[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In Type 1 diabetic (T1D) human monocytes, STAT5 aberrantly binds to epigenetic regulatory sites of two proinflammatory genes, CSF2 (encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) and PTGS2 (encoding prostaglandin synthase 2/cyclooxygenase 2). Bicongenic B6.NOD C11bxC1tb mice re-create this phenotype of T1D monocytes with only two nonobese diabetic (NOD) Idd subloci (130.8 Mb-149.7 Mb, of Idd5 on Chr 1 and 32.08-53.85 Mb of Idd4.3 on Chr11) on C57BL/6 genetic background. These two Idd loci interact through STAT5 binding at upstream regulatory regions affecting Csf2 (Chr 11) and Ptgs2 (Chr 1) expression. B6.NODC11bxC1tb mice exhibited hyperglycemia and immune destruction of pancreatic islets between 8 and 30 weeks of age, with 12%-22% penetrance. Thus, B6.NODC11bxC1tb mice embody NOD epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression in myeloid cells, and this defect appears to be sufficient to impart genetic susceptibility to diabetes in an otherwise genetically nonautoimmune mouse.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Genetics & Epigenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi) hold promise as a treatment for a variety of disorders ranging from those in oncology to diseases thought as immune mediated. Tyrphostin AG490 is a potent Jak-Stat TKi shown effective in the prevention of allograft transplant rejection, experimental autoimmune disease, as well as the treatment of cancer. However, given its ability to modulate this important but pleiotropic intracellular pathway, we thought that it is important to examine its effects on glucose metabolism and expression of major transcription factors and adipokines associated with insulin insensitivity and diabetes. We investigated the metabolic effects of AG490 on glucose levels in vivo using an animal model of diabetes, nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, and transcription factor expression through assessment of human adipocytes. AG490 treatment of young nondiabetic NOD mice significantly reduced blood glucose levels (p = 0.002). In vitro, treatment of adipocytes with rosiglitazone, an insulin sensitizer that binds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) receptors and increases the adipocyte response to insulin, significantly increased the expression of the antidiabetic adipokine adiponectin. Importantly, the combination of rosiglitazone plus Tyrphostin AG490 further increased this effect and was specifically associated with significant upregulation of C-enhanced binding protein (C/EBP) (p < 0.0001). In terms of the mechanism underlying this action, regulatory regions of the PPARγ, ADIPOQ, and C/EBP contain the Stat5 DNA-binding sequences and were demonstrated, by gel shift experiments in vitro. These data suggest that blocking Jak-Stat signaling with AG490 reduces blood glucose levels and modulates the expression of transcription factors previously associated with diabetes, thereby supporting its potential as a therapy for this disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Previously, we have reported that the Jak-Stat signaling pathway is defective in NOD mice. In this study, prediabetic female NOD mice (4 weeks) were treated by intraperitoneal injection either with AG490 or DMSO three times per week for 4 consecutive weeks, followed by once a week for an additional 6 weeks. The onset of diabetes was attenuated in NOD mice treated with AG490 relative to DMSO treated control mice (p < 0.02). From an immunological standpoint, AG490 induced the expression of Foxp3 in CD4(+)CD25(-) T-cells and down-regulated expression of co-stimulatory molecules in dendritic cells (DC) both in vitro and in vivo. AG490 treated CD4+CD25- T-cells and DC in vitro, acquired regulatory functions; namely, the ability to suppress proliferation of a responding cell population in vitro. AG490 treatment resulted in significant reduction of blood glucose values and increased expression of PPARγ in splenocytes and markedly increased expression PPARγ2 but not PPARγ1 in adipocyte in vitro. Presence of multiple Stat5 DNA binding consensus sequences within the promoter region of the PPARγ gene in human and in mouse suggests that PPARγ is downstream to the Jak-Stat signaling pathway. This study highlights a critical role of the Jak-Stat signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of T1D and suggests that blocking the Jak-Stat signaling pathway by AG490 as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor may provide an effective means for preventing autoimmune T1D via both immunological and metabolic effects.
