A Dhanani's research while affiliated with University College London and other places

Publications (34)

Article
Full-text available
Given the links between the built environment and loneliness, there is interest in using place-based approaches (addressing built environment characteristics and related socio-spatial factors) in local communities to tackle loneliness and mental health problems. However, few studies have described the effectiveness, acceptability, or potential harm...
Article
Full-text available
Although the built environment (BE) is important for children’s health, there is little consensus about which features are most important due to differences in measurement and outcomes across disciplines. This meta-narrative review was undertaken by a multi-disciplinary team of researchers to summarise ways in which the BE is measured, and how this...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Havana’s political and economic context has created a unique urbanisation pattern with low vehicle ownership; very low fleet replacement; low population; and little urbanisation and sprawl. Walking is convenient due to equitable approaches to spatial planning at the local and city scale for developing accessible destinations, particular...
Article
Typologies have always played an important role in urban planning and design practice and formal studies have been central to the field of urban morphology. These studies have predominantly been of a historical-qualitative nature and do not support quantitative comparisons between urban areas and between different cities, nor offer the precise and...
Article
This note summarises the outcomes of a 'walkshop' conducted in May 2019 with local residents in Havana, Cuba, including practitioners from the national and municipal planning and transport authorities in Havana, researchers, and students. Participants walked along Galiano Street in the area of Centro Habana and completed a street performance assess...
Preprint
Typologies have always played an important role in urban planning and design practice and formal studies have been central to the field of urban morphology. These studies have predominantly been of a historical-qualitative nature and do not support quantitative comparisons between urban areas and between different cities, nor offer the precise and...
Article
Full-text available
Research shows that a variety of building types, sizes and street morphologies can support a diversified mix of uses and thus contribute to the vitality of town centres. Other studies have highlighted the special role of minority ethnic businesses in this context. This study set out to examine the relationship between spatial accessibility, commerc...
Conference Paper
Previous research has shown that the local town centre can be a space of considerable socio-economic diversity, manifested in its being a place of work and community activity in addition to retail activity. The long-term sustainability of the town centre has been shown to correspond to its configurational spatial signatures. Where high streets exhi...
Article
This article presents a recently developed walkability-based approach to evaluating the built environment’s relationship to pedestrian activity, as well as the application of this evaluation in generating a model of pedestrian demand across London derived from built environment indicators. The approach is novel in its integration of space syntax me...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It has been argued that different urban configurations-planned vs. organic, treelike vs. grid like-perform differently when it comes to the intensity and distribution of pedestrian flows, built density and land uses. However, definitions of urban configurations are often rather abstract, ill-defined and at worse end in fixed stereotypes hiding unde...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND: Heavily motorised roads can interfere with individuals’ ability to access the goods, services, and people they need for a healthy life. This community severance also reduces use of streets as social spaces and young and older people’s independence. AIM: There is a lack of tools to identify, measure, value and study community severance c...
Article
Background Heavily motorised large roads can interfere with individuals’ ability to access the goods, services, and people they need for a healthy life (‘community severance’). It also reduces the amenity value of streets as active social spaces. Interference with active living affects particularly children, denied freedom to explore and play, and...
Article
Full-text available
There is a lack of tools to identify and measure community severance caused by large roads and motorised traffic, despite the evidence of its negative impacts on local communities. This paper reports the development of a suite of tools to measure and value community severance, undertaken as a part of the Street Mobility and Network Accessibility re...
Article
The Street Mobility toolkit provides a set of tools that can be used by practitioners, local communities, and others, to assess and value the costs of the 'barrier effect' of roads. This document describes how to use two pre-existing tools: street audits and space syntax. Street audits assess the quality of the pedestrian environment and help ident...
Article
This toolkit provides a set of tools that can be used by practitioners, local communities, and others, to assess and value the costs of the 'barrier effect' of roads, also known as 'community severance'.
Conference Paper
There is a lack of tools to identify and measure community severance caused by large roads and motorized traffic, despite evidence of the negative impacts on local communities. We report the development of a suite of tools to measure community severance, undertaken for the Street Mobility and Network Accessibility research project. New tools includ...
Article
This article describes the methods and findings of a study examining the architectural and spatial development of two of London's suburbs over the past century. Historical analysis of urban growth is constrained by a lack of geographic data that can be used to produce chronologies of analyzable geographic data. This study, utilizing historical geog...
Article
Full-text available
Urban transport infrastructure and motorised road traffic contribute to the physical or psychological separation of neighbourhoods, with possible effects on the health and wellbeing of local residents. This issue, known as "community severance", has been approached by researchers from a range of disciplines, which have different ways of constructin...
