J. Peter Kincaid's research while affiliated with University of Central Florida and other places

Publications (22)

Article
This paper describes the Language Technology Project at the University of Central Florida. The goal of this project is to develop, evaluate, and commercially produce language courseware and training techniques for personal computers (PCs), including IBM and MacIntosh, equipped with voice interfaces. The primary emphasis of the Language Technology P...
Article
This paper describes a project to develop and use intelligent software to automate the authoring of technical documents written in controlled English, such as Simplified English (SE). SE is a subset of English with a limited vocabulary and a set of writing rules; its use in aircraft maintenance manuals makes them so clearly written that translation...
Article
This paper describes the development and validation of software to automate the authoring of training materials written in controlled English, such as Simplified English (SE). In SE, writers must adhere to many writing rules. While such materials are easy to read, they are very difficult to write. For example, use of short names for equipment must...
Article
This paper summarizes lessons learned from several projects related to embedded training (ET) and describes functional characteristics of an embedded training authoring system. Both desired and mandatory features of an ET authoring system are discussed for several applications. The relationship between embedded training and paperless technical manu...
Article
The objectives of this effort were to design, create, and demonstrate formats for displaying technical information on microcomputer screens. These formats were to take maximum advantage of the display and interaction capabilities that set computers apart from the paper media generally used for this type of information. In addition, the formats were...
Article
We develop an efficient approach to Trie index optimization. A Trie is a data structure used to index a file having a set of attributes as record identifiers. In the proposed methodology, a file is horizontally partitioned into subsets of records using a Trie index whose depth of indexing is allowed to vary. The retrieval of a record from the file...
Article
This paper describes current developments in automating the processes to author technical information (TI) and deliver it using microcomputers. It describes desirable characteristics which support the presentation of TI for technicians varying in skill levels. Addressed are human factors issues relating to information access, user acceptance, and d...
Article
Current developments in automating the processes to author technical information and deliver it using microcomputers are described in this article. The Department of Defense (DoD) has directed that the entire logistics support system (including technical information now contained in printed manuals) be computer-based for new major systems entering...
Article
The United States Department of Defense is actively inestigatin g the usefulness of presenting procedural lnformation for operation and maintenance of equipment on small, often hand-held, computers. The basic concept that is being explored is: the presentation of information that is necessary to job performance by means of computers rather than by...
Article
This paper describes and illustrates an aid (currently in prototype form) to communicate to designers and users of training devices what visual system types are currently available and appropriate for different training requirements. The aid is based on a taxonomy of visual imagery which addresses fidelity, cost and training effectiveness issues. T...
Article
Formats to teach procedures were developed to incorporate appropriate learning strategies. The formats contain a preponderance of graphics with supporting text and include a foldout, or paper mock-up, showing the face of the equipment. Exercises are provided for recalling individual steps and for chaining steps. These materials, called learning aid...
Article
A verbal skills curriculum program, designed for use with United States Navy recruits with deficiencies in English language listening and speaking skills was field tested at a recruit training station in Florida. The curriculum was self-paced and was composed of three learning modules: Navy-related vocabulary, grammatical structures, and language f...
Article
A computer readability system was developed to serve as an author's aid in improving the ease of comprehending technical manuals and training materials. The system has features to (1) flag uncommon and misspelled words and long sentences, (2) suggest simple replacements for difficult words and phrases, and (3) calculate the readability grade level....
Article
This report is concerned with the development of a Navy-relevant numerical skills workbook for use in Navy recruit training commands. The development of a test instrument for selecting students who should use the workbook is also addressed. This project was undertaken by the Training Analysis and Evaluation Group (TAEG) and Memphis State University...
Article
This report provides information on and guidelines for the implementation of the Computer Readability Editing System (CRES), which was developed for use in improving the ease of comprehending Navy technical manuals and training materials. The essential features of the CRES that potential users will have to consider in implementing the system in a n...
Article
Computer routines developed to help in authoring and editing textual training materials were modified to aid authors of tests. The Navy's Computer Readability Editing System (CRES) aids in producing comprehensible text by flagging uncommon words and awkward sentences, suggesting replacements for awkward words or phrases and giving the readability g...
Article
: Computer-aided authoring and editing are now feasible. This report describes elements of a computer-based publishing system which: creates training materials (presentations, exercises, and tests) containing both text and graphics from a limited data base, edits text for readability providing computer-generated suggestions to the author for simpli...
Article
This study was conducted to determine the extent of the Navy's problem with recruits who speak English as a Second Language (ESL). One hundred and two Hispanic recruits were tested and interviewed at RTC Orlando to assess their proficiency in English and problems that low proficiency might be causing in recruit training. Two groups who work with Sp...
Article
This report is a guide for incorporating different mnemonic techniques into the training curriculum. It is intended mainly for those responsible for the production of written training materials; classroom instructors should also find it useful. The Interservice Procedures for Instructional Systems Development call for the use of mnemonics in curric...

