Yu Kyoum Kim's research while affiliated with Seoul National University and other places

Publications (30)

Although sponsorship is considered one of the most important revenue sources, there have been surprisingly few attempts to explain how sponsorship works in the mind of a consumer in the non-profit business segment. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that determine consumer’s attitudes towards sponsorship in college athletics. A conceptual model includes factors related to the sports property/event/team and sponsors. This study also examined the role of a perceived congruence between the sponsor and the sponsored property. A structural equation model test using a convenience sample of 460 students enrolled in a division I-A university suggested that specific characteristics of both the sponsor and the sponsored event are significant determinants of attitudes toward a college athletic sponsorship; and the perceived congruence play an important moderator of sponsorship perception–attitude link.
Brand image forms the basis for making better strategic marketing decisions about targeting specific market segments and positioning a product. The phrase, brand image, however, has been defined and applied in various ways by different researchers. The variations in definition can be confusing with regard to brand image measurement and subsequent assessment of brand equity and brand positioning. A revised definition is proposed—the sum of a customer’s perceptions about a brand generated by the interaction of the cognitive, affective, and evaluative processes in a customer’s mind—to better reflect the concepts discussed relative to brand image in the literature review, content spanning the 1950s to the present. The revised definition will benefit researchers and marketers through use of unified terminology and meaning, allowing for efficient planning and implementation of marketing strategies to build brand equity.
The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review of how consumer satisfaction research in the sport management and the nonsport literatures has developed over the past several decades, and, with that information, to propose a new comparison standard in the formation of sport consumer satisfaction. Though several alternative explanations of consumer satisfaction have been developed, expectancy-disconfirmation framework is the theoretical foundation most used in consumer satisfaction research. However, expectancy-disconfirmation theory does not allow researchers to fully assess the potential complexity of sport consumer satisfaction. Therefore, in addition to recommendations for improving the application of expectancy-disconfirmation, we also propose counterfactual thinking as an alternative comparison standard in determining sport consumer satisfaction. The proposed framework contributes to the literature on sport consumer behavior by illustrating how sport consumers use a "what might have been" rather than "what was" heuristic to explain satisfaction judgments with their sport consumption experiences.
Professional sport organizations are showing increasing interest in proenvironmental strategies, as evidenced in part by the recent incorporation of sustainable design in many facilities. This interest may be driven by the perceived positive outcomes associated with the triple bottom line (TBL), which illustrates the environmental, social, and economic benefits of proenvironmental initiatives. The TBL has been the subject of both acclaim and criticism by scholars and practitioners, and this study provides new insight into its appropriateness as a reflection of proenvironmental organizations' motives. Through standardized interviews, the authors found that professional sport organizations place particular emphasis on the TBL's social component, which represents the objectives of increasing environmental awareness among fans and attracting new consumers. This study contends that the TBL's three components are closely intertwined, and the implementation of commercial and social marketing strategies is necessary to attend to and realize the organizations' stated goal of maximizing all three components.
With legislative budgets tightening and state funding for public education decreasing, colleges and universities should consistently being looking for ways to increase revenue. One major revenue stream for colleges and universities is alumni donations. However, a comprehensive model to better understand the factors that influence alumni to support their graduating university has not been developed. Additionally, the role that athletics plays in attracting alumni contributions to the general university fund has not been fully explored. It is proposed in this chapter that support for the university is influenced by how identified alumni are with their university. Identification with an organization, such as a university, has previously been defined as “the perception of oneness with or belongingness to an organization, where the individual defines him or herself in terms of the organization(s) in which he or she is a member” (Mael and Ashforth, 1992, p. 103). It is proposed in this chapter that identification with a university is influenced by three distinct categories of antecedents. Academic program variables, athletic program variables, and individual variables are all posited to increase university identification. In turn, university identification is proposed to increase the amount of support an alumnus provides to the university. The chapter finishes with a discussion of the potential implications of increased university identification and future research opportunities.
