A. Mocquet's research while affiliated with French National Centre for Scientific Research and other places

Publications (157)

Article
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The macroseismic and instrumental observations accumulated by the Bureau Central Sismologique Français and other national agencies over the last 100 years show that the northwestern part of metropolitan France is affected by an apparently diffuse and moderate intraplate seismicity. Far from any plate boundary, well-documented inherited structures,...
Article
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The mantle transition zone (MTZ) of the Earth lies between 410 and ∼1000 km in depth and has a key role in mantle convection processes. In particular, the discontinuity at 660 km and its associated endothermic mineralogical transformation can slow or inhibit the passage of matter between the upper and lower mantle. The MTZ thus acts as a boundary l...
Article
The Résif project, which started in 2008, aims at gathering under a common research infrastructure the French seismological, Global Navigation Satellite Systems and gravimeter permanent networks, as well as the mobile instrument pools. A central part of Résif is its seismological information system, Système d'Information de Résif (Résif-SI) (starte...
Article
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Abstract SEIS, the seismometer of the InSight mission, which landed on Mars on 26 November 2018, is monitoring the seismic activity of the planet. The goal of the Mars Structure Service (MSS) is to provide, as a mission product, the first average 1‐D velocity model of Mars from the recorded InSight data. Prior to the mission, methodologies have bee...
Article
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Due to a too sparse permanent seismic coverage during the last decades, the crustal structure of western France and the surrounding regions is poorly known. In this study, we present a 3-D seismic tomographic model of this area obtained from the analysis of 2-year continuous data recorded from 55 broad-band seismometers. An unconventional approach...
Article
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Plain Language Summary Pressure fluctuations of the Mars' atmosphere induce tiny deformations of the ground that can be measured by the very sensitive seismometer of the InSight mission. The amount of deformation depends on the elastic properties of the sandy regolith (the surface layer exposed and highly fractured by impacts) and of the underlying...
Article
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Mars’s seismic activity and noise have been monitored since January 2019 by the seismometer of the InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) lander. At night, Mars is extremely quiet; seismic noise is about 500 times lower than Earth’s microseismic noise at periods between 4 s and 30 s. The recorded sei...
Article
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NASA’s InSight (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) mission landed in Elysium Planitia on Mars on 26 November 2018. It aims to determine the interior structure, composition and thermal state of Mars, as well as constrain present-day seismicity and impact cratering rates. Such information is key to understa...
Article
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The amount of detected planets with sizes comparable to that of the Earth is increasing drastically. Most of the Earth-size planet candidates orbit at close distances from their central star, and therefore are subjected to large tidal forces. Accurate determination of the tidal parameters of exoplanets taking into account their interior structure a...
Article
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By the end of 2018, 42 years after the landing of the two Viking seismometers on Mars, InSight will deploy onto Mars’ surface the SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Internal Structure) instrument; a six-axes seismometer equipped with both a long-period three-axes Very Broad Band (VBB) instrument and a three-axes short-period (SP) instrument. These six se...
Article
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The Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport (InSight) Mission will focus on Mars’ interior structure and evolution. The basic structure of crust, mantle, and core form soon after accretion. Understanding the early differentiation process on Mars and how it relates to bulk composition is key to improving our un...
Article
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The InSight mission expects to operate a geophysical observatory on Mars for at least two Earth years from late 2018. InSight includes a seismometer package, SEIS. The Marsquake Service (MQS) is created to provide a first manual review of the seismic data returned from Mars. The MQS will detect, locate, quantify and classify seismic events, whether...
Article
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In November 2018, for the first time a dedicated geophysical station, the InSight lander, will be deployed on the surface of Mars. Along with the two main geophysical packages, the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) and the Heat-Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP³), the InSight lander holds a highly sensitive pressure sensor (PS...
Article
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The InSight lander will deliver geophysical instruments to Mars in 2018, including seismometers installed directly on the surface (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure, SEIS). Routine operations will be split into two services, the Mars Structure Service (MSS) and Marsquake Service (MQS), which will be responsible, respectively, for defining t...
Poster
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We introduce a new method based on pairwise comparisons among a set of synchronous time-series to detect signal redundancies in the seismic ambient wavefield. This approach is based on instantaneous phase coherence statistics, assuming the ergodicity property of a random signal. The first and second moments of the distribution of all possible pairw...
Conference Paper
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The most widely used inversion schemes to locate earthquakes are based on iterative linearized least-squares algorithms and using an a priori knowledge of the propagation medium. When a small amount of observations is available for moderate events for instance, these methods may lead to large trade-offs between outputs and both the velocity model a...
Presentation
Full-text available
In order to detect possible signal redundancies in the seismic ambient wavefield, we develop a new method based on pairwise comparisons among a set of synchronous time-series. This approach is based on instantaneous phase coherence statistics. The first and second moments of the pairwise phase coherence distribution are used to characterize the pha...
