E. Schrimpff's research while affiliated with University of Bayreuth and other places

Publications (6)

The air pollution of two major Colombian cities (Medellin and Cali) has been examined by means of 66 samples of the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata L., which acts as a biofilter. After performing heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr), pesticides (BHCs, HCB, dieldrine, endrine, DDTs), PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH: FA, BaP, IcdP, BghiP) analyses, the results proved the utility of this inconspicuous plant to determine the airborne contamination of both inorganic and organic trace substances. Using principal component analysis, 10 classes of independent pollution sources could be discriminated for both regions: (1) Zn and the PAH, (2) BHCs, endrine and DDTs, (3) Ni and Cr, and (4) to (10) the other contaminants, which resulted to be more or less independent from each other. By means of cluster analysis, 6 to 8 pollutional groups were clustered for heavy metals, pesticides, and PAH separately. The topographic and industrial features of the Cali and Medellin areas are discussed in relation to the regional means of heavy metals, pesticides, and PAH content. While Cali is distinctive of high levels of Pb, Cu, BaP, and pesticides, Medellin is more severely polluted by Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, FA, and IcdP. In comparison to the southern U.S. and Central Europe, both conglomeration areas appear to be heavily polluted by Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and DDTs.
In a 2-year period bulk precipitation, near surface groundwater and river water samples were simultaneously collected within 15 river basins of Northeastern Bavaria and analyzed among others for α-BHC, γ-BHC, fluoranthene, benzo-a-pyrene, indeno-cd-pyrene and benzo-ghi-perylene. With the aid of hydrographs the BHCs' and PAHs' annual loads had been calculated for river and groundwaters. The average loads of seven river basins each for two well-defined natural regions (the ancient earthblock and the scarplands) had been compared. Out of mass balances the following main conclusions were possible: (1) the input of BHCs and PAHs through bulk precipitation is about 30- to 400-fold higher than the river output in fairly natural, unpolluted rivers; atmospheric long range transport appears to be the main input source for both BHCs and PAHs. (2) Only 1 to 2% of the BHCs' and PAHs' input in the ancient earthblock and < 1% in the scarplands percolate into the surface groundwater, the scarplands being the more effectiv filter. (3) Land use of watersheds is so far only relevant for river water pollution by sewage effluents. There is neither significant evidence for precipitation input, nor for groundwater contamination.
The response of a lotic ecosystem to an instantaneous release of pollutants (Zn, PO4, NO2, PAH, γ-BHC, and coprostanol) which were included in a slug of treated sewage, was investigated. The impulse response concentration curve of pollutants was used to determine the dispersion coefficient. A mathematical model was obtained by solving the one dimensional mass transport equation with an exponential decay by a multistage implicit finite difference method and optimization of the decay constant.ZusammenfassungDie Antwort eines Fließgewässerökosystems auf einen Schadstoffimpuls (Zn, PO4, NO2, PCA, γ-HCH und Coprostanol), der in mechanisch-biologisch behandeltem Abwasser enthalten war, wurde entlang einer Fließstrecke beobachtet. Die Impulsantwort des Schadstoffimpulses wurde benutzt, um den Dispersionskoeffizienten zu bestimmen. Die eindimensionale Transportgleichung mit einer Senke analog zu einer chemischen Reaktion erster oder zweiter Ordnung wurde mit Hilfe einer mehrstufigen impliziten finiten Differenzenmethode gelöst. Durch Optimierung wurde die Reaktionskonstante dieses mathematischen Modells geschätzt.
In January 1978, 31 snow samples were collected throughout NE-Bavaria and were analyzed for trace metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu), pesticides (-BHC, Lindane, Aldrin, Dieldrin) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (3,4-benzopyrene, 1,12-benzoperylene, fluoranthene and 3,4-(o-phenylene)-pyrene). The regional pattern of PAH-concentrations can be explained as follows: above urban areas and through orographic uplifting of the air, PAH's are scavenged from the atmosphere by snow. The trace metals and specific conductance show similar regional patterns, although the pattern for Pb is influenced by automobile traffic as well as by glass and ceramic industries. The pesticides show less distinct patterns relative to the other two groups of contaminants. Using multivariate statistics it was shown that the trace metals with the exception of Pb and the PAH's had regional patterns similar to each other but distinct from the pesticides. Although orography, urbanization and industries are shown to affect the regional patterns of PAH's and the trace metals, this is not the case for pesticides. They originate from diffuse sources in agricultural and f forested lands.
Aus Sedimenten des Roten Mains in gleichen Abständen (250 m) entnommene Sedimentproben und in gleichem Zeittakt (5 min) aus einem fließenden Wasserkörper geschöpfte Wasserproben wurden auf ihre Gehalte an Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd und Pb sowie auf spezifische elektrische Leitfähigkeit, O2-Gehalt, Redoxpotential und pH-Wert untersucht. Es zeigte sich, daß alle Variablen durch punkthafte Einleiter mehr oder minder stark beeinflußt werden. Unter aeroben Bedingungen werden die Spurenmetalle wenige hundert Meter nach der Einleitung durch Fällung und Mitfällung an Fe- und Mn-Hydroxiden, sowie durch Adsorption in den Sedimenten gebunden. Treten jedoch anaerobe Bedingungen auf, dann werden nach Auflösung der Mn- und Fe-Hydroxide die an ihnen gebundenen Spurenmetalle freigesetzt. Stark reduzierende Bedingungen führen im Sediment zu sulfidischen Bindungen der Spurenmetalle. Mit Hilfe der Zeitreihenanalyse konnte das unterschiedliche Verhalten besonders von Fe und Mn einerseits und der übrigen Metalle andererseits aufgedeckt werden.