The concept of commitment in sport marketing has largely been regarded as unidimensional. In the broader study of organizational behavior, commitment has been studied as a multidimensional construct. The multiple dimensions of commitment construe that one's behavior can be conveyed by different psychological states, comparable to those found to characterize different forms of commitment. The multidimensional perspective appears to yield more detailed and relevant information regarding a consumer's commitment in predicting specific behaviors. In past decades, a variety of researchers in organizational psychology and organizational behavior have investigated the relationship between motivation and commitment in order to better understand the two processes and their impact on behavior. However, there have been few attempts to integrate the two domains in order to demonstrate how motives and commitment combine to influence sport consumer behavior. Accordingly, a model of commitment and its relationship to sport consumer motives (i.e., antecedent) and behavioral intentions (i.e., consequence) is proposed.
In sports consumer behaviour literature only a small amount of variance in attendance is explained by motives. One possible explanation for this is the existence of a third factor which moderates this relationship between the motives and attendance. Individuals who strongly identify with a sports team demonstrate distinctly different behavioural patterns from weakly identified individuals. Identification may, therefore, serve as a moderator. Accordingly, two hypotheses are generated: (a) the relationship between motives and attendance intention ranges from weak to moderate; and (b) the overarching construct of Identification (Team Identification) moderates the influence of motives on attendance intention. Participants were 207 United States of America National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division IA student-subjects. Instrumentation includes measures of motivation, points of attachment and attendance intention. Through hierarchical Confirmatory Factor Analysis, regression analyses and latent variable scores approach, the results largely support both hypotheses.
One essential and increasingly emphasized area for sport managers to consider is relationship marketing (RM), with particular reference to relationship quality (RQ). Relationship quality is the overall assessment of relational strength and it is important to the study of RM because it provides a lens to view wide-ranging relational constructs and more precisely distinguish sport RM efforts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the RQ construct of reciprocity on the outcome of attendance intention through the established relational mediators of trust and commitment. Several hypotheses were generated. Specifically, reciprocity will positively impact trust, commitment, and attendance intentions. Additionally, both trust and commitment were hypothesized to positively impact attendance intentions. Participants were 423 NCAA Division 1 student-subjects. Through CFA and bootstrap confidence interval (CI) the research hypotheses concerning the direct and mediated effects of reciprocity on sport consumer attendance intentions were supported.
Recruitment of top talent is one of the most important things organizations do, and if they do it well, it can be a source of sustained competitive advantage. In this article, we propose that recruiting effectiveness has a lot to do with the individual qualities and characteristics of the coaches doing the recruiting, in addition to the reputation of the university. Indeed, we argue that recruiters' political skills equip them to select the proper combination of situationally appropriate influence tactics in the formulation of their influence strategy, while also leveraging the organization's reputation in order to ensure recruitment effectiveness. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The importance of relationship quality in relationship marketing has been well documented; however, very little attention has been paid to the issues of relationship quality in sport consumer behavior contexts. We investigated the cognitive structure of relationship quality (RQ) constructs (Trust, Commitment, Intimacy, Identification, Reciprocity) by comparing a general-specific model to a hierarchical model. In addition we empirically tested the link between RQ and three sport consumer behavioral intentions: attendance, media consumption, and licensed merchandise consumption. The model comparison revealed that individual constructs reflected both the distinct aspects of the specific dimensions of relationship quality and the holistic nature of relationship quality, supporting a general-specific model. Results from the simultaneous equation model indicated that for sport consumers, relationship quality with the team explained 56% of the variance in intention to attend games, 75% of intention to consume sport media, and 66% of intention to purchase licensed merchandise.
