A. Badan's research while affiliated with Ensenada Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education and other places

Publications (36)

Article
Full-text available
The horizontal momentum balance in the upper layers of the Yucatan Channel is examined for a period of 22 months, from September 1999 to June 2001, using subsurface currents from ADCP measurements at eight moorings across the channel, pressure measurements from coastal pressure sensors on both sides of the channel, QuickSCAT winds and AVISO altimet...
Article
Full-text available
A comparison based on eight months of simultaneous observations of the flow variability in the Yucatan and Cozumel channels shows that the portion of the Yucatan Current that crosses through Cozumel Channel is best correlated with the flow near the center of the Yucatan Channel within the core of the Yucatan Current (defined here as velocities in e...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Fourteen months of direct surface to bottom current measurements off the coast of Tamaulipas, Mexico, in the NW Gulf of Mexico during 2004 and 2005 capture the evolution of currents as several oncoming warm Loop Current eddies and cyclonic eddies reach the mooring array. Results show that current variability is mostly associated with these eddies a...
Article
Subsurface jets, defined as having velocity maxima > 40 cm s(-1) at depths between 100 and 350 m, and being surrounded by much weaker near-surface currents, have been observed over the northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope. The observations were from an array of 14 moorings equipped with upward-looking 75-kHz ADCPs deployed at 450-500 m. A...
Article
Full-text available
Sixteen months of observations from a surface-to-bottom mooring in the central Gulf of Mexico show that acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are useful for directly measuring the vertical velocity within mesoscale anticyclonic eddies, such as those shed from the Loop Current; and combining simultaneous temperature measurements, vertical heat...
Article
Full-text available
The inrushing/retraction behavior of the Loop Current (LC) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico can be represented by a recurrent cycle of vorticity input/output with a time scale of 0 to 16 months. This cycle is brought about as a balance between the accumulation of absolute vorticity in the LC and deep advection of vorticity to the Caribbean Sea. The vo...
Presentation
A well known feature of a large fraction of the zooplankton in the 300 m near-surface layer is the daily vertical migration cycle, which is phase locked with the light cycle. Less documented is the similar cycle in deeper layers away from significant light. Here we show, based on direct measurements, the mean vertical velocity cycle for layers 170...
Article
Chinchorro Bank is the only atoll-like reef in the Caribbean Sea, centered at 87° 21' W, 18° 35' N. It has an oval shape and approximately 44 km length and 20 km width. A channel separating its western rim from the Yucatan Peninsula has a width of 30 km and a sill depth of 700 m. The channel has a mean northward current of 30 cm/s implying a mean t...
Article
Full-text available
The studies of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea within the CANEK Program initiated in December 1996 and continue until now. More than 12 oceanographic cruises, the deployment of year-long shallow and deep moorings at several locations within the GM and the Mexican Caribbean and numerical modeling efforts, have permitted to investigate impor...
Conference Paper
A set of five moorings deployed in front of the coast of Tamaulipas, western Gulf of Mexico, provided fourteen months (from August 2004 to November 2005) of surface to bottom observations of currents and temperature that document the processes associated with the collision and dissipation of two warm mesoscale eddies with the continental slope. Two...
Conference Paper
A year-long time series of current profiles, upward from ten meters off the bottom in 3750 m of water in the central Gulf of Mexico, shows that the measuring range of the instrument, and the velocity of the current in the boundary layer vary as a function of time, the former because the concentration of backscattering suspended matter fluctuates wi...
Conference Paper
Recent observational results have shown that the water column in the Gulf of Mexico is characterized by different hydrographic and diffusive regimes into three layers. The variability within the upper layer (above the sill level at the Florida Straits, ~ 700 m depth), is driven mostly by the mesoscale eddies shed from the Loop Current, which domina...
Article
Full-text available
The horizontal momentum balance in the upper layers of the Yucatán Channel is examined for a period of 22 months, from September 1999 to June 2001, using subsurface currents from ADCP measurements at eight moorings across the channel, pressure measurements from coastal pressure sensors on both sides of the channel, QuickSCAT winds and AVISO altimet...
