscope. Methods of calibration of atomic force microscopes with the help of such structures are presented. These methods include the determination of the linearity and orthogonality of scanning of a sample being in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Problems of nanoobject linear size measurements on scanning electron microscopes (SEM)h ave been discussed. It is suggested to use the relief pitch structures of the MShPS-2. OK measure as the line width standard. The geometrical model of signal formation by these structures on high and low voltage SEM's has been described. SEM calibration methods,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A method has been suggested for measuring the line width of trapezoidal profile relief elements on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for cases where the electron probe diameter is greater than the measured size. The method has been demonstrated on low voltage SEM. The minimum size that could be measured was 13 nm, which is almost in 2 times smal...
Article
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A method of SEM linear measurement is proposed in which the reference marker displayed on the screen is used as a standard. The method works in a wide range of magnification without magnification calibration. Calibration of the marker against the MShPS-2.0K linear standard is described. The characteristics of the marker are investigated as function...
Article
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A method has been developed for measuring the dependence of the electron probe diameter d in a scanning electron microscope SEM on the beam current J. The relationship for the CAMSCAN CS-44 SEM is d(J) ~ J 1/4, whereas electron probe formation theory gives d(J) ~ J 3/8; the reasons for these differences are considered.
Article
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A method of measurement and control of atomic force microscope (AFM) probe parameters is offered. The AFM real cantilever parameters are defined.
Article
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Linear standards for the calibration of SEMs and AFMs are reviewed. Requirements to a surface pattern designed to serve as a universal standard for the above purpose are defined. A trapezoidal pitch structure is proposed, in which the sidewalls of basic units essentially make a large angle with the normal to the surface. Its uses in SEM–AFM dimensi...