Nikos Bozionelos's research while affiliated with Audencia Business School and other places
This study discusses the main barriers that qualified migrants face in their route towards becoming chief executive officers (CEOs) along with the strategies they employ in their quest to reach the top. The study was conducted in France, a leading economic power with a long history of migration. A relational analytic framework was adopted, where in-depth interviews with migrant CEOs were triangulated with accounts from native CEOs, organizational leaders, and institutional actors. It emerged that meso- and macro-level factors created powerful barriers to advancement, while migrant CEOs tended to deploy four career strategies, two of them reactive – adaptation/adjustment and overcompensation – and the other two proactive – differentiation and manoeuvring. In addition, substantial differences were identified in the accounts of migrant CEOs and the other participants as to the existence of barriers and awareness of these by organizational actors.
The relationship of emotional intelligence (EI) with job performance was investigated in 188 individuals working as expatriates. Job performance was considered in terms of task and contextual performance - helping (OCB-H) and voice (OCB-V) organizational citizenship behaviours - and was assessed by line managers. In line with expectations, most identified relationships were of quadratic U-shaped form. Specifically, all three relationships of the global EI construct, and eight out of the 11 identified relationships of its four facets, were of U-shape. That included the relationships of all four EI facets with task performance, and the relationships of two dimensions, self-emotional appraisal (SEA) and regulation of emotion (ROE) with OCB-H and with OCB-V. The findings illustrate the link of global EI and its facets with contextual performance apart from task performance that has been the primary focus of research thus far. The findings also suggest that although those with the highest scores on EI receive the strongest job performance ratings those who are most disadvantaged in terms of job performance are not the lowest EI scorers but rather those who find themselves near the middle of the EI scores continuum.
The lack of women in senior positions in STEM within higher education is an ongoing concern. Identifying the barriers that STEM women face to progress their careers remains an important area of research. While previous studies have explored some of challenges associated with the gendered culture within higher education, less is known about the additional barriers faced by women with children. Using a survey of STEM women in the UK this study examines the influence motherhood has on women's perceptions of organisational support, mentoring and networking and identifies that STEM women with children are found to have less opportunity to engage with mentoring or to benefit from formal or informal networks within the institution. The findings have significant implications for the career progression of women with children and suggest that review of HR policy and practice to facilitate greater organisational support and in particular mentoring and networking requires the institution to take a far more proactive approach.
This study developed and tested a model that posited employability and job performance as intervening variables in the relationship between receipt of mentoring and career success. Participants were 207 information technology (IT) professionals employed in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in three European countries. Mentoring receipt was related to both employability and job performance. Employability mediated the relationship of mentoring receipt with objective and subjective career success, as well as its relationship with job performance. The findings indicate that receipt of mentoring is connected to job performance, a link that has hitherto lacked empirical evidence. In addition, they suggest a pivotal role for employability in the relationship of mentoring receipt with job performance and career success. Overall, this study helps unveil the mechanism through which mentoring affects career outcomes. Moreover, it shows that the benefits of mentoring hold outside the context of large corporations.
The article focuses on factors that affect CEOs resignation. The common view is that CEOs resign because shareholders and the board force them to leave due to lower-than-expected performance. The present study challenges this view by suggesting that in fact CEOs often leave because of better opportunities elsewhere. They can find such opportunities by means of their networks, or connectedness, because CEO positions are rarely advertised. Therefore, connectedness provides an advantage in terms of finding a better position. Using data from a large database that contained information from nearly 7,500 CEOs over a 20-year period provided support for this idea. Connectedness, especially for “young” (i.e., below 60 years of age) CEOs weighted more in their resignations than poor firm performance. Nevertheless, connectedness was related to CEOs departure under any firm performance condition, suggesting that CEOs do not always leave because they are forced to but often because they have found a better deal in another firm.