Article
Data from an array of seven subsurface upward-looking moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) and four subsurface pressure sensors deployed from August 2002 to August 2003 along the Caribbean coast of Mexico showed that the currents in the area have a predominant northeastward direction along the coast, are coherent within the upper 130 m...
Article
Recent measurements over the sill in the Yucatan Channel indicate that the deepest flows between the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, those that take place below the sill level at the Florida Straits, have zero mean net mass transport but carry significant amounts of heat and oxygen. The heat flux associated with the mean exchange exports appr...
Article
The Yucatan Current originates where the Cayman Current turns northwards off the Mayan coast. The latitude at which the current meets the coast fluctuates every few months from the Mexico-Belize border to the island of Cozumel, modulating the currents near the coast. A two-year measurement program recorded the Yucatan Current transporting close to...
Article
Full-text available
1] The structure and variability of the velocity and temperature fields in Yucatan Channel are analyzed using data from an eight-mooring array deployed from August 1999 to June 2000. The area-averaged kinetic energy and transport fluctuations spectra show that the extrema of these quantities do not coincide, and that flow variability is dominated b...
Article
The Yucatan and Cozumel Channels are located off Mexico's Caribbean coast, the former is about 196 km wide and has a sill depth of 2040 m, whilst the latter is 18 km wide and nearly 400 m deep. Portions of the Yucatan Current, a part of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, flows through both these channels. Based on two years of simultaneous moorin...
Article
Using two years (1999-2001) of velocity and temperature measurements from an eight-mooring array deployed in the Yucatan Channel,we estimate the energy exchange between eddies and the mean flow. Eulerian and stream coordinate systems are used to determine how much of the 'eddy' variance is associated with the meandering jet and/or changes in the st...
Article
Nearly two years of detailed observations (Sept. 1999 to May 2001) with moored currentmeters and thermometers across the Yucatan Straits produce a mean transport estimate of 23.5 ± 1 Sv (1 Sv = 10^6 m^3 s-1; 95% confidence interval), with less than 5% variation from the first year to the next. This confirms our first year's results; it is significa...
Article
The Caribbean Current flows to the west impinging the Yucatan coast south of Cozumel Island, then, most of its flow turns north, surrounds the island and continues towards the Yucatan Straits. About 4 Sv in the mean pass between the Yucatan coast and the Cozumel Island; through the Cozumel Channel, where subinertial currents exhibit large ageostrop...
Article
The Yucatan Channel is one of the key restrictions of the North Atlantic surface circulation, and also a privileged location to understand the circulation within the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. From September 1999 to June 2000 a set of eight instrumented moorings measured currents and temperatures across the Yucatan Channel. The main resu...
Article
Full-text available
1] The first attempt to establish a relation between the Loop Current extension and deep flows in Yucatan Channel was made by Maul et al. [1985]; it was unsuccessful, probably because of the low spatial resolution of their observations. From September 8, 1999, to June 17, 2000, eight moorings with acoustic Doppler current profilers, current meters,...
Article
Full-text available
1] Two-year-long time series of current and density structure measurements across the Yucatan Channel's main section allow the calculation of the time-dependent potential vorticity flux between the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, which is characterized by alternating periods of positive (cyclonic) and negative (anti-cyclonic) vorticity influx...
Article
Full-text available
1] The direct ocean current observations across the Yucatan Channel collected during the Canek program allow the best description to date of the exchange between the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. A net transport of 23.8 ± 1 Sv (1 Sv = 10 6 m 3 s À1 ; 95% confidence interval) flowed through the Yucatan Channel from the Caribbean Sea into the...
Article
Recent two-year long time series of flow and density structure measurements in the Yucatan Channel's main section allow the calculation of the potential vorticity flux into the Gulf of Mexico coming in from the Caribbean Sea. The time integration of the horizontal shear vorticity flux is characterized by periods of positive vorticity ac- cumulation...
