A. Huke's research while affiliated with Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics IAF and other places

Publications (48)

Article
The front cover image is based on the Research Article Determination of the liquid eutectic metal fuel dual fluid reactor (DFRm) design ‐ steady state calculations by Jakub Sierchula et al., https://doi.org/10.1002/er.4523.
Article
The dual fluid reactor (DFR) is a novel concept of a very high‐temperature (fast) reactor that falls off the classification of generation 4 international forum (GIF). DFR makes best of the two previous designs: molten salt reactor (MSR) and lead‐cooled fast reactor (LFR). In this paper, we present a new reactor design Dual Fluid Reactor metallic (D...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The electron screening effect and its influence on enhanced 2 H(d,p) 3 H reaction cross-section was investigated based on latest metallic (Zr) target data, as well as much older gaseous target data. The enhancement can result not only from the electron screening effect but also from a suggested 0 + resonance state in the 4 He compound nucleus. This...
Article
Full-text available
The EROI (Energy Returned On Invested) has been calculated for various systems, especially power plants, applying several different methodologies. This quantity is often used as an argument in discussions about economics to emphasize the performance of a certain technology. Contrary to that, the publications often answer different questions, e.g. a...
Chapter
The dual-fluid reactor (DFR) is a novel concept of a liquid-fueled heterogeneous fast-spectrum nuclear reactor employing two separate loops, one for fuel and one for the coolant. This design allows for a very high power density, an operating temperature of 1000°C enabling efficient electricity generation, and a very good neutron economy for breedin...
Article
Full-text available
Calculations of the material dependence of 2 H(d,p) 3 H cross section and neutron-to-proton branching ratio of d+d reactions have been performed including a concept of the 0 + threshold single particle resonance. The resonance has been assumed to explain the enhanced electron screening effect observed in the d+d reaction for different metallic targ...
Article
The reaction cross-section has been measured for deuteron energies below 25 keV in a deuterized Zr target under improved ultra-high-vacuum conditions and controlled target surface contamination. The increase of reaction enhancement factors towards lower energies is much weaker than that determined before and can result not only from the electron sc...
Article
The Dual Fluid Reactor, DFR, is a novel concept of a fast heterogeneous nuclear reactor. Its key feature is the employment of two separate liquid cycles, one for fuel and one for the coolant. As opposed to other liquid-fuel concepts like the Molten-Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR), both cycles in the DFR can be separately optimized for their respective pur...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Dual Fluid Reactor, DFR, is a novel concept of a fast heterogeneous nuclear reactor. Its key feature is the employment of two separate liquid cycles, one for fuel and one for the coolant. As opposed to other liquid-fuel concepts like the molten-salt fast reactor (MSFR), in the DFR both cycles can be separately optimized for their respective pur...
Article
Nuclear reactions at very low energies can be strongly enhanced due to screening of the Coulomb barrier by surrounding electrons. In the past decade, this effect was intensively studied for the d + d reactions taking place in metallic environments as a model for dense astrophysical plasmas, where the reaction rates can be increased even by many ord...
Article
The enhanced electron screening effect in nuclear reactions taking place in dense astrophysical plasmas is extremely important for determination of stellar reaction rates in terrestrial laboratories as well as in prediction of cross sections enhancement in interiors of stars such as White and Brown Dwarfs or Giant Planets. This effect resulting in...
Article
The target-material dependence of the neutron-proton branching ratio and breaking of the isospin symmetry in the the 2H(d, n)3He and 2H(d, p)3H reactions at very low deuteron energies have been investigated. Angular distributions and total cross sections of the proton and neutron mirror channels have been measured for nuclear reactions taking place...
Article
Study of the deuteron fusion reactions at very low energies in metallic environments enables us to determine the strength of the astrophysical electron screening effect in the terrestrial laboratories. Experiments performed under high and ultra high vacuum conditions showed that the experimentally determined screening energies corresponding to the...