This study develops a cross-level model examining the effects of intellectual capital facets (i.e., human, social, and organizational capital) on unit ambidexterity. Further, it proposes that organizational-level high-performance human resource (HPHR) practices significantly shape these effects as well as the unit ambidexterity–unit performance relationship. Hierarchical linear modeling on multisource and lagged data from a sample of 148 business units from 58 US Fortune 500 firms shows that unit human and social capital positively contributes to unit ambidexterity, unit organizational capital has a negative relationship with unit ambidexterity, and organizational HPHR practices amplify the former and mitigate the latter of these unit-level effects. The findings also reveal that the relationship between ambidexterity and unit performance becomes stronger in organizational contexts of heightened HPHR practices. This multilevel approach increases understanding of how units achieve ambidexterity and attain related performance gains. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This research developed and tested a comprehensive model of the antecedents of international graduate students' interest in an international career. Based largely on Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), the model included elements that pertain to perceptions of external constraints (perceptions of the labor market, family pressure to return), international student experience (adjustment in the foreign country during graduate studies, exposure and immersion to the international context) and individual factors (self-efficacy with respect to working abroad and outcome expectancy). Participants were 139 international graduate students in the UK. Individual factors and perceived constraints were directly related to interest in an international career. The factors that comprised current international student experience were indirectly related to interest via their relationship with self-efficacy, while adjustment moderated the relationship between self-efficacy and interest. Although the hypothesized moderating role of family pressure to return did not materialize, the findings suggest that perceptions of constraints play a more substantial role in the formation of interest than has been assumed by SCCT theory thus far. The findings are discussed with respect to their implications for the literature and for the policies of host country stakeholders.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive account for careers within the Greek academic system. Historical, cultural and geographical features of the country have created a unique context that has shaped the way academic careers evolve. Design/methodology/approach - The primary methods of data collection were retrospective participant observation and discussions in interview form with individuals who have had various types of experience with the Greek Higher Education system. Findings - The major factor that shapes careers in Greek academia is social capital or know-whom that operates within a broader cultural environment where institutional collectivism is extremely low, the in-group - out-group distinction is a major element, and political party affiliation plays a key role in everyday affairs. As a result academic careers in Greece are almost exclusively determined by membership, a priory or earned, to an "in-group" that is linked via blood, family friendship, business and political party ties. This "in-group" uses its social capital to control academic careers across all stages for the benefit of its members. Research limitations/implications - There are method limitations, but relevant concerns were largely alleviated by precautionary measures and the way data were utilized. Ethnography may be the most appropriate method to disentangle the way networks and social capital impact careers. Practical implications - Achieving substantive change, such as increasing meritocracy, within a sector may be impossible without considering the broader cultural context that encapsulates it. Originality/value - The study is among the very first to unveil the "dark side" of social capital, and show how social capital may benefit the interests of in-groups at the expense of the collective.
The article focuses on cultural diversity and whether it has economic value. Though it is undisputed that cultural diversity within a country increases entrepreneurial behaviour the question that remains is whether this heightened entrepreneurial activity results in greater economic achievements. The article reports on a study that was carried out within the London area that presented an ideal setting given that London is a "super-diverse" city with intense economic activity. The results showed that ethnic diversity in the team of owners and partners of firms was indeed associated with greater innovativeness. This was in line with the view that diversity brings a variety of perspectives, skills and ways of thinking that in turn are translated into greater novelty in products or services and ways of performing tasks. On the other hand, however, ethnic diversity at the top did not translate into success at bringing innovations to the market, neither to revenue growth. Neither did the idea that diversity would be especially beneficial for innovation in knowledge-intensive industries find support. Finally, the data suggested that immigrants become entrepreneurs by choice rather than due to lack of better alternatives. The findings of the study raise the serious question of why the greater innovativeness that diversity brings does not generally translate into market and economic success, which opens new avenues for future research.
The research investigates the relationship of the Big-Five of personality with mentoring receipt with the use of two independent studies. The findings of the studies show substantial consistency. Equations of quadratic form describe half of the tested relationships better than linear equations. The association of openness to experience and agreeableness with mentoring receipt is of inverted U-shape. The benefits of being open and agreeable for mentoring receipt cease to exist at high values of these traits. On the other hand, emotional stability and conscientiousness demonstrate exclusively positive linear relationships with mentoring receipt. The form of the relationship of extraversion differs between the two studies, but the overall trend is positive. The substantial quadratic component in the association of personality with receipt of mentoring means that research hitherto may be grossly underestimating the effects of personality on developmental relationships because earlier studies assume strictly linear associations. Parts of the results also imply that the associations of certain personality traits with mentoring receipt may depend upon the occupational context.
This study develops a cross-level model examining the effects of intellectual capital dimensions (i.e., human, social, and organizational capital) on unit-level ambidexterity, and further proposes that firm-level High-Performance HR (HPHR) practices significantly shape these effects as well as the ambidexterity-unit performance relationship. Using hierarchical linear modeling on multisource and lagged data of a sample of 148 business units from 58 “Fortune Global 500” firms show that unit’s human and social capital contribute directly to unit ambidexterity, organizational capital has a negative impact on ambidexterity, while firm-level HPHR practices amplify these unit-level effects. Our findings also reveal that the relationship between ambidexterity and unit performance becomes stronger in firm contexts of heightened HPHR practices. This multilevel approach increases understanding of how units achieve ambidexterity and attain related performance gains.
The authors focuses on research by Florian Pichler and Claire Wallace into whether individual and workforce factors are responsible for differences in job satisfaction across European Union countries or whether institutional factors were also at work. The main factors affecting job satisfaction were occupational class and type of employment contract so that people in professional and managerial jobs were more satisfied than employees performing manual work. Institutional factors, such as average wages, helped explain the impact of individual and workforce composition differences across countries.
The article focuses on a study by Bard Kuvaas and Anders Dysvik testing their hypothesis that the development opportunities for permanent employees affect how temporary employees view their positions, their job behavior, and their social exchange relationship with the organization. The authors note that Kuvaas and Dysvik employ a social information processing perspective in which the social climate of an organization is a factor. The authors report that this hypothesis was validated in Kuvaas and Dysvik's survey of 375 temporary employees.
