A. Javaid's research while affiliated with Quaid-i-Azam University and other places

Publications (23)

Data
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a new Quality Link Metric (QLM), “Inverse Expected Transmission Count (InvETX),” in Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol. Then, we compare performance of three existing QLMs which are based on loss probability measurements: Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Minimum Delay (MD), and Minimum Loss (ML) in Static Wirel...
Article
Full-text available
The diffraction of a spherical acoustic wave generated by a point source from impedance slit in a moving fluid is investigated. The diffracted wave is calculated in the far field regime as a sum of fields produced by the edges of the slit and an incident field. The Myers’ impedance conditions are assumed along the edges of the slit. Such conditions...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we have examined a plane wave diffraction problem by a finite plate having different impedance boundaries. The Fourier transforms were used to reduce the governing problem into simultaneous Wiener-Hopf equations which are then solved using the standard Wiener-Hopf procedure. Afterwards the separated and interacted fields were develope...
Article
Aim of this study is analyzing energy conservation which is one of the most vital aspects in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for better network durability, since sensor nodes have limited resources of energy. In our propose technique, we have shown that how in presence of existing Error Control Coding (ECC) techniques and decoder complexity energy...
Article
In this paper, we propose a new Quality Link Metric (QLM), ``Inverse Expected Transmission Count (InvETX)'' in Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol. Then we compare performance of three existing QLMs which are based on loss probability measurements; Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Minimum Delay (MD), Minimum Loss (ML) in Static Wireless...
Article
Energy efficient routing protocols are consistently cited as efficient solutions for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) routing. The area of WSNs is one of the emerging and fast growing fields which brought low cost, low power and multi-functional sensor nodes. In this paper, we examine some protocols related to homogeneous and heterogeneous networks....
Article
In Wireless Multi-hop Networks (WMhNs), routing protocols with energy efficient and delay reduction techniques are needed to fulfill users demands. In this paper, we present Linear Programming models (LP_models) to assess and enhance reactive routing protocols. To practically examine constraints of respective LP_models over reactive protocols, we s...
Article
Wireless Multi-hop Networks (WMhNs) provide users with the facility to communicate while moving with whatever the node speed, the node density and the number of traffic flows they want, without any unwanted delay and/or disruption. This paper contributes Linear Programming models (LP_models) for WMhNs. In WMhNs, different routing protocols are used...
Article
With increase in ageing population, health care market keeps growing. There is a need for monitoring of health issues. Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of wireless sensors attached on or inside human body for monitoring vital health related problems e.g, Electro Cardiogram (ECG), Electro Encephalogram (EEG), ElectronyStagmography (ENG) et...
Article
This paper presents comparison of Access Techniques used in Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). Comparison is performed between Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA), Pure ALOHA and Slotted ALOHA (S-A...
Article
This paper deals with the routing protocols for distributed wireless sensor networks. The conventional protocols for WSNs like Low Energy adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Stable Election Protocol (SEP), Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient Network (TEEN), Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol (DEEC) may not be optimal. We propose a...
Article
As sensor nodes are deployed anywhere in a wireless sensor network, hence their communication can be easily monitored. In these networks, message protection and node identification are very issues. Hence, security of large scale such networks requires efficient key distribution and management mechanisms. Quantum cryptography and particularly quantu...
Article
The clustering algorithm are considered as a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption. It can help in increasing the stability period and network life time. Routing protocol for efficient energy utilization should be designed for heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We purpose Hybrid-DEEC (H-DEEC), a chain and cluster based...
Article
Full-text available
Reduced energy consumption in sensor nodes is one of the major challenges in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployment. In this regard, Error Control Coding (ECC) is one of techniques used for energy optimization in WSNs. Similarly, critical distance is another term being used for energy efficiency, when used with ECC provides better results of en...
Article
Cluster based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been widely used for better performance in terms of energy efficiency. Efficient use of energy is challenging task of designing these protocols. Energy holedare created due to quickly drain the energy of a few nodes due to non-uniform distribution in the network. Normally, energy holes make the dat...
Article
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are comprised of thousands of sensor nodes, with restricted energy, that co-operate to accomplish a sensing task. Various routing Protocols are designed for transmission in WSNs. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid routing protocol: Zonal-Stable Election Protocol (Z-SEP) for heterogeneous WSNs. In this protocol, some...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose the mobility of a sink in improved energy efficient PEGASIS-based protocol (IEEPB) to advance the network lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The multi-head chain, multi-chain concept and the sink mobility affects largely in enhancing the network lifetime of wireless sensors. Thus, we recommend Mobile sink improve...
Article
Frequent topological changes due to high mobility is one of the main issues in Vehicular Ad-hoc NETworks (VANETs). In this paper, we model transmission probabilities of 802.11p for VANETs and effect of these probabilities on average transmission time. To evaluate the effect of these probabilities of VANETs in routing protocols, we select Dynamic So...
Article
In this paper, we present a detailed framework consisting of modeling of routing overhead generated by three widely used proactive routing protocols; Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The questions like, how these protocols differ from each other on the basis of imple...
Article
In this paper, we have modeled the routing over- head generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficie...
Conference Paper
Being most popular and IETF standard metric, minimum hop count is appropriately used by ad hoc networks, as new paths must rapidly be found in the situations where quality paths could not be found in due time due to high node mobility. There always has been a tradeoff between throughput and energy consumption, but stationary topology of WMNs and hi...
Conference Paper
Flooding is a fundamental and effective data dissemination mechanism for route discovery, address resolution and many other network services in MANET, cause redundant rebroadcasts, which in result leads to the broadcast storm problem. Although many approaches have been proposed to solve the broadcast storm problem, none have been regarded as the sa...
Conference Paper
Flooding is a fundamental and effective data dissemination mechanism for route discovery, address resolution and many other network services in MANET, cause redundant rebroadcasts, which in result leads to the broadcast storm problem. Although many approaches have been proposed to solve the broadcast storm problem, none have been regarded as the sa...