Conference Paper
This article presents a recently developed walkability modelling tool that draws on a number of UK national datasets to construct a statistical picture of the potential of streets to be used for walking. Using components common to standard North American models, but adapted for the UK context, the model is novel in its integration of space syntax a...
Conference Paper
Community severance (or the “barrier effect”) arises when transport infrastructure (e.g. railways and motorways) or roads bearing high volume or speed of motorized traffic cut through communities, disrupting access to goods, services, and people. The impact is especially severe on older people, who are more vulnerable to losses in walking mobility,...
Conference Paper
The presence of large transport infrastructure and motorized traffic may limit the mobility of older people, as concerns about collisions and feelings of fear and general unpleasantness due to the exposure to traffic may be a deterrent to walking to nearby places. The resulting effects on social networks have been identified in the landmark study o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper builds on the proposition by Penn and colleagues (2009) that cities provide a structured set of social, cultural and economic relations which help to shape patterns of diversity in urban areas. Far from being a random mixing, it could be said that urban systems are akin to ecological systems where flora and fauna are closely interrelated...
Article
Background Community severance, where transport infrastructure or traffic volume/speed prevents access to goods, services and people, is often mentioned by transport planners but is rarely studied. Severance probably affects travel patterns, social networks, and wellbeing but without measurement tools, this is uncertain. The UCL Street Mobility pro...
Article
Background Motorised traffic inhibits walking, with possible effects on physical exercise, social contacts, and access to services, and ultimately on people’s health and wellbeing. Road traffic may also lead pedestrians to engage in risky behaviours. This paper analyses pedestrian flows and behaviour in relation to the characteristics of roads and...
Article
The concept of community severance has slowly been making its way into concrete transport plans and policies but it still lacks a consensual definition. This is because the issue has been approached by researchers from a range of disciplines, which have specific and diverse ways of constructing scientific knowledge. The objective of this paper, the...
Article
This document contains a list of terms used by different academic disciplines when studying the problem of community severance and related issues.
Conference Paper
Access to healthy food is a basic prerequisite for health. Access depends on availability (retailers’ location, food options sold, prices) and people’s ability to travel there and back. This research investigates the role of spatial setting and social context in providing access to healthy food. The important influence of other destinations and of...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to provide some much needed theoretical grounding and historical-morphological context for the narratives of communal loss that recur in the reportage concerning the British high street. Given the topicality of this issue for policy-makers it is worth enquiring into precisely how far such narratives are in fact supporte...
Conference Paper
The purpose of this paper is to provide some much needed theoretical grounding and historical-morphological context for the narratives of communal loss that recur in the reportage concerning the British high street. Given the topicality of this issue for policy-makers it is worth enquiring into precisely how far such narratives are in fact supporte...
Article
This article addresses the question of how the fringes of cities develop spatially at both the local scale of the individual town centre and in relation to the wider urban network. The changing network structure of the street systems of two outer suburban areas of Greater London, Surbiton and South Norwood, are analysed from the 1880s onwards. A te...

Citations

... Shops and other businesses are found on streets with high integration or choice because that is where movement is taking place. Some correspondence has been shown between indices of deprivation and spatial accessibility (Vaughan and Geddes 2009), as the latter is connected to employment, amenities and the embeddedness in the wider society (Legeby 2009a, Vaughan et al. 2018) as well as access to and participation in lively streetscapes (Legeby 2009b). Similar results have been suggested by Vaughan (2005Vaughan ( , 2007, who found that historically, migrant settlements were near active economic centres but were spatially segregated by specific street layouts. ...
... Research has shown that residing in 'liveable' neighbourhoods characterised by good access to shops, services, quality parks, connected streets to facilitate walking, sufficient residential densities to support public transport services and local businesses, minimal crime and traffic and social connectedness opportunities is associated with improved health outcomes. [4][5][6][7][8][9] Despite the increasing evidence ...
... The first used the 'Link and place' approach (Jones et al., 2007;Jones et al., 2008), re-cast as 'movement and place': 'movimiento y lugar' in Spanish. Using multi-stakeholder participatory workshops, the city of Havana was mapped using a set of criteria to describe the entire city network employing the method of link and place, whereby every street is characterised by the importance in terms of movement (M1 to M4) and place (P1 to P4). 'Movement' includes all movements of people, objects and services, and is not only motorised vehicles (bus, taxi, car, truck) but also all other forms of movement including walking, biking, strolling, skateboarding, etc. (Jones et al., 2008); and the 'Place' function describes the location's use as a destination itself, where people spend time to meet or socialise (Ortegón-Sanchez et al., 2022, Forsyth, 2015. The matrix of movement and place is shown in Table 7.2, with descriptors for each level: national, city, municipality, and neighbourhood (barrio). ...