Purpose – This study aims to investigate the relationship of mentoring provided with career success and organizational commitment in the general managerial population. Design/methodology/approach – Participants were 194 native British who were employed in a variety of jobs, professions and industries in the United Kingdom. Findings – Mentoring provided was positively associated with objective and subjective career success and with mentoring received. Furthermore, mentoring provided mediated the relationship between mentoring received and both aspects of career success. However, although career-related mentoring provided was positively associated with mentors' career success and affective organizational commitment, socio-emotional mentoring provided was unrelated to mentors' career success and was negatively related to their affective commitment. Research limitations/implications – The study adds to the literature by indicating that, at least in the Anglo-Saxon organizational environment, mentoring provided, and especially its career-related dimension, is associated with positive outcomes across occupational, professional and organizational boundaries, and that mentoring receipt increases the likelihood of mentoring provision later in the career. Practical implications – Encouraging organizational members to provide mentoring for junior colleagues establishes and perpetuates a mentoring cycle, which entails benefits for mentors, protégés and the organization. Originality/value – This is the first study to investigate the relationship of mentoring provision with career success and organizational commitment in the general working population; hence, to yield generalizable conclusions. In addition it informs on the relative contribution of career-related and socio-emotional mentoring provided to mentor's career outcomes.
This study conceptualized exploratory and exploitative learning as distinct team-level activities, constructed measures of them, and examined their relationships with psychological safety, task conflict, and team performance. Structural equation analysis in a sample of 142 innovation project teams indicated that psychological safety was linearly and nonlinearly related to team exploitative and exploratory learning, respectively; whereas task conflict positively moderated the relationship between psychological safety and exploitative learning. Furthermore, exploratory and exploitative learning were additively related to team performance, as rated by team managers, and mediated its relationship with psychological safety. The findings contribute to understanding how and under what conditions organizational teams engage in exploratory and exploitative learning to maximize their performance.
How do employees who survive downsizing react compared to those who did not have experience with it? The answer to this question is of utmost importance nowadays because organizations have increasingly turned to downsizing as a way to cut costs and enhance profitability.
Using 394 pairs of employees and their immediate supervisors working in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector in three northern European countries, this study examined the effect of workplace moderators on the link between relational demography and supervisor ratings of performance. Directional age differences between superior and subordinate (i.e., status incongruence caused when the supervisor is older or younger than his/her subordinate) and non-directional age differences were used as predictors of supervisor ratings of occupational expertise. The quality of the supervisor-subordinate relationship and the existence of positive age-related supervisory practices were examined as moderators of this relationship. The results provide no support for a relationship between directional age differences and age-related stereotyping by supervisors in ratings of performance, neither for the effects of age-related supervisory practices. However, high quality supervisor-subordinate relationships did moderate the effects of age dissimilarity on supervisory ratings. The implications of these findings for performance appraisal methodologies and recommendations for further research are discussed.
The purpose of this paper is to deal with the outcomes of a so-called “employability management needs analysis” that is meant to provide more insight into current employability management activities and its possible benefits for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) professionals working in Small- and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) throughout Europe. A considerable series of interviews (N=107) were conducted with managers in SMEs in seven European countries, including Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, and the UK. A semi-structured interview protocol was used during the interviews to cover three issues: employability (13 items), ageing (8 items), and future developments and requirements (13 items). Analysis of all final interview transcriptions was at a national level using an elaborate common coding scheme. Although an interest in employability emerged, actual policy and action lagged behind. The recession in the ICT sector at the time of the investigation and the developmental stage of the sector in each participating country appeared connected. Ageing was not seen as a major issue in the ICT sector because managers considered ICT to be a relatively young sector. There appeared to be a serious lack of investment in the development of expertise of ICT professionals. Generalization of the results to large organizations in the ICT sector should be made with caution. The interview protocol developed is of value for further research and complements survey research undertaken within the employability field of study. It can be concluded that proactive HRM (Human Resource Management) policies and strategies are essential, even in times of economic downturn. Employability management activities are especially important in the light of current career issues. The study advances knowledge regarding HRM practices adopted by SMEs in the ICT sector, especially as there is a gap in knowledge about career development issues in that particular sector.
Dispositional characteristics, including personality and mental ability, play a substantial role in interpersonal relationships. However, their connection with mentoring, which is a form of interpersonal relationship, has received limited attention. The study empirically investigated the association of mentoring received with the Big-Five of personality and general mental ability in the Anglo-Saxon organizational environment. Furthermore, it integrated the relationship between dispositional traits, mentoring received and career success in a causal path model. Analysis of data collected from 272 white-collar workers suggested no relationships of logarithmic form between mentoring received and personality traits or general mental ability. Hierarchical linear regression indicated that scores on openness and agreeableness made significant contributions to scores on mentoring received over and above the contributions of the demographics and human capital controls. Causal path modelling suggested that the total effects of openness and agreeableness on extrinsic career success were negative while the corresponding effects on intrinsic career success were positive; largely due to the fact that the benefits of mentoring received were stronger for intrinsic than for extrinsic career success. The results were discussed with respect to their contribution to our understanding of the development of mentoring relationships, and their implications for practice and research across national cultural contexts.
This article examines current career thinking and employability management practices within the Polish Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector. The aim of this contribution is to identify career management problems and to determine obstacles for implementing employability management practices at a company level. Semi-structured interviews aimed at establishing company needs were conducted with 18 managers of small and medium-sized ICT enterprises in Poland. These firms appear to apply various developmental approaches to stimulate competitive advantage. Faced with a more demanding environment, firms aim for versatility rather than adopting simplified solutions. Managing the careers and employability of ICT professionals is acknowledged as vitally important for the survival and development of ICT companies.