Article
Full-text available
The d + d fusion reactions have been investigated in the Zirconium environment under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions for projectile energies below 30 keV. The experimentally determined screening energy value of 497 ± 7 eV is larger than the previous results by a factor of almost two. Despite the UHV conditions a small deviation between experimen...
Article
Full-text available
The experimental study of low-energy deuteron fusion reactions in metallic environments shows the importance of the electron screening effect. Experimentally determined screening energies are remarkably higher than predicted theoretically. This discrepancy becomes even larger for the first ultra-high vacuum (UHV) experiment. Thus, a question arises...
Article
Electron screening of the Coulomb barrier between reacting nuclei leads to an exponential-like enhancement of nuclear cross sections for lowering projectile energies. Recently, this effect has been demonstrated by many groups for the 2H(d,p)3H and 2H(d,n)3He reactions taking place in metallic environments. The experimental results show a much stron...
Article
Recent measurements of the reaction H2(d,p)H3 in metallic environments at very low energies performed by different experimental groups point to an enhanced electron screening effect. However, the resulting screening energies differ strongly for diverse host metals and different experiments. Here, we present new experimental results and investigatio...
Article
Full-text available
In antecedent experiments the electron screening energies of the d+d reactions in metallic environments have been determined to be enhanced by an order of magnitude in comparison to the case of gaseous deuterium targets. The analytical models describing averaged material properties have not been able to explain the experimental results so far. Ther...
Article
Observation of the enhanced electron screening in metallic environments is of fundamental importance for the understanding of strongly coupled astrophysical plasmas. Experimental screening energies determined by different groups for many metals are much larger than the theoretical predictions. However, a comparison between experimental and theoreti...
Article
The decay rate of 22Na implanted in aluminium has been measured at room temperature and at 10 K. The rate should increase by 40% according to Rolfs (2006 Public Lecture for SLENA (Kolkata, India)) and by about 6% according to Limata et al (2006 Eur. Phys. J. A 28 251). In the latter publication, an increase of only 1.2 ± 0.2% has been measured and...
Article
The investigation of the d + d fusion reactions in metallic environments at sub-Coulomb energies demands especially adapted techniques beyond standard procedures in nuclear physics. The measurements which were performed with an electrostatic accelerator at different self-implanted metallic target materials show an enhancement of the reaction cross-...
Article
To study the electron screening of nuclear reactions in metallic environments, angular distributions and thick target yields of the fusion reactions 2H(d,p)3H and 2H(d,n)3He have been measured on deuterons implanted in three different metal targets (Al, Zr and Ta) for beam energies ranging from 5 to 60 keV. The experimentally determined values of t...
Article
. The study of the 2H(d, p)3H reaction at very low energies in deuterized metallic targets provides a unique possibility to test models of the electron screening developed for dense astrophysical plasmas. Here, we compare the experimental screening energies obtained by our group as well as by other authors for different target materials with theore...
Article
An overview of our experiments and their results concerning the electron screening effects in metallic environments are presented. The measurements of the reactions 2H(d,p)3H and 2H(d,n)3He were performed with an electrostatic accelerator at incident deuteron energies between 5 and 60 keV at different serf-implanted target materials. The resulting...
Article
The observation of an enhanced electron screening effect in the 2H(d,p)3H and 2H(d,n)3He reaction taking place in deuterized metallic targets may be a breakthrough for explaining the phenomenon of cold fusion. Based on our experimental results, theoretical calculations of screening energies for five different target materials (C, Al, Zr, Pd, and Ta...
Article
Angular distributions and the neutron-proton branching ratio of the mirror reactions 2H(d,p)3H and 2H(d,n)3He have been investigated using different deuterized metallic targets at projectile energies ranging from 5 to 60 keV. Whereas the experimental results obtained for Al, Zr, Pd, and Ta targets do not differ from those known from gas-target expe...
Article
Angular distributions and the neutron-proton branching ratio of the mirror reactions 2H(d, p)3H and 2H(d, n)3He have been investigated using different self-implanted deuterized metallic targets at projectile energies between 5 and 60. Whereas the experimental results obtained for the transition metals Zr, Pd, Ta and also Al do not differ from those...