Article
Full-text available
In order to detect possible signal redundancies in the ambient seismic wavefield, we develop a new method based on pairwise comparisons among a set of synchronous time-series. This approach is based on instantaneous phase coherence statistics. The first and second moments of the pairwise phase coherence distribution are used to characterize the pha...
Poster
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Cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise are widely used to retrieve the information of the medium between pairs of stations. For periods between 1 and 50 s, the diffuse wavefield is dominated by microseismic energy which travels mostly as surface waves. Therefore, such waves are mainly reconstructed in the cross-correlations, and information ab...
Conference Paper
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The InSight mission to Mars will launch in March of 2016, landing six months later in Elysium Planitia. In contrast to the 43 previous missions to Mars, which have thoroughly explored its surface features and chemistry, atmosphere, and searched for past or present life, InSight will focus on the deep interior of the planet. InSight will investigate...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The most widely used algorithms to locate earthquakes are based on iterative linearized least-squares techniques. The drawbacks of theses methods, in particular when only a small amount of observations is available, are large dependencies on location and origine time due to a priori assumptions on velocity models and on an initial set of hypocentra...
Conference Paper
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InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is the next Discovery mission, selected by NASA in 2012. It will be launched in March 2016 for a landing by the end of September 2016. Science operation will start in January 2017. The payload is a complete geophysical observatory, with a seismometer (SEIS), an...
Conference Paper
We shall use the X-band radio link of the future 2016 InSIGHT (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport) lander on the surface of Mars with the objective to better determine the rotation and interior structure of Mars. This X-band radio link consists in two-way Doppler measurements from a direct radio-link betw...
Conference Paper
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We provide a general science overview of the seismometer (SEIS) instrument package that comprises the primary payload of the upcoming InSight mission to Mars.
Article
The planned InSight mission will deliver a single seismic station containing 3-component broadband and short-period sensors to the surface of Mars in 2016. While much of the progress in understanding the Earth and Moon’s interior has relied on the use of seismic networks for accurate location of sources, single station approaches can be applied to...
Article
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The aim of the SI-Hex project (acronym for « Sismicité Instrumentale de l’Hexagone ») is to provide a catalogue of seismicity for metropolitan France and the French marine economic zone for the period 1962–2009 by taking into account the contributions of the various seismological networks and observatories from France and its neighbouring countries...
Article
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Ocean activity produces continuous and ubiquitous seismic energy mostly in the 2 – 20 s period band, known as microseismic noise. Between 2 and 10 s period, secondary microseisms (SM) are generated by swell reflections close to the shores and/or by opposing swells in the deep ocean. However, unique conditions are required in order for surface waves...
Article
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The lithospheric structures beneath the Pyrenees, which holds the key to settle long standing controversies regarding the opening of the Bay of Biscay and the formation of the Pyrenees, are still poorly known. The temporary PYROPE and IBERARRAY experiments have recently filled a strong deficit of seismological stations in this part of western Europ...
Article
Data extracted from the Extrasolar Planets Encyclo- paedia (see http://exoplanet.eu) show the existence of planets that are more massive than iron cores that would have the same size. After meticulous verification of the data, we conclude that the mass of the smallest of these planets is actually not known. However, the three largest planets, Keple...
Article
We estimate the radius of the dynamo of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune using two new statistical expressions for the magnetic field power spectrum.
Article
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[1] According to different types of observations, the nature of lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is controversial. Using a massive dataset of surface wave dispersions in a broad period range (15-300 s), we have developed a three-dimensional upper-mantle tomographic model (first order perturbation theory) at the global scale. This is used to...
Poster
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The geology of the western France can be roughly split into two main domains : the Armorican massif that contains imprints of the old Cadomian and Variscan orogens ; and the Bay of Biscay which present signatures of more recent tectonic events closely related to the opening of North Atlantic ocean. Due to the lack of seismic stations deployment, it...
Conference Paper
In 2016, the SEIS experiment, part of the INSIGHT mission of NASA's Discovery program to Mars, is expected to provide the very first seismic records on this planet. This experiment consists in a single station that will record both short-period and broad-band data. The challenge of obtaining information on the location of seismic sources and on the...
Article
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Mineralogical transformations and material transfers within the Earth's mantle make the 350-1000 km depth range (referred here as the mantle transition zone) highly heterogeneous and anisotropic. Most of the 3-D global tomographic models are anchored on small perturbations from 1-D models such as PREM, and are secondly interpreted in terms of tempe...
Article
Since the discovery of the first exoplanet in the nineties, hundreds of candidates have been reported. Among them, some have densities that are close to the one expected for planets made of the same elements as Mars, Earth or Venus. Those planets are known as terrestrial exoplanets. For some of them, only the mass or the radius is known but their d...
Conference Paper
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The InSight mission will illuminate the processes of terrestrial planet formation and evolution through a surface-based geophysical investigation of Mars.