The study conceptualized exploratory and exploitative learning as distinct team level activities, constructed measures of them, and examined their linear and nonlinear relationships with psychological safety and task conflict; as well as with team effectiveness. Data from 139 innovative project teams supported most of our research hypotheses.
This paper is the first to explore the impact of culture on the acceptability of workplace bullying and to do so across a wide range of countries. Physically intimidating bullying is less acceptable than work related bullying both within groups of similar cultures and globally. Cultures with high performance orientation find bullying to be more acceptable while those with high future orientation find bullying to be less acceptable. A high humane orientation is associated with finding work related bullying to be less acceptable. Confucian Asia finds work-related bullying to be more acceptable than the Anglo, Latin America, and Sub-Saharan Africa country clusters and finds physically intimidating bullying to be more acceptable than the Anglo and Latin America country clusters. The differences in the acceptability of bullying with respect to these cultures are partially explained in terms of cultural dimensions.
To date, research has largely neglected individuals who become expatriates on their own initiative and outside the boundaries of multinational corporations. This study, which focused on 206 non-Saudi expatriate nurses employed in a Saudi Arabian hospital, investigated the relationship of job satisfaction and turnover intentions with four factors: cross-cultural training, protégé experience, peer support, and the cultural clusters of the home and host countries. The study also examined the role of gender in the relationship of work attitudes with protégé experience and peer support. Protégé experience had the most consistent relationship with job satisfaction and turnover intentions, while attendance of cross-cultural training before expatriation was not involved in any of the identified relationships. In most conditions, protégé experience and peer support were associated with higher job satisfaction for expatriates of Arab origin. Finally, gender did not play a moderating role in the relationship of work attitudes with mentoring or peer support. These results shed light on the factors that help determine the success of non-corporate-sponsored expatriates and have implications for practice and future research. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The dynamic growth of the ICT sector calls for continuous concern for learning and development on the part of ICT specialists. The ICT sector's traditional paternalistic relationships among employees and employers have been replaced in favor of more temporary, flexible, partner-oriented arrangements at a faster rate than in other sectors. This requires changes in the approach to employability, which not only has an impact on their potential for success, but primarily defines their chances of 'survival' in the unstable and demanding labor market. The presented empirical results of research demonstrate the relationships between certain individual predictors of employability level among ICT sector workers in Polish SMEs. The presented data are a fragment of final research conducted within the context of the multi-year Indicator program.
The concept of dispositional resistance to change has been introduced in a series of exploratory and confirmatory analyses through which the validity of the Resistance to Change (RTC) Scale has been established (S. Oreg, 2003). However, the vast majority of participants with whom the scale was validated were from the United States. The purpose of the present work was to examine the meaningfulness of the construct and the validity of the scale across nations. Measurement equivalence analyses of data from 17 countries, representing 13 languages and 4 continents, confirmed the cross-national validity of the scale. Equivalent patterns of relationships between personal values and RTC across samples extend the nomological net of the construct and provide further evidence that dispositional resistance to change holds equivalent meanings across nations.
This article explores the employability of information and communication technology (ICT) professionals from the perspective of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The first stage of analysis, based on over 100 interviews with managers of ICT supplier companies in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and the UK), showed most SMEs to have a generally ad hoc approach to managing the employability of their ICT professionals. Assessment and development plans were used primarily to keep skills current to business needs; however, the more developed northern European markets showed greater awareness of the 'high commitment' benefits of a more sophisticated approach towards career management (e.g. through mentoring or career planning). A second stage of analysis based only on UK interviews builds on this to propose a model of positive employer influence on psychological contracts through career and employability management practices.
The relationship of emotional work with emotional exhaustion and a variety of attitudes towards the job and the organization was investigated in a sample of Hellenes (Greek) employees in the banking industry who were performing frontline service jobs. Emotion work was conceptualized and operationalized in terms of five dimensions: surface acting, deep acting, frequency of emotional display, intensity of displayed emotion, and variety of displayed emotions. The results suggested a weak mediating role of emotional exhaustion in the relationship between emotion work and work attitudes. The results also revealed the presence of a substantial number of interaction effects in the relationship of emotion work with emotional exhaustion and work attitudes. In particular, emotion work was related to emotional exhaustion solely by means of interactions, and the largest part of the relationship of emotion work with work attitudes was also due to interaction effects. In the cases that main effects were present these were mainly caused by an allegedly secondary dimension of emotion work, the variety of displayed emotions, and not by any of the primary dimensions. The national cultural characteristics provided an account for the identified relationship pattern between emotion work, emotional exhaustion and work attitudes. In general, the study revealed the importance of the interactions between the dimensions of emotion work, and was also suggestive of the role of the national cultural context in the way emotion work is associated with outcomes that are of interest to employees and organizations.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship of intra-organizational network resources with career success and organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach – The study utilized survey data from 316 British individuals who composed a highly heterogeneous sample in terms of both organizational roles and employment settings. Findings – The study finds that total intra-organizational network resources were related to extrinsic and intrinsic career success, and to affective organizational commitment. Instrumental and expressive network resources were differentially related to career success and organizational commitment. Research limitations/implications – The relationships were identified after controlling for an array of factors and for mentoring received, which attests to the importance of intra-organizational network resources for career outcomes and attitudes towards the organization. The cross-sectional design is a limitation of the study. Future research should investigate moderating factors, and must be extended to cultural clusters other from the Anglo-Saxon one. Practical implications – From an individual point of view, building networks of relationships within the organization enhances career prospects, regardless of whether a mentor is present. From an organizational viewpoint, organizational designs and human resource systems that promote the development of informal relationship ties foster those aspects of commitment that have positive consequences and inhibit those that have negative consequences. Originality/value – The study provided original evidence for the link between intra-organizational relationship ties and commitment towards the organization. In addition, it consolidated evidence on the relationship of network resources to career success, the distinct nature of instrumental and expressive network resources, and the additive value of network resources and mentoring as parts of social capital.