No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Clinical Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The effects of AG490 on members of the Jak-Stat in the pancreas. Prediabetic NOD mice (4 week) were treated either with AG490 or DMSO three times per week for 5 consecutive weeks and were sacrificed one week after the last injection at week 10. Pancreata were fixed and immunofluorescence staining was performed on microscopic slides as described in materials and methods. At least 30 islets per marker per group were analyzed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Recent studies in the NOD (non-obese diabetic) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D) support the notion that tyrosine kinase inhibitors have the potential for modulating disease development. However, the therapeutic effects of AG490 on the development of T1D are unknown.
Female NOD mice were treated with AG490 (i.p, 1 mg/mouse) or DMSO starting at either 4 or 8 week of age, for five consecutive week, then once per week for 5 additional week. Analyses for the development and/or reversal of diabetes, insulitis, adoptive transfer, and other mechanistic studies were performed.
AG490 significantly inhibited the development of T1D (p = 0.02, p = 0.005; at two different time points). Monotherapy of newly diagnosed diabetic NOD mice with AG490 markedly resulted in disease remission in treated animals (n = 23) in comparision to the absolute inability (0%; 0/10, p = 0.003, Log-rank test) of DMSO and sustained eugluycemia was maintained for several months following drug withdrawal. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of splenocytes from AG490 treated NOD mice failed to transfer diabetes to recipient NOD.Scid mice. CD4 T-cells as well as bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from AG490 treated mice, showed higher expression of Foxp3 (p<0.004) and lower expression of co-stimulatory molecules, respectively. Screening of the mouse immune response gene arrary indicates that expression of costimulaotry molecule Ctla4 was upregulated in CD4+ T-cell in NOD mice treated with AG490, suggesting that AG490 is not a negative regulator of the immune system.
The use of such agents, given their extensive safety profiles, provides a strong foundation for their translation to humans with or at increased risk for the disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: AG490 reverses diabetes in NOD mice. Reversal of diabetes was performed by administration of AG490 via i.p route. Recently diagnosed diabetic NOD mice (n = 23) were under AG490 treatment for a period of 21 weeks. The age of disease onset, blood glucose level at disease onset and the mean of blood glucose level after treatment and also total number of AG490 injections are shown. Bold cases represent NOD mouse in which AG490 was effective and successfully established euglycemia (n = 7). * = Represents the mean of the blood glucose level and standard deviation of the mean in NOD mice from two weeks post diabetes onset till the end of the therapy is shown (week 21).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The mouse immune response genes to AG490 treatment. Female NOD mice were treated with AG490 or DMSO 3x/week for 5 consecutive weeks and then they were sacrificed one week after the last injection at week 10. Total RNA of purified CD4+ T-cells of splenocytes of treated mice and controls were pooled together and then subjected to real-time RT PCR using the mouse immune response genes array (Applied Biosystems) following manufacturer's instructions. Data analyzing was performed using integrated software based on expression of two housekeeping genes and then calibrated based on the control mice (DMSO treated mice). Shown represents fold change gene expression in AG490 treated NOD mice when compared with the sham treated mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Myeloid cells from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients overexpress granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulation factor (GM-CSF). This overproduction prolongs the activation of signal transduction and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) proteins, involved in GM-CSF-induced control of myeloid cell gene expression. We found that GM-CSF can regulate the binding of STAT5 on the promoter of its own gene, Csf2, within regions previously identified as sites of chromatin epigenetic modification important to the regulation of GM-CSF during myeloid differentiation and inflammation. We found multiple sequence polymorphisms within NOD mouse chromosome 11 Idd4.3 diabetes susceptibility region that alter STAT5 GAS binding sequences within the Csf2 promoter. STAT5 binding at these sites in vivo is increased significantly in GM-CSF-stimulated-bone marrow cells and in unactivated, high GM-CSF-producing macrophages from NOD mice as compared to non-autoimmune C57BL/6 mouse myeloid cells. Thus, GM-CSF overproduction by NOD myeloid cells may be perpetuating a positive epigenetic regulatory feedback on its own gene expression through its induction of STAT5 binding to its promoter. These findings suggest that aberrant STAT5 binding at epigenetic regulatory sites may contribute directly to immunopathology through cytokine-induced gene expression dysregulation that can derail myeloid differentiation and increase inflammatory responsiveness.
Preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Journal of Autoimmunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We investigate JAK-STAT5 activation and its relationship to full-length Stat5B (FL-Stat5) and constitutive phosphorylated carboxy-truncated Stat5B (ct-pStat5) in four different strains of mouse. Our electrophoresis mobility shift assays data indicate constitutive phosphorylation of full-length-Stat5 (p<0.001) and DNA binding in NOD but not in B6 mice. Our data suggest that the relative ratio of FL-Stat5: ct-Stat5 in NOD is 5- to 8-fold lower (p<0.0001) when compared with normal B6 mice. Additionally, EMSAs data from B6.NOD/c11 suggest contribution of Idd4 susceptibility locus on chromosome 11 in constitutive phosphorylation of Stat5 in NOD mice. The presence of ct-pStat5 in regulatory T cells of NOD mice suggests this form of Stat5 is associated with impaired function of Tregs in NOD mouse. In agreement with our previous report the JAK-Stat5B defective pathway in NOD mice along with other defective factors is associated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.
No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (Treg), characterized as CD4(+)/CD25(+hi) T cells, are critical for sustaining and promoting immune tolerance. Treg are highly dependent on IL-2 and IL-2 signaling to maintain their numbers and function and interruption of this pathway promotes autoimmunity. The transcription factor, Foxp3, is also required for Treg function as defective Foxp3 promotes autoimmunity in both mice and humans. We previously reported a point mutation in the DNA-binding domain of the NOD STAT5B gene that limits DNA binding when compared to wild-type STAT5 mice. Based on the presence of five STAT5B consensus sequences in the Foxp3 promotor, we hypothesized a critical linkage between IL-2 signaling/STAT5B and Foxp3 expression in Treg. Our data show IL-2 activates long-form (LF) STAT5 and sustains Foxp3 expression in Treg. In contrast, CD4(+)/CD25(-) T cells do not active LF STAT5 and do not express Foxp3 under the same conditions. In addition, blocking LF STAT5 activation with a Jak inhibitor (AG-490) significantly reduced Foxp3 expression in Treg. Examination of human Treg using flow cytometry and intracellular staining for Foxp3 expression likewise demonstrates that IL-2 maintains Foxp3 expression through LF STAT5 signaling. These studies reveal a critical link between IL-2 mediated JAK-STAT5 signaling and the maintenance of Foxp3 expression in Treg of mice and humans.