Conference Paper
The SEIS experiment is the primary payload of the Interior Structure investigation using Seismology and Heat Transport (INSIGHT) Mission Proposal, submitted to NASA in the frame of the 2010 Discovery program, and selected for a competitive phase A study, together with two other projects. The objective of the INSIGHT SEIS experiment is the determina...
Conference Paper
While many proposed missions to Mars have included networks of multiple seismic stations, others, such as the recent InSight proposal to NASA's Discovery program, have instead chosen to have a single lander, which allows for only a single 3 component, broadband seismic station location. Most of our knowledge of the interior seismic structure of the...
Article
The origin of the Martian moons is still an open question [1]. The ill-fated Phobos Soil mission was an ambitious mission devoted to find out an answer to this open issue. Among the suite of instruments dedicated to the interior of Phobos, the radio-science experiment [2] (as well as the libration experiment [3]) were wellsuited to provide constrai...
Article
Our fundamental understanding of the interior of the Earth comes from seismology, geodesy, geochemistry, geomagnetism, geothermal studies, and petrology. For the Earth, measurements in those disciplines of geophysics have revealed the basic internal layering of the Earth, its dynamical regime, its thermal structure, its gross compositional stratifi...
Conference Paper
The InSight Mission is one of three NASA down-selected projects in competition for the 2010 Discovery AO. The goal of SEIS (a very-broad-band (VBB) seismometer), the mission's core instrument, is to determine the interior structure and seismic activity of the planet. If selected by NASA in mid 2012, the mission will be launched in 2016 and will ope...
Conference Paper
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The goal of the InSight Seismometer is to determine interior structure and seismic activity of the planet. We summarize the flow from instrument performance to expected science performance in terms of interior structure and activity determination.
Conference Paper
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InSight is a proposed Discovery mission to deliver a seismometer package to the martian surface. Earth data from a single station is used to demonstrate the single-station techniques that will be used to constrain the interior structure of Mars.
Article
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The transition zone plays a key role in the dynamics of the Earth's mantle, especially for the exchanges between the upper and the lower mantles. Phase transitions, convective motions, hot upwelling and/or cold downwelling materials may make the 400 to 1000 km depth range very anisotropic and heterogeneous, both thermally and chemically. A classica...
Article
The transition zone plays a key role in the understanding of mantle convection, particularly the 660km-discontinuity which might inhibit the passage of matter between the upper and the lower mantle. An efficient way for investigating mantle flow circulation is to map seismic anisotropy in this depth range. There are some good evidences of seismic a...
Conference Paper
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The seismic monitoring of Mars is the primary science goal of GEMS (GEophysical Monitoring Station), one of three missions undergoing Phase A development for possible selection by NASA's Discovery Program. This monitoring will be performed by a 3-component VBB (Very Broad Band) seismometer [1] (Figure 1), augmented with three Short Period (SP) chan...
Article
A comparison of the internal structure of Earth-like planets is unavoidable to understand the formation and evolution of the solar system, and the differences between Earth’s, Mars’, and Venus’ atmospheres, surfaces and tectonic behaviors. Recent studies point at the role of core structure and dynamics in the evolution of the atmosphere, mantle and...
Article
Knowledge of the interior structure of Mars is of fundamental importance to the understanding of its past and present state as well as its future evolution. The most prominent interior structure properties are the state of the core, solid or liquid, its radius, and its composition in terms of light elements, the thickness of the mantle, its composi...
Conference Paper
SELENE-2 is the first lunar landing mission of Japan. We are developing a broadband seismometer system as a powerful candidate for a payload instrument. In this paper, we demonstrate the necessity of broadband seismometer observation and its scientific targets. The Apollo projects in 1970's installed an equilateral triangle seismograph network at a...
Article
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The magnetic data returned by the Galileo space-craft have suggested that deep salted water oceans are present within Europa, Ganymede and Callisto [1,2]. As these three moons are subjected to significant tidal deformation, the presence of an internal ocean on these three icy moons is predicted to result in both a significant deflection of their su...
Article
The passive margins display several patterns resulting from a coupling between local effects and global processes. Several studies were done either on continental or on oceanic domains; however, few of them integrate the two domains from crust to surface. We propose such an approach about the northern Namibian margin to constrain the post breakup e...
Article
A bi-dimensional finite element model has been developed in order to study simultaneously the influence of water and geometrical parameters on the onset and amount of partial melting in subduction zone. This model incorporates classical fluid mechanics equations and the simultaneous computation of partial melting and water transfers between mineral...
Article
Mercury's surface exhibits specific compressive features, called lobate scarps, that suggest that Mercury has experienced a change of shape during its history. These compressive features indicate global contraction and their apparent N-S preferred orientation suggests a possible effect of tidal despinning. The analysis of the terrains associated to...