Article
Our measurements show that a net transport of 24 +/- 1Sv (1Sv = 106m3s-1; 95% confidence interval) flowed through the Yucatan Channel from the Caribbean Sea into the Gulf of Mexico from September 1999 to June 2000, and 23 Sv flowed between June 2000 and May 2001. The mean transport over the two years is 23.5 Sv, with less than 5% variation from one...
Article
Measurements of the exchange between the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico show that a net transport of 24 +/- 1 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1; 95% confidence interval) flowed through the Yucatan Channel from the Caribbean Sea into the Gulf of Mexico, during the period between September 1999 and June 2000, and 23 Sv flowed between June 2000 and May 2001...
Article
An eight-mooring array containing 33 Anderaa currentmeters and 8 upward-looking ADCP's was deployed across the Yucatan Channel in August 1999 and fully recovered in June 2000. The data are used to study variability of the flow in the region. Monthly mean transport variance has minima in October and April and a maximum in September. However, the lar...
Article
Full-text available
It has become common practice to measure ocean current velocities together with the hydrography by lowering an ADCP on typical CTD casts. The velocities and densities thus observed are considered to consist mostly of a background contribution in geostrophic balance, plus internal waves and tides. A method to infer the geostrophic component by inver...
Article
Using two years (1999-2001) of velocity and temperature measurements from an eight-mooring array deployed in the Yucatan Channel, we describe the basic charac- teristics of the flow variability using spectral and EOF-SVD analysis of the velocity, temperature and potential vorticity (PV) fields. The main contributors to the PV field are the planetar...
Article
The Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea exchange waters through the Yucatan Channel. The most conspicuous current in the area is the Yucatan Current, which once it enters the Gulf of Mexico, becomes the Loop Current. This warm surface current eventually exits the Gulf through the Florida Straits. The extension of the Loop Current varies considerab...
Article
The Cozumel Channel is a narrow passage (15 km wide by 50 km long and 400 m deep) about 70 km southwest of the Yucatan Channel in the Caribbean Sea. It is bounded by the Yucatan Peninsula on the west and the Cozumel Island on the east. There are no known reports about the physical oceanography of this channel, although its dyna-mics should be close...
Article
19 recently recovered moorings located along the Mexican Caribbean coast and the northeastern part of the Yucatan slope are analyze. The latter region was measured for the first time and constitutes a key area to understand the dynamics of the Loop Current and its eddy shedding processes. Most of the instruments on the moorings registered from thei...

Citations

... one of the other physical processes that might be related to the deep ocean fluctuations (e.g., Sheinbaum et al., 2010). All these will be explored in future studies. ...
... Additionally, it has been reported that high wave energy promotes the asexual reproduction of the Acropora population (Japaud et al. 2015). Similar conditions to those mentioned above are found in AL, since it is located within an extensive continental platform, 135 km off the coast, and usually presents high wave intensity; within the zone, also, a complex ocean dynamic exists (with strong eddies and a complex vertical profile), due to the Yucatan Current (Athié et al. 2011). ...
... First, it was realized that controlling the entrance and exit of the GoM throughflow would shed light for understanding important features of the GoM dynamics and particularly of the Loop Current behavior, a subject not to be addressed in this article. Second, previous efforts to measure the current structure and transport in the Yucatan Channel (Sheinbaum et al. 2002;Abascal et al. 2003;Ochoa et al. 2003;Athié et al. 2015) had revealed a very variable and complex channel, both oceanographically and bathymetrically, that was complicated to measure and therefore it would be convenient to have some independent measurement to verify at least its total transport. Considering the surface area of the GoM (;1.6 3 10 12 m 2 ), a 1-Sv imbalance between Yucatan and Florida transports for a day would imply a ;5-cm sea level change within the GoM, therefore the total transports between the two sections have to coincide quite strictly in periods longer than a few days. ...