The study investigated the attitudes of Chinese workers towards individually based performance-related reward systems (IBPRRS). Participants were 106 white-collar workers employed in a Chinese new state-owned enterprise. In line with hypotheses, attitudes towards equality and equity-based rewarding were negatively and positively related, respectively, with attitudes towards IBPRRS. Also in line with expectations, both concern for loosing face (‘Mianzi’) and the belief that performance evaluations are affected by interpersonal relationships (‘Guanxi’) were negatively related to the attitude towards IBPRRS. However, in contrast to hypotheses, participants reported a more positive attitude towards equity than towards equality-based rewarding. Furthermore, in sharp contrast to the relevant hypothesis, the attitude of participants towards IBPRRS was positive. Ad hoc interviews with middle managers corroborated these findings and, furthermore, suggested that Guanxi and Mianzi were indeed impacting evaluations of performance, especially where there was an absence of objective performance criteria. The implication of the study is that although the views of Chinese employees towards IBPRRS are in principle positive, the cultural characteristics of China, and in particular Guanxi and Mianzi, must be taken into account for the successful design and functioning of such systems in the Chinese organizational context.
Purpose – The purpose of this article is to explore the views of male workers in a male dominated occupation on issues that pertain to work‐life balance. Design/methodology/approach – The study was qualitative in nature. Semi‐structured interviews were conducted with 20 bus drivers employed by a single company in order to identify their perceptions on the following: whether issues related to work‐life balance were sources of concern and dissatisfaction; how concern over issues related to work‐life balance was compared to other sources of concern and dissatisfaction; and whether issues related to work‐life balance were linked with withdrawal attitudes and behaviours. Findings – It emerged that work‐life imbalance was not only a source of concern, but also that it was the major source of dissatisfaction for participants. Furthermore, participants made a clear connection between problems with work‐life balance and withdrawal behaviours, including turnover and non‐genuine sick absence. Originality/value – The study has value at both scholarly and practice level. At scholarly level, the research investigated an important contemporary issue within a neglected group: male workers in a low profile male dominated occupation. At practice level, the findings suggest that work life imbalance incurs tangible costs to organisations; hence, organisations need to establish human resource systems to deal with it. Furthermore, pertinent legislation may need to be developed and enacted.
The relationship of mentoring and network resources, the two components of social capital, with career success was investigated in a sample of 113 Chinese white-collar workers. The findings suggested that the prevalence of mentoring in the Chinese workplace is substantially higher than in the Anglo-Saxon workplace, and that Chinese employees do not distinguish their network ties or Guanxi into expressive and instrumental. These results were in line with the presumption that mentoring is an integral part of the Chinese culture and with the view that network ties or Guanxi in the Chinese society cannot exist in a purely instrumental form. In contrast to hypotheses, however, the findings suggest a limited relationship between social capital and career success. In particular, the amount of mentoring, participants reported they had received, was related to their intrinsic career success but not to their extrinsic career success; and the amount of network resources or Guanxi was related neither to extrinsic nor to intrinsic career success. These results were largely at odds with the accumulated knowledge on the benefits of social capital for career success. The findings are discussed with respect to the changing nature of the Chinese business and organizational environment, and their implications for human resource practices.
Although mentoring has been identified as an important career resource for protégés in the Anglo-Saxon cultural cluster, pertinent research in other cultures is still scarce. The relationship of mentoring and expressive network resources with protégés' career success and emotional exhaustion was investigated in a sample of 104 Hellenes (Greek) bank employees performing frontline service jobs. The number of mentors that respondents reported they have had was related to their extrinsic career success. However, currently having a mentor was not related to intrinsic career success and was marginally related to emotional exhaustion. In contrast, the amount of expressive network resources was strongly related to both intrinsic career success and emotional exhaustion. The results are discussed with respect to extant research, the national cultural context of the study and the cross-cultural transferability of human resource systems. The general tentative conclusion is that relationships with mentors and expressive network resources appear to be important resources for employees across cultures, but the relative potency of their benefits is influenced by the national cultural characteristics.
The article seeks to advance the view that the selection interview frequently serves as a political arena for various power networks in the organization whose interests may be conflicting. Members of the interview panel try to advance the interests of the power networks to which they belong by lobbying for the candidates whose background and values concur most with those interests. The notion of the interview as a political and power game is illustrated with a case from the academic environment. It is concluded that there is a need for systematic investigation to establish the prevalence of the phenomenon, develop taxonomies, and examine its relationship with variables and outcomes of importance to organizations.