... The concept of typomorphology (also known as typologies of urban surface properties) was proposed to describe the diversity of urban form characteristics and describe urban form in an integrative way that can effectively inform urban planning and design practices (Eldesoky et al., 2022;Berghauser Pont et al., 2019). Creating spatial representations of neighbourhood typologies can be used as a basis to plan or formulate design interventions, as design interventions require easily applicable knowledge that works beyond a specific case to a more generalisable set of situations (Lenzholzer & Brown, 2016;Prominski, 2016;Hidalgo et al., 2018). ...
... A search for plausible evidence to support the assumptions made on urban dynamics is indispensable for any simulation model to be substantiated (Wu, 2002). Recognising this problem, research in urban morphology outlined empirical descriptions of urban growth (Griffiths, 2009;Al Sayed et al., 2012;Strano et al., 2012;Barthelemy et al., 2013;Masucci et al., 2013;Vaughan et al., 2013), including models that distinguished street typologies (Marshall, 2009;Serra et al., 2017), or space syntax representations (Desyllas, 1997;Kubat, 1999;Karimi and Motamed, 2003;Medeiros et al., 2003;Krafta and Fattori, 2005;Haynie and Peponis, 2009;Read, 2011;Psarra and Kickert, 2012;Can et al., 2015;O'Brien and Griffiths, 2017). At the core of the complex behaviour that characterise urban growth, there is what Wilson (2010) and Hillier (2012a) recognised as the "genetic code" of cities. Hillier (2012a) described the "genetic code" as a dual process governed by spatial laws and spatio-functional laws that shape urban patterns and contribute to the creation of economic and social life in cities. ...
... posits that, at least in the British suburban landscape defined by train stations and high streets, there are latent urban centralities that give nuance and detail to belie the perception of the homogenous and monolithic residential suburb. Vaughan et al. (2015) talks about how local suburban high streets are like suburban hedgerows, that create a local ecology of social and commercial exchange. In Manila's 'American-styled' car-centric, gated, and singlefamily only residential suburbs, these latent centralities and ecologies are supressed within the gated villages and pushed out to the obvious corridors for public flow and interaction. ...
... (Hillier, 2016: 200). Accordingly, mirroring the shift in heritage on process rather than form, recent space syntax research has turned to examine processes of urban change in history, and how this relates to social phenomena in time and space -and vice versa (Dhanani, 2016;Griffiths and Vaughan, 2020;Rokem and Vaughan, 2018;Törma et al., 2017;Vaughan et al., 2018). The ideas and thinking behind these methods and approaches, specifically historico-geographical (Conzenian), and process typological (Muratorian), are highly relevant to this thesis for the following reasons. ...
... However, the most relevant -to our research-body of work has been done by Berghauser Pont, et al (Berghauser Pont, et al., 2019a;Berghauser Pont, et al., 2019b). In their publications, they utilize advanced spatial analysis to examine the urban types of buildings, streets and plots for five European cities (Amsterdam, London, Stockholm, Gothenburg and Eskilstuna), while they also link the identified urban types with human activity, and specifically pedestrian movement (Berghauser Pont, et al., 2017;Berghauser Pont, et al., 2019a;Berghauser Pont, et al., 2019b;Stavroulaki, et al., 2019;Bolin, et al., 2021). It is worth mentioning that our paper, also draws inspiration from the relevant work of van Nes, Ye, et al (van Nes, et al., 2012;Ye & van Nes, 2014;Ye & van Nes, 2013). ...
... hadachi@ut.ee a closed area [8]. The second direction models the average pedestrian flow with a lower spatiotemporal resolution [5] and keeps a high-level understanding of the flow. ...
... El concepto de barreras cobra especial relevancia respecto de los efectos sobre el barrio caminable, la caminabilidad y la calidad de vida. Entre estas barreras podemos considerar las grandes infraestructuras viales (autopistas y vialidad mayor), que inciden negativamente en la caminabilidad, aumentando la fragmentación urbana y comunitaria, con impactos en salud y bienestar social, especialmente de niños y adultos mayores (Anciaes, Jones, Dhanani, Boniface, Scholes & Mindell, 2015;Anciaes, Jones & Mindell, 2017;Anciaes, Jones, Stockton & Mindell, 2016;Boniface, Scantlebury, Watkins & Mindell, 2015, entre otros). Lo mismo aplica para grandes equipamientos, que según lo planteado por Jane Jacobs inciden negativamente en la vitalidad del barrio y la actividad peatonal (Delclòs-Alióa, Gutiérrez & Miralles-Guasch, 2019). ...