Citations

... Key pre-processing is a technique to transform keys so that their distribution is more suitable for a data structure. There has been extensive research on key pre-processing for index minimization, especially on compacting tries and modifying the processing order of the key parts [2,14,15,40]. Most heuristics and approximations developed are offline algorithms which require that the data set is known and finite. ...
... Some companies even utilize controlled languages like simplified technical English to further restrict grammar and vocabulary. 37 Standardizing patterns can also reduce translation costs when used in combination with translation management systems 38 and improve readability. For example, grammatical patterns differ in style, whether they depict instructive or descriptive content. ...
... These efforts began with attempts to provide "job aids" for novice instructional designers, especially those in military settings (Schulz & Wagner, 1981). Early efforts using computers to automate various instructional development tasks focused on the production of print-based materials for programmed instruction (Braby & Kincaid, 1981;Brecke & Blaiwes, 1981), adaptive testing systems (Weiss, 1979), and, more recently, paper-based training materials (Cantor, 1988). A more ambitious project was undertaken in conjunction with the PLATO system. ...
... The book has 98 pages, with an average of 320 words per page, typed in size 11 font, with line spacing of 1.15. The average Flesch–Kincaid reading ease score of the book is 60, which should be easily understandable by 13- to 15-year-old students [11]. Figure 3 displays the Table of Contents. ...
... Flesch-Kincaid reading level for the scripts, quotes, subtitles, and texts is an average grade level of six (6). [47] In order to add value and to increase the impact of role model, a neurologist and a stroke patient were assigned to narrate the scripts so as to portray their true emotion and seriousness of stroke preventative measures. In addition, cues were highlighted in the video narrative as short quotes, while the subtitles were incorporated to increase comprehension of their messages. ...
... There is an abundance of works about measuring the readability and linguistic complexity of texts. Many readability formulas were proposed for different purposes like the Gunning Fox index [10] and The Flesch-Kincaid formula [7], [11]. Furthermore, several works were conducted about defining linguistic complexity according to morphological, syntactic, semantic, or discursive criteria. ...
... 24 Item inclusion and wording were informed by our multidisciplinary research group, and readability was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid grade level score. 25 The questionnaire was subsequently tested for face validity among 61 patients. 8 Our study is presented here in concordance with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines for reporting observational studies. ...
... Similar multimedia tasks that merely describe a procedure are, for example, operating a simulator(Booher, 1975), assembling a crane(Ellis, Whitehill, & Irick, 1996), operating an oscilloscope(Braby, Kincaid, Scott, & McDaniel, 1982), assembling a loading cart(Stone & Glock, 1981), operating a computer programme(Gellevij, van der Meij, de Jong, & Pieters, 2002) and setting a radio(Fukuoka, Kojima, & Spyridakis, 1999). ...
... Similarly, a recent study by the Navy found that limited-English-speaking Hispanic recruits had higher attrition rates, reduced promotion potential, and decreased job efficiency compared to English-speaking recruits (Salas, Kincaid, & Ashcroft, 1980). These correlates of limited English proficiency have high costs for the military. ...
... Zur Einordnung der Lesbarkeitswerte der deutschen, wie auch der englischen Metrik, kann folgende Tabelle herangezogen werden (zusammengefasst aus [34], [55]): [7], [29], [33], [35], [36], [49]. Damit folgt die Interpretation des Wertes umgekehrt zum bereits vorgestellten FRES Wert (schwierig leicht), da ein niedriger FKG Wert für eine einfachere Lesbarkeit steht. ...