Chapter
The study of the 2H(d, p)3H reaction at very low energies in deuterized metallic targets provides a unique possibility to test models of the electron screening developed for dense astrophysical plasmas. Here, we compare the experimental screening energies obtained by our group as well as by other authors for different target materials with theoreti...
Article
Full-text available
The electron screening effect in the 2H d,p 3H reaction has been studied for five different C, Al, Zr, Pd, Ta deuteron implanted solid targets. A clear target material dependence could be observed. Theoretical calculations performed within an improved dielectric function theory qualitatively describe the material dependence, fail, however, in the s...
Article
A new theoretical model of screening the Coulomb repulsion between reacting nuclei in a metallic medium has been developed and compared with experimental results obtained for the reaction H-2(d,p)H-3 in a tantalum target. The model, based on the dielectric function approach, allows to test astrophysical pycnoreaction conditions in the laboratory.
Article
Experimental studies of the fusion reactions 2H(d,p)3H and 2H(d,n)3He have shown that the reaction rates on deuterons implanted into metals (Al,Zr,Ta,Pd) are strongly enhanced compared to gas target experiments. The deduced screening energy values are about one order of magnitude larger and exceed significantly the theoretical predictions. The deve...
Article
The nuclear fusion reactions and have been measured at projectile energies between 5 and 60 keV using deuteron-implanted solid targets (C, Al, Zr and Ta). An exponential-like enhancement of the reaction cross-section compared to the bare nuclei fusion could be observed for energies below 20 keV. This effect may be interpreted as a result of the ele...
Article
The total cross section of the 6Li(d,α)4He reaction has been measured for deuteron energies between 50 and 180 keV. From a detailed distorted-wave Born approximation analysis of the angular distributions and the excitation function up to 1 MeV it was possible to determine the strength of a subthreshold resonance that dominates the cross section at...
Article
The reaction {sup 6}Li(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He has been measured for deuteron energies between 50 and 180 keV. In addition to the direct reaction component, which was calculated in the frame of the DWBA formalism, a significant contribution of a broad 2{sup +} subthreshold resonance in the compound nucleus {sup 8}Be to the reaction cross section was id...
Article
The reaction 6Li(d,α)4He has been measured for deuteron energies between 50 and 180 keV. In addition to the direct reaction component, which was calculated in the frame of the DWBA formalism, a significant contribution of a broad 2+ subthreshold resonance in the compound nucleus 8Be to the reaction cross section was identified. The results of the...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, an enhanced electron screening in metallic environments has been demonstrated by many groups in experimental investigations of low-energy nuclear reactions. Similarly, first radioactive decay experiments in metallic materials have been performed to possibly observe an alteration of the decay constant due to electron screening. Both...
Article
Full-text available
Based on our experimental studies of the electron screening effect in the $\chem{{}^{2}H(d,p){}^{3}H}$ reaction for five deuteron-implanted solid targets ($\chem{C,Al,Zr,Pd,Ta}$), theoretical calculations have been performed within an improved dielectric function theory. The theory describes correctly the observed target material dependence of the...

Citations

... The Dual Fluid Reactor (DFR) is a novel concept of the liquid fuel high temperature reactor (1000 • C -1300 • C) patented by the group from Institut für Festkörper Kernphysik (IFK) Berlin (Huke et al., 2011(Huke et al., , 2017(Huke et al., , 2015. Its first version was with molten salt fuel (DFRs) while the recent patent obeys also the liquid metallic eutectic fuel (Huke et al., 0000;Sierchuła et al., 2019) which has much better efficiency presented in terms of EROI (Energy Returned on Invested) (Weissbach et al., 2013). The metallic version (DFRm) consists of a cylindrical fission zone with Uranium-Chromium (U-Cr) eutectic surrounded by a thick lead coolant reflector. ...
... Recently, anomalous electron screening in a nuclear reaction at low energies was explained by the contribution to the reaction yield of the reaction due to low-lying resonances [47][48][49][50][51]. In [47,48] the cross section of the D(d, p) 3 H reaction was measured for deuteron energies below 25 keV in a deuterated Zr target under improved conditions of ultra-high vacuum and controlled contamination of the target surface. ...