... Within the Caribbean Sea ecoregion there are two important channels: the Cozumel channel, approximately 50 km long and 18 km wide (Alcérreca-Huerta et al., 2019), with a depth of ~400 m; and the channel to the east of Cozumel Island, ~1000 m deep ( Figure 2). The Yucatan Current flows through both channels, with an oceanic transport of 23 Sv and an average velocity of 1.5 m s −1 [22]. A part of this current flows eastward from the island of Cozumel, while ~5 Sv and 20% of the mean transport of the current flows through the Cozumel Channel [23]. ...
... It has a microtidal regime (<0.20 m of total amplitude), with mixed-semidiurnal tides (Kjerfve, 1981). The area is influenced by the Yucatan Current, which is part of the northwestern circulation system of the Caribbean Sea (Richardson, 2005;Cetina et al., 2006;Carrillo et al., 2015). The Yucatan Current is characterized by a predominantly northward flow with maximum velocities up to 2 m/s (Sheinbaum et al., 2002;Cetina et al., 2006;Carrillo et al., 2016). ...
... Moreover, smaller cyclonic eddies (known as the LC frontal eddies, LCFE) also formed around the northern tip of an extended LC [17], which greatly affects the LCE formation and detachment [18,19]. LC patterns and eddy characteristics in the GoM have been extensively studied using satellite SSH fields [20,21], in situ observations from drifters, and hydrographic surveys [22][23][24] and models [16,25]. Both LCE and LCFE play an important role in the redistribution of physical and biochemical properties in the GoM [26]. ...
... Water mass characteristics in the Gulf of Mexico (GoMex), have been recorded by Nowlin andMcLellan since 1967 (Nowlin andMcLellan 1967). Rivas et al. (2005), indicated that the water masses registered in the GoMex mainly entered through the Yucatan Channel. They describe the subsurface water, which always shows a maximum fluorescence water mass (maxF; 50 to 100 m), and the Tropical Atlantic Central Water (TACW; 400-600 m) is characterized by a minimum of dissolved oxygen water mass (minO). ...
... Along the Australian coast ( Roughan and Middleton, 2002), it appears that the cross- shore variation in upwelling water dispersion could be attributed to a combination of physical mechanisms. The wind stress (Ruiz-Rentería, 1979;Pérez-Santos et al., 2010), the Yucatan current intensity and its spatial core variation along the east shore ( Abascal et al., 2003;Ezer et al., 2003;Athie et al., 2011) are some of these mechanisms, even the bathymetric peak ( Fig. 1 c) in the study site could be a barrier to cold-bottom water approaching the shoreline (Fig. 5 a). In that sense, on figure 13-i, is possible to observe maximum Chl-a values trapped on the inner side of the barrier. ...
... The shedding of the anticyclonic LC ring (also called LC Eddy, LCE) Franklin [3] and the simulta-neous evolution of cyclonic LC Frontal Eddies (LCFEs) [4] interrupted the direct connection between the northern Gulf and the Straits of Florida and the Atlantic Ocean, although a few surface oil slicks were entrained in the LC system from mid-to late May [2]; drifters deployed at the eastern edge of the LC at the end of May were advected around Eddy Franklin after its detachment (full circle in 10 days) rather than following the main LC to the southeast. As LCEs frequently do [5][6][7], Eddy Franklin underwent a series of detachments/re-attachments after its formation in late May, until full separation several weeks later in September [8]. The formation of the ring in late May effectively shut down the possibility of vast amounts of oil moving southward during this particular incident. ...
... Several observational and numerical studies have characterized the coupling between the upper and lower layers with many approaches, focusing mainly on the eastern basin and over particular periods. Bunge et al. (2002) found a relationship between the observed deep transport in the Yucatan Chanel and the LC extension; a result that Nedbor-Gross et al. (2014) supported with a continuous 54-year simulation of the GoM. Oey (2008) found that deep cyclones amplifying off the west Florida slope cause the LC to develop a "neck" and showed this process to be the LC's dominant mode of upper-to-deep variability. ...