Purpose – The purpose of the current study is to advance understanding of sponsorship effectiveness by investigating the impact of the quality of the relationship between a consumer and a sport property on sponsorship effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach – A model was developed to examine linkages among relationship quality, sincerity, attitude toward sponsor and intention to purchase a sponsor's product. The measurement model was tested using confirmatory factory analysis. The relationships in the hypothesized model were tested using simultaneous equations. Findings – The results indicate that positive attitude toward a sponsor and intention to purchase said sponsor's product(s) are more likely to occur among the customers who perceive a higher degree of relationship quality with the sport property and believe the sponsor motives are sincere. Research limitations/implications – A conceptual model of sponsorship effectiveness was developed and empirically tested. The tested model provides an expanded view of relationship quality and its impact on key variables of sponsorship effectiveness. Practical implications – Provided in this study is a framework for both sponsors and sport teams that can be used to understand some of the ways in which sponsorship works. The findings suggest that sponsors should leverage their activities to communicate sincere motives, not just “doing business”. For the sport property, the implication is developing quality relationships with consumers, and being able to promote such relationships to prospective sponsors. Originality/value – Relationship quality has been previously shown to influence various behavioral aspects related to partners in business-to-business relationships. This study extends the literature by examining the effect of business-to-consumer relationship quality on the expected outcomes associated with a business-to-business relationship.
This paper proposes a framework that focuses on instilling feelings of gratitude within consumers. Participant sports events are often funded largely by sponsorship revenues, and their consumer base is considered to represent an identifiably unique market. These conditions are argued to be favourable for integrating a gratitude framework. A model is presented that depicts gratitude as a mediating mechanism within a reciprocal relationship between the sponsor and the consumers. It includes purchase intentions as the behavioural outcome of gratitude. The findings suggest that incorporating feelings of gratitude may prove to be advantageous for potential sponsors within the participant sports industry.
Although the understanding of both positive and negative factors influencing sports consumption is essential, previous research has mainly focused on motivators. The purpose of this study was to examine three different models of constraints and motivators that influence attendance: a correlated model, a hierarchical model and a moderated model. Twenty factors were identified and classified into four main categories. The results indicated that 16 out of 20 motivators and constraints had a significant relationship with attendance in the theoretically expected direction.
While previous research in the sponsorship context demonstrates a positive and direct relationship between corporate image and purchase intention, little empirical research considers moderator variables that fall within the realm of the corporate image and purchase behavior. Against this condition, the moderating impact of selected personal characteristics and situational factors on the corporate image-purchase behavior link was analyzed. As a result of the moderating tests, age, income, and awareness (i.e., consumers' ability to recall and recognize the event sponsors) are found to be important moderators of the corporate image-purchase behavior link. From a managerial perspective, showing the moderating role of demographics and awareness of sponsorship activities, this study offers sponsorship and event managers an effective way to deal with sponsorship selection decision.
Sport provides a unique opportunity to explore how emotions operate in people. However, the prevailing sport consumer behavior research has focused on emotion as an outcome variable and little research has examined the motivational function of such transitory emotional states on subsequent behavior and cognitive processing. The purpose of this research is to investigate the approach/avoidance characteristics of emotion in a spectator sport setting. We manipulated participants' emotional state by using a fictitious publicity about their favorite team and examined its effect on behavioral and cognitive responses to marketing stimuli. Study 1 examined the effect of message-induced emotion on participants' acceptance of a promotional item. In an effort to identify the underlying mechanism of the stimulus-behavior link, Study 2 investigated whether such message-induced emotions influenced brand-related product evaluation. Findings suggest that emotions elicited from a single exposure to a written communication acted as a crucial motivator of information processing and behavior.
The purpose of this research was to develop the Sports Consumer-Team Relationship Quality Scale (SCTRQS). In Study I, content validity was established through a comprehensive review of literature and tests of content validity, including expert review. Based on the assessment of psychometric properties, theoretical relevance of the items and parsimoniousness of the scale, items were refined for two following studies. Results indicated that the SCTRQS would be a valid tool for marketers and managers to assess relationship quality with their consumers for marketing strategies, effectiveness of advertising campaigns, sponsorship value and value for stakeholders.
Most literature on sport fan behaviors has focused on highly identified or loyal sport fans. While the literature has found that factors influencing current sport fans and their behaviors are related to, and based on, various psychological, social, and cultural factors, only a limited number of studies have investigated what factors initially attract individuals to consume sport. Curiosity has been found to be one of the crucial motivators that initially influence human exploratory behaviors in many domains. Using theories of curiosity, the present review aims to shed light on the role of curiosity in explaining various sport fan behaviors.