... In stellar plasmas (particularly at relatively low temperatures), the Coulombpenetration is modified by the electron screening effect, in which the effective electrostatic potential of a nucleus is shielded by surrounding electrons, effectively narrowing the potential wall and thus increasing the probability of tunnelling. I was involved in experiments investigating screening at very low beam energies (E 100 keV) prior to my work at TRIUMF [3,4,5]. ...
... The Dual Fluid Reactor (DFR) is a novel concept of the liquid fuel high temperature reactor (1000 • C -1300 • C) patented by the group from Institut für Festkörper Kernphysik (IFK) Berlin (Huke et al., 2011(Huke et al., , 2017(Huke et al., , 2015. Its first version was with molten salt fuel (DFRs) while the recent patent obeys also the liquid metallic eutectic fuel (Huke et al., 0000;Sierchuła et al., 2019) which has much better efficiency presented in terms of EROI (Energy Returned on Invested) (Weissbach et al., 2013). ...
... With implementation of both neutron and proton detectors, both dominant branches (i.e. the 3 He+n and T+p) of D-D fusion can be tracked. Measurements of the branching ratio of light ion fusion reactions at low energies can shed light on hypothetical threshold resonances and reaction channels that have to date not been quantified at very low reaction energies, below Ecm = 3 keV [16,40,41]. Future studies can also include gamma ray detectors to probe any potential changes in the relative contribution of the usually very weak 4 He + gamma ray branch of the D-D reaction. ...
... The Gamow equation yields a smooth curve when reaction probabilities are evaluated as a function of energy 12 . Differences between reaction probabilities predicted by the Gamow model and empirical reaction probabilities are attributed to intranuclear structure that results from nucleon interactions 50,51 . For p-11 B fusion, the observed peaks originate from the resonant dynamics of the resulting 8 Be 4 He nucleon cluster -a temporary molecule-like configuration of the twelve nucleons -which then rapidly disintegrates through sequential alpha decay into three 4 He nuclei 52 . ...
... However, various independent authors report the phenomenon of enhanced fusion reactions in metals. 12,13,14,15,16 On the other hand, if the 4MeV neutrons are indirect products from the 2.45MeV neutrons as one of Ref. 1 hypothesis, about one third of each neutron generation makes a new neutron. This would mean a reactivity boost of one third, which means this proposed design would need revision reducing the quantity of fusion reactions to make the reactor controllable. ...
... We developed an apparatus to bombard palladium targets with pulsed plasmas of deuterium ions that is capable of producing more flux than the ion beams more commonly used for nuclear astrophysical studies of fusion reactions at low energies 25,30,32,33,35,66,67 (Fig. 4). Our initial experiments 68 consisted of a palladium wire (cathode) surrounded by a stainless steel cage (anode) housed in a vacuum chamber containing deuterium gas (D 2 ) at about 1 torr. ...
... The research object of this paper is the smDFR, which is a miniaturized dual fluid reactor (DFR) with a design power of 2 MWth and therefore shares the same working principle and similar but downscaled structure with the DFR. The DFR (Huke et al., 2015;Wang and Macian-Juan, 2018) was originally developed based on the molten salt reactor and liquid metal cooled reactor concepts in the fourth generation (USDOE, 2002) of reactors. ...
... The dual-fluid reactor (DFR) (Huke et al., , 2014(Huke et al., , 2015Wang et al., 2015;Wang, 2016) is a complete redesign of a nuclear power reactor, employing mature technologies-among these many from areas other than nuclear technology-thus resulting in a system which can be swiftly implemented as a straightforward engineering project without further fundamental research. The resulting design remedies the primary fault of deployed nuclear power plants (NPPs) of Generation IÀIII as well as most of Generation IV and similar concepts and projects: the insufficient economic competitiveness towards fossil fuel-fired power plants (particularly coal), which is the chief reason why NPPs have such low market penetration among worldwide power production. ...