Matamba Tsanwani's scientific contributions
The town of Grahamstown is known on the geological and mineralogical point of view mainly because of its kaolin deposit, which derived from the intense weathering of the Dwyka tillite of the Karoo Supergroup. The weathering is favoured by the occurrence of brittle structures and breccias of granites that contains considerable amount of feldspar. The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of structural control in the weathering process leading to the formation of kaolin, to check the petrographical data by comparing breccias found in the fresh tillite and those in the kaolin, to highlight the mineralogical composition in some samples. The methods used in this study include: a comprehensive literature review, field observations, fault and fracture measurements to produce a general orientation, microscopic study, XRD and XRF analysis. Muscovite, albite, orthoclase, plagioclase, smectite, illite and quartz are some of the minerals present; smectization and illitization precede kaolinization in the Grahamstown area from k-feldspar and feldspar by leaching of elements such as K, Na and Ca and concentration of Al that later combines with Si to produce kaolin. A fresh tillite has higher intensity in peak diffraction analysis than a less and more weathered rock at a certain angle 2 theta. It is concluded that the primary source rock that is the parent rock in the genesis of kaolin is the Dwyka tillite, this tillite comprises breccias of granite and quartzite having microfractures that contribute to the alteration of feldspathic materials into kaolin.