Sport consumers are increasingly discontented and disconnected with sport organizations and researchers have advocated a fundamental shift in sport marketing from a traditional exchange paradigm to a relationship paradigm. Relationship quality is critical to understanding sport consumer-organization relationships because it can: (a) render a platform to organize wide-ranging relational constructs; (b) provide insight into evaluating relationship-marketing effectiveness; and (c) diagnose and address problems in relationships. Therefore, we propose a conceptual framework of sport consumerorganization relationship quality that consists of three main components. First, we specify that relationship quality consists of five distinct but related relational constructs (trust, commitment, intimacy, self-connection, and reciprocity). Second, we suggest that relationship quality influences word of mouth, media consumption, licensed-product consumption, and attendance behaviors. Finally, we argue that psychographic factors such as relationship styles, relationship drive, and general interpersonal orientation are moderators, as well as demographic factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, region, and income.
Despite the growing interest in social media and user-generated content, both aca-demics and practitioners are struggling to understand the value and consequences of social media (e.g., blogs). This study employed a 2 (media source: mainstream/ social media) × 2 (message valence: positive/negative) × 2 (team identification: high/low) between-subjects design on source credibility and attitude toward an article. Positive and negative messages about the university's varsity men's basketball team were presented in either the mainstream media (sport magazine) or a user-generated format (blog). The results revealed that message valence had a significant main impact on triggering biased source evaluation and attitude toward the message. In turn, media source had a significant main effect on source expertise, but no main effects were found for trustworthiness and attitude. Team identification moderated the effect of media source on cognitive processing, sug-gesting that highly identified fans evaluated mainstream content more favorably, whereas less identified fans preferred user-generated content. With the exponential growth of social media and user-generated content, many sport entities try to identify ways to make such media trends into a meaningful communication tool (Fisher & Mickle, 2010). User-generated content is under-stood as the various forms of media content (e.g., blogs, Twitter, Facebook, etc.)
Sporting events not only attract sport participants, spectators, and tourists to the host city, but also increase media attention and create positive impact on a community. Currently, numerous martial arts events (MA) are held in the US. However, scholarly efforts have not been made to understand the spectator profile in MA events. The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic characteristics of US Open Taekwondo event spectators and their perceived event quality and satisfaction by focusing on gender and age segments. The results showed that event quality perceptions vary depending on gender and age groups. Given these results, implications for future study and practice for event managers are discussed.
Cause-related marketing (CRM) refers to the marketing strategy an organization uses to associate itself with a good cause. Even though CRM decisions may be partly charitable, they may also serve corporate self-interest. Although this area of inquiry is growing, CRM's strategic potential as an effective management tool for connecting sport organizations (i.e., teams) with consumers has not been thoroughly examined in a sport management context. In order to provide an improved picture of spectator sport consumers' perceptions toward a sport team's CRM initiatives, we developed a structural model that incorporates perceived CRM, attitudes toward the team, and re-attendance intention. Using LISREL analysis, the findings showed that CRM's effect on re-attendance intention was completely mediated through the attitude toward the team. In addition, perceptions toward the team's motive for CRM did not vary CRM's effect on attitude and behavioral intention. The lack of interaction effect might provide evidence that there may be universal appeal and effectiveness of CRM in a spectator sport context. Consequently, the findings provide a useful rationale for making managerial decisions about implementing and maintaining CRM efforts in sport organization.
Cause-related marketing (CRM) refers to the marketing strategy an organization uses to associate itself with a good cause. Even though CRM decisions may be partly charitable, they may also serve corporate self-interest. Although this area of inquiry is growing, CRM's strategic potential as an effective management tool for connecting sport organizations (i.e., teams) with consumers has not been thoroughly examined in a sport management context. In order to provide an improved picture of spectator sport consumers' perceptions toward a sport team's CRM initiatives, we developed a structural model that incorporates perceived CRM, attitudes toward the team, and re-attendance intention. Using LISREL analysis, the findings showed that CRM's effect on re-attendance intention was completely mediated through the attitude toward the team. In addition, perceptions toward the team's motive for CRM did not vary CRM's effect on attitude and behavioral intention. The lack of interaction effect might provide evidence that there may be universal appeal and effectiveness of CRM in a spectator sport context. Consequently, the findings provide a useful rationale for making managerial decisions about implementing and maintaining CRM efforts in sport organization.