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A point mutation in the Stat5b DNA binding domain in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse was shown to have weaker DNA binding compared with the B6 Stat5b. Here, we assessed the binding ability of the mutant Stat5b in the B6 genetic background (B6.NOD-c11) and the wild-type Stat5b in the NOD background (NOD.Lc11). To our surprise, the binding ability of Stat5b is inconsistent with the presence or absence of the Stat5b mutation in these congenic mice but is correlated with the expression levels of the Crkl protein, which was coprecipitated by an anti-Stat5b antibody. Both the expression of Crkl and the Stat5b binding ability are the highest in B6.NOD-c11 and the lowest in NOD while intermediate in B6 and NOD.Lc11 mice. We demonstrated that the adapter molecule Crkl can bind Stat5b and that the Crkl protein is a Stat5b binding cofactor. More importantly, profection of Crkl recombinant protein significantly increased Stat5b binding ability and rescued the binding defect of the NOD mutant Stat5b, suggesting that Crkl is a key regulatory molecule for Stat5b binding. Therefore, the defective Crkl expression may contribute to the development of diabetes in the NOD mice by exacerbating the defective Stat5b binding ability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Autocrine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) sequentially activates intracellular components in monocyte/macrophage production of the pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory prostanoid, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). GM-CSF first induces STAT5 signaling protein phosphorylation, then prostaglandin synthase 2 (COX2/PGS2) gene expression, and finally IL-10 production, to downregulate the cascade. Without activation, monocytes of at-risk, type 1 diabetic (T1D), and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) humans, and macrophages of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice have aberrantly high GM-CSF, PGS2, and PGE2 expression, but normal levels of IL-10. After GM-CSF stimulation, repressor STAT5A and B isoforms (80-77kDa) in autoimmune human and NOD monocytes and activator STAT5A (96-94kDa) and B (94-92kDa) isoforms in NOD macrophages stay persistently tyrosine phosphorylated. This STAT5 phosphorylation persisted despite treatment in vitro with IL-10, anti-GM-CSF antibody, or the JAK2/3 inhibitor, AG490. Phosphorylated STAT5 repressor isoforms in autoimmune monocytes had diminished DNA binding capacity on GAS sequences found in the PGS2 gene enhancer. In contrast, STAT5 activator isoforms in NOD macrophages retained their DNA binding capacity on these sites much longer than in healthy control strain macrophages. These findings suggest that STAT5 dysfunction may contribute to dysregulation of GM-CSF signaling and gene activation, including PGS2, in autoimmune monocytes and macrophages.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · Journal of Autoimmunity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A number of cytokines that finely regulate immune response have been implicated in the pathogenesis or protection of type
1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases. It is, therefore, of pivotal importance to examine a family of proteins that serve
as signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), which regulate the transcription of a variety of cytokines.
We report here a defective gene (Stat5b) located on chromosome 11 within a previously mapped T1D susceptibility interval (Idd4) in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Our sequencing analysis revealed a unique mutation C1462A that results in a leucine
to methionine (L327M) in Stat5b of NOD mice. Leu327, the first residue in the DNA binding domain of STAT proteins, is conserved in all identified mammalian STAT proteins. Homology
modeling predicted that the mutant Stat5b has a weaker DNA binding, which was confirmed by DNA-protein binding assays. The
inapt transcriptional regulation ability of the mutated Stat5b is proved by decreased levels of RNA of Stat5b-regulated genes
(IL-2Rβ and Pim1). Consequently, IL-2Rβ and Pim1 proteins were shown by Western blotting to have lower levels in NOD compared with
normal B6 mice. These proteins have been implicated in immune regulation, apoptosis, activation-induced cell death, and control
of autoimmunity. Therefore, the Stat5b pathway is a key molecular defect in NOD mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We profiled the expression of 5,760 clones from a kidney subtraction library in the kidneys of three groups of NOD mice: nondiabetic, new-onset, and long-term diabetic. A total of 27 genes had lower expression and 1 gene (Gpx3) had higher expression in the new-onset diabetic mice compared with nondiabetic control NOD mice (P < 0.001). Similarly, 19 of the above 27 genes and 7 additional genes had higher expression and the Gpx3 gene had lower expression in long-term diabetic mice compared with controls (P < 0.001). Interestingly, only three genes may be different between new-onset and long-term diabetic mice (P < 0.0004). These genes are from diverse functional groups, including oxidative phosphorylation, free radical neutralization, channels, pumps, lipid processing, transcription and translation machinery, protein trafficking, constitutive protein processing, and immune function. The majority of these genes fall into four signaling pathways: insulin, transforming growth factor-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. The most significant expression change was found for the stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) gene (P < 10(-7)). The lower expression levels of the SCD1 gene in both diabetic groups compared with controls were further confirmed by Northern blot analysis and immunohistochemistry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The IL-12p40 locus has recently been shown to be associated with type 1 diabetes (1). Here, we report the identification of novel microsatellite and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the IL-12p40 gene and a significant association between a (ATT)n repeat marker and type 1 diabetes in 364 U.S. Caucasian sib-pair families (P < 0.006). Haplotype analysis using the