Citations

... PD_SAP, MLDE_SAP, and NLDE_SAP indicate interfaces for data transmission. PLME_SAP, MLME_SAP, and NLME_SAP indicate interfaces for network management [12]. Wireless sensor network systems are generally self-organizing, self-discovery, energy availability, data integration, W, and distributed computing capabilities. ...
... The work also relates these requirements to the main link evaluation metrics and points out the associated performance trade-offs. In [17], the authors advance in the analysis by demonstrating the conflicting performances between some QoS-aware metrics as: Minimum Delay (MD) and Minimum Packet Loss (MPL). However, in both works, multiple metrics are not employed. ...
... In many physical problems, the electromagnetic (EM) waves and acoustic waves play a vital role. Inspite of being the wave propagation in a complex phenomena, researchers have investigated the scattering of waves by considering plane waves and more physically line/point source [1][2][3][4][5][6][7]. The ultravoilet (UV) radiations impinging on the atmosphere of Earth causes an ionization of a fraction quantity of neutral atmosphere which results as a mixture of neutral and charged (electrons and protons) particles. ...
... Introducing these conditions leads to the simplification in calculations so that problem turns out to be tractable to obtain a solution. Use of standard impedance conditions may lead to the practical solution for the problems associated with material surface [18]. The purpose of widely use of such conditions is to provide analytical solutions to canonical problems associated with isotropic and anisotropic medium. ...
... According to a survey, various researchers had successfully contribute their work in overcoming the following issues in the past few years; energy consumption [26,46], routing [6,50,52], packet classification [16,20] and prioritization [6,8,21,22], packet queuing [4,13] and scheduling [17,47], reliability [24,31], congestion [2,10,29,30,39,41,48,49], rate control [24,32], delay [14,18,52], load balancing [42], duplicate packet retransmission [9] and optimization techniques [5,11,23,33,35,50] etc. ...
... air). But the emergence of TDMA tenders its presence strongly above the RTS/CTS protocol [9,10], and [11]. Since RTS/CTS was designed for single-hop networks only, it encounters several problems and exhibits inconsistent behavior in the case of wireless multihop networks [12][13][14], and [15]. ...
... In proposed cryptosystem agency will decide encryption process complexity, relevant protocols, safe routes for transmission and secure nodes from source to destination according to the nature of data, sensitivity of data and communication security requirement. 5 Table 5.7-Mutation by Crossover 86 Table 5.8-Self-mutation 87 Table 5.9-Evaluation of All Strings 87-88 Table 5.10-Inclusion of Provisional Strings 88-89 Table 5.11-Exclusion of Lowest Fit Strings 89 Table 5.12-Optimized Strings 89-90 ...
... The proposed policy outperforms the Cluster-Chain Mobile Agent Routing (CCMAR) and Energy-efficient Cluster-based Dynamic Routing Algorithm (ECDRA). The work in [26] proposes the MIEEPB-DT protocol that combines direct transmission (DT) protocol with mobile sink improved energy-efficient power-efficient gathering insensor information system-based routing protocol (MIEEPB) [27]. MIEEPB-DT consumes less energy than DT, MIEEPB. ...
... Every node first checks its energy level for data transmission [24]. If the energy level is less than E th , it cannot transmit data. ...
... This ensured a better energy consumption distribution. More improvements in the connection methodology between normal nodes and BS were suggested by the authors in [23,24]. However, multi-parameter node heterogeneity was not accounted for in these protocols and thus network lifetime was limited. ...