This study focused on developing a model to explain relationships among constraints, motivators, and attendance, and empirically test the proposed model within the spectator sport context. The proposed model explained 34% of variance in Attendance. Results showed that Attachment to the Team, an internal motivator, entered first and explained approximately 21% of the variance in attendance. Lack of Success, an internal constraint, entered next and explained almost 10% additional variance. Leisure Alternatives, an external constraint entered next and explained an additional 3%. The ability to properly evaluate constraints and motivators gives sport marketers the opportunity to more effectively serve existing fans, as well as attract new fans.
Purpose – Since the introduction of martial arts in the global community through a variety of international sport events, the sport of Taekwondo (TKD) has grown rapidly. Although the magnitude of the TKD market has increased, few systematic studies have been conducted to understand TKD participants, particularly consumer variables associated with TKD events. The rapid growth of TKD as a global cultural product warrants a better understanding of event consumers and their decision‐making processes. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to investigate consumers' quality perceptions and satisfaction by focusing on their sport involvement and identification. Design/methodology/approach – Research respondents (n = 215) were spectators of the 2007 US Open TKD Championship, an annual event held by USA Taekwondo Inc. Findings – Results suggest that identification and involvement positively influence event quality perceptions and satisfaction. Specifically, highly identified fans/competitors are highly satisfied and perceive service quality more positively. This study proceeds to a discussion of theoretical implications and future opportunities for event managers. Originality/value – Until now, there has not been substantial research on these issues. It is anticipated that the results of this study may enhance the understanding of a particular TKD market in the USA and provide guidance for developing effective marketing strategies and maintaining current event successes. Therefore, the scholarly effort aimed at understanding these issues will make both scientific and practical contributions.
Although the martial arts industry is rapidly evolving into a mature and highly competitive marketplace, only a few studies have been conducted to understand why people participate in martial arts. The purpose of this study is to examine motivation factors that influence an individual's participation in martial arts to provide leaders of the industry with meaningful managerial implications. The researchers collected data from the 2004 Battle of Columbus Martial Arts World Games IV, one of the most popular martial arts events in the US. The results of a series of MANOVA tests revealed that these martial arts participants (N = 307) are highly motivated by growth-related motivation (e.g. value development and actualisation). In addition, the findings indicate that motivation of martial arts practitioners varies across types of martial arts disciplines, competition orientation and past experiences. Given these results, implications for future research and practice are discussed.
This study examined the relationship between cognitive and affective images of horse racing and the influences of the two image dimensions on the intention to attend horse racing events. Data was collected through an online survey method using World Survey in South Korea. The questionnaire was e‐mailed to panel members of the World Survey who are involved in various online media. Canonical correlation and logistic regression were used to test hypotheses. The results showed that cognitive images of horse racing significantly influenced affective images and that both cognitive and affective images of horse racing positively influenced the intention to visit. The results of this paper supported previous destination image studies and also verified that the destination image concept could be applied to the study of horse racing image. In addition, this study indicated that people who believe horse racing image is related to wholesomeness and excitement expressed a higher intention to visit.
Retaining volunteers is a critical issue for sport organizations utilizing volunteer labor. Based on the theory of planned behavior, the theory of work adjustment, psychological contract theory, two frameworks (person-environment fit and empowerment), and previous empirical results, we proposed and tested three models to explain intention to continue Volunteering with 224 volunteers from the Special Olympics State Summer Games. We accepted a model in which Empowerment fully mediated the relationship between Person-Environment Fit and Intention to Continue Volunteering. We also found that Psychological Contract Fulfillment moderated the relationship between Fit and Empowerment.


Top co-authors (31)

Yong Jae Ko
  • University of Florida
Galen T. Trail
  • Seattle University
Jeffrey D. James
  • Florida State University
Jeoung Hak Lee
  • Kyung Hee University
Joseph S. Valacich
  • The University of Arizona


Seoul National University
  • Department of Physics Education
Florida State University
  • Department of Sport Management

Publication Stats