The proposition that socio-economic background relates to amount of current computer use indirectly, via its relationship with computer experience and computer anxiety, was tested with questionnaire data from a sample of 267 university students. The results supported the proposition, as they indicated a causal path model that contained a positive indirect relationship of socio-economic background with the amount of current computer use, via computer experience and computer anxiety. Socio-economic background had a direct positive relationship with computer experience and an indirect negative relationship with computer anxiety. The pattern of relationships was held over and above the variance accounted for by the set of control variables that included, among others, computer access and sex. The findings are supportive of the digital divide and they imply that information technology may in fact be increasing inequalities among social strata in their access to employment opportunities. The limitations of the study along with potential directions for future research are discussed.
The relationship of the Five-Factor Model of personality and general mental ability with extrinsic and intrinsic career success was investigated in a British sample of 308 white-collar workers. Extrinsic career success was associated with both experiential variables and dispositional variables, while intrinsic career success was almost exclusively associated with personality traits. General mental ability contributed to eventual, but not to organization-specific extrinsic career success; and neuroticism reduced both extrinsic career prospects and intrinsic career evaluations, while agreeableness reduced extrinsic career prospects but enhanced intrinsic career evaluations. However, in sharp contrast to hypotheses, conscientiousness primarily and extraversion secondarily were negatively associated with extrinsic career success. The findings are discussed with respect to extant knowledge and the British national cultural context.
The study investigated the relationship of the Five Factor Model of personality and general mental ability with an array of demographic variables that included age, socio-economic origin, educational attainment and marital status. Questionnaire data from 342 white-collar workers were analysed. Openness and mental ability were related to educational attainment, while mental ability was the only dispositional trait that was associated with socio-economic origin. Married individuals scored lower on openness than their non-married counterparts, and scores on extraversion were associated with length of marriage. The findings suggested that the profile of the white-collar worker in the public sector is that of an emotionally stable, introverted, agreeable and conscientious individual. It is suggested that additional research is needed, including studies to investigate the consistency of the identified relationship patterns across genders, and studies to map the processes that are involved in the association between dispositional traits and demographic group membership.
The relationship of a mentor’s perceptions of his/her career success, mentoring he/she received, personality, and the amount of mentoring he/she provided was investigated in a sample of 176 administrators. Results indicated that the amount of mentoring respondents reported they had provided was positively associated with their objective and their subjective career success and with the amount of mentoring they reported they had received. Mentoring provided mediated the relationship between mentoring received and subjective career success. Finally, the personality trait of openness was associated with mentoring provided over and above the contribution of human capital and demographics. The results were in line with suggestions in the literature that providing mentoring has positive consequences for the career of the mentor and that an individual who has been mentored is more likely to provide mentoring. However, the findings suggested a limited role for the personality of the mentor in providing mentoring. The implications for career development practices and tactics and for future research were considered, along with the limitations of the study.
The association between the “five-factor model” of personality and the prototypical image of the effective leader, and the extent to which that image was linked to the features of transformational leadership were examined in a questionnaire study that involved a sample of 101 Chinese origin individuals in Hong Kong. High levels of extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, emotional stability and openness were perceived as characterizing effective leaders. In line with research on leader emergence in the Anglo-Saxon culture but contrary to expectations, extraversion was the trait most potently associated with the prototypical notion of the effective leader. And that notion was linked to the features of transformational leadership. The findings also suggested that men and women may partly differ in the criteria they utilize to evaluate leaders. Additional research is necessary, but the findings imply that most of the conclusions on the relationship between personality traits and leader emergence drawn with Anglo-Saxon samples are generalizable in Confucian societies.
The relationship between the big five of personality and work involvement was investigated in a questionnaire study with a sample of 279 white-collar workers, who were employed on a full-time basis in clerical, administrative and managerial positions. Hypotheses were tested by means of hierarchical regressions that controlled for the effects of demographics and human capital. Scores on agreeableness were negatively related to scores on work involvement and to total hours worked per week; and the extroversion × openness interaction made a positive contribution to scores on work involvement. Overall, the findings suggest the existence of an, albeit not strong or extensive, relationship between the big five of personality and work involvement. The limitations of the study and its implications for practice are discussed.
The study investigated the relationship of career instrumental and expressive intra-organizational network resources with extrinsic and intrinsic career success and with the Big-Five of personality in a sample of 264 white-collar workers. Total network resources were associated with extrinsic and intrinsic career success above the contribution of human capital, demographics and mentoring received. And instrumental network resources contributed more strongly than expressive network resources to extrinsic career success. Furthermore, instrumental network resources emerged as important for intrinsic evaluations of hierarchical and interpersonal career success while expressive network resources emerged as important for intrinsic evaluations of job and interpersonal career success. There was limited support for the influence of personality on the accumulation of network resources. As hypothesized, conscientiousness was negatively associated with instrumental network resources; however, extra-version, openness and agreeableness failed to make significant contributions to network resources over and above the contribution of human capital and demographics. The implications of the findings for individual career tactics and for organizational practices are discussed and the limitations of the study are considered along with directions for future research.
This paper attempts to demystify the technique of causal path modeling for the non-specialists by presenting aspects of its value for social science and management research and by illustrating common misunderstandings about its attributes. Special emphasis is placed on the real world validity of causal relationships depicted in causal path models and on the information that the data-fitting properties of causal path models provide regarding this issue. Causal path models that are based on research in antecedents of career success are used to illustrate the points that are made. It is stressed that the validity of causal relationships depicted in causal path models is subject to exactly the same methodological restrictions as the validity of causality claims that are made without the use of causal path modeling; and that the purpose of using quantitative techniques in causal path modeling is not to improve certainty on causality direction.
The study tested a part of Helgeson's (1994) model and examined the association between instrumental and expressive traits, and their relationship to biological sex in a sample of 242 university students. Women scored higher on expressive traits and marginally lower on instrumental traits. Unmitigated instrumentality was negatively related to expressiveness, but unmitigated expressiveness was not related to instrumentality. Finally, there was no association between instrumental and expressive traits. The findings imply that the interplay of instrumental and expressive traits may not be symmetrical, the former having stronger influence on the manifestation of the latter than vice versa.
The hypothesis that expressive traits contribute to computer interest was examined in a sample of 241 university students. Computer interest was conceptualised as a positive index of well-being in the context of interaction with computer-based technology. Scores on expressiveness and the Instrumentality × Expressiveness interaction term made significant contributions to variance in scores on computer interest, after the effects of age, sex and computer experience were removed. A causal path model with age and sex incorporated in the residual posited direct exogenous effects by instrumentality, expressiveness and their interaction on computer interest; which, in turn, influenced computer experience. The findings suggest a substantially more potent role for expressive traits than for instrumental traits in the development of computer interest. Furthermore, the findings support the emergent properties model and endorse the proposal that expressive traits are useful as predictors of positive indices of well-being. Suggestions regarding directions for future research on attitudes towards computer-based technology and on the contribution of expressive and instrumental traits to well-being are made.
Reports on the experience of production team leaders and their line managers on the quality of training and development of the former. The setting was the UK plant of a US-based global organization competing in the telecommunications technology sector. Team leaders’ and line managers’ views were complemented with data from personnel records. The findings suggested that team leaders’ development was perceived to be inadequate in both the technical and leadership domains. Team leaders perceived deficiencies in their technical training and competence; and line managers viewed that team leaders lacked managerial and leadership skills. The analysis of personnel records corroborated those views as it suggested that existing training and development structures were not being properly implemented or designed. This situation can impact unit performance. Suggestions regarding rectification of such situations are made.
The relationship of instrumental and expressive traits with computer anxiety was investigated in a sample of 230 individuals who were university students. The instrumentality model was supported. Scores on instrumentality made significant contributions to the variance in scores on computer anxiety, after the effects of age, sex and computer experience were removed. Neither scores on expressiveness nor the Instrumentality×Expressiveness interaction term were significantly associated with scores on computer anxiety. A model that suggests a mediating role of instrumental traits in the relationship between computer experience and computer anxiety was evaluated and gained tentative support. The investigation expanded the literature on the relationship of instrumental and expressive traits with psychological well-being to the domain of well-being in the context of interaction with computer-based systems. The limitations of the study are considered and suggestions for future research are made.
Survivor employees and senior management perceptions of career development issues were examined in a downsizing organization. It emerged that the organization lacked a coherent strategy for survivors’ career development. The main career development structure, the performance management and appraisal scheme, was generally viewed as inadequate, while the other structures in place, although generally perceived as useful, were underutilized. A substantial proportion of employees considered lateral moves to potentially undermine advancement and security, and senior management views implied a potential lack of wide managerial support for widespread use of this tool. A senior management attitude for selective career development, targeted on an élite group of key employees, was also detected. The study concluded that proper downsizing planning must include a coherent career development strategy for survivors.
The study investigated: (1) the form of the relationship between scores on computer anxiety and scores on computer experience; and (2) differences in computer anxiety scores and prevalence rates between groups of individuals with presumably differential early exposure to computer-based technology. Questionnaire data from three British samples, which included 228 managers and professionals, 67 graduate students and 220 undergraduate students, were analyzed. Logarithmic values of scores on computer experience were compared with raw computer experience scores in predicting scores on computer anxiety. Logarithmic values consistently entered the regression equations at the expense of raw values. Substantial computer anxiety prevalence rates were identified in all samples. The youngest sample with the presumably earliest exposure to computerization reported the highest computer anxiety scores and demonstrated the highest prevalence rates. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for data analysis tactics and for the trend regarding the presence and prevalence of computer anxiety.
The relationship of instrumental and expressive traits with playfulness among adults was investigated. Questionnaire data from 182 women and 166 men who were university students were analysed. The results provided support for the additive model rather than for the balance or the emergent models. In general, scores on instrumentality and expressiveness made significant additive contributions to scores on playfulness, or to scores on the playfulness factors, above any contributions that were made by sex. The contributions to scores on playfulness that were made by scores on instrumentality were greater than the contributions that were made by scores on expressiveness. The Instrumentality×Expressiveness interaction made a significant contribution only in one model. The findings provide support for the validity of the Adult Playfulness Scale.
... An inability to create a balance between work and personal life could influence employees' effectiveness and productivity in the workplace (Elloy & Smith, 2003). Hughes and Bozionelos (2007) observed that work-life imbalance was not only a source of concern, but also that it was the major source of dissatisfaction for participants; the problem of WLB is clearly linked with withdrawal behavior, including turnover and non -genuine sick absence.In a national study on work life conflict in Canada, in 2001, one in four Canadians reported that their work responsibilities interfered with their ability to fulfill their responsibilities at home (Duxbury & Higgins, 2003). Scholarios and Marks (2004) suggested that WLB has important consequences for employee attitudes towards their organizations as well as for the lives of employees. ...
... Petrides (2011) argues that trait EI cannot be classified under the conception of the human cognitive ability. Trait EI exhibits an individual to be the only one with direct access to information that shapes his or her judgements of various emotional phenomena (Bozionelos & Singh, 2017). In this regard, trait EI is the only operational definition that acknowledges the inherent subjectivity of the emotional context (Petrides, 2011). ...
Reference: SA Journal of Human Resource Management
... Practically, the self-report questionnaire method has been the most widely adopted in this type of research, but this method is commonly argued to suffer from common method bias (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003 ). In addition, findings derived from crosssectional studies do not allow any conclusions concerning direction of causality and therefore should be interpreted with caution (Bozionelos, 2003 ). The present results should be replicated with smaller-scale studies that use more sophisticated methods (e.g., experiment, multiwave longitudinal design) to examine the generalizability of findings and to clarify the directionality of the hypothesized relationships. ...
... Computer Anxiety is the fear of computers when using one, or the fear associated with the impending use of a computer or new computer system (Chua, Chen, & Wong, 1999), and is accompanied by a negative emotional state and a negative cogitative experience (Bozionelos, 2001). However, computer anxiety is not considered to be a personality trait, but rather a "state anxiety" which occurs at the time of computer use or at the time of imagined future computer use (Cambre & Cook, 1985). ...
... In addition, mentors advocate on their prot?g?s' behalf, recommending them for leadership positions and communicating their ac- complishments to senior management (?Kirchmeyer, 2002;?Lee & Nolan, 1998). Consequently, a mentor's sponsorship opens doors to promotions and salary increases (?Bozionelos, 2008;?Eddleston, Baldridge, & Veiga, 2004) and increases prot?g?s' visibility, which is especially important in organizational tournaments, where there might be incomplete or biased information (Longenecker, Sims Jr, & Gioia, 1987). ...
... Teachers were asked to complete a background questionnaire as well as the Adult Playfulness Scale (APS; Webster, 1992, 1993). The APS is a list of 32 adjectives which are scored on a seven-point scale; five additional facets of adult playfulness may be evaluated ( Bozionelos and Bozionelos, 1999;Proyer, 2011). These facets are spontaneous (the alpha-coefficient in this sample was 0.74), expressive (e.g., bouncy vs. staid; α = 0.76), fun (e.g., bright vs. dull; α = 0.75), creative (e.g., imaginative vs. unimaginative; α = 0.78), and silly (e.g., childlike vs. mature; α = 0.79). ...
... With regard to job performance and behavior, our discussion demonstrated that OCB and CWB are not accurate empirical representations of moral goodness, and the possibility of zeroing in on an all-encompassing ethical construct is not promising. Finally, assessment for the purposes of selection and performance is in danger of becoming increasingly inexact, inconsistent, and political (Bozionelos, 2005; Highhouse, 2008; Robertson & Smith, 2001), due to increases in cultural diversity, emphasis on knowledge-based skills, and the need for greater autonomy (Burke & Ng, 2006 ). The goal of validating selection predictors against quantifiable performance criteria may be giving way to less tangible and more subjective judgmental indicators. ...
... This literature suggests that mobile students from wealthier countries, such as those participating in Erasmus, are more likely to engage in further mobility for work compared to their static peers (King and Ruiz-Gelices 2011;Parey and Waldinger 2011). It has been argued that aspirations for international mobility are the product of family socialisation and influence self-selection into exchange programmes ( Bozionelos et al. 2015). However, some researchers have convincingly argued that the experience of student mobility amplifies and even creates desires for unlimited mobility over the life-course. ...
... In congruence with this, only participants with a more independent self and individualistic cultural background reacted to social exclusion with active coping behaviour; participants with a more interdependent self and collectivistic background did not show differential behavioural intentions (). Likewise, an examination of workplace bullying in 15 countries revealed that people with more individualistic cultural backgrounds were less likely to find bullying behaviours acceptable (Power et al., 2009). These findings indicate that bullying—similar to social exclusion—has more negative effects on individualistic individuals than on collectivistic individuals. ...
... These were measured with the respective three-item scales of Bozionelos' (2003) instrument. The measure is unaffected by social desirability (Bozionelos, 2003) and it has been extensively validated in empirical research, for example, it predicts supervisor-rated job per- formance and employability (Van der Klink, Van der Heijden, Boon, & Van Rooij, 2014;Wei, Chiang, & Wu, 2012). Cronbach alphas were 0.63 and 0.65, which are marginally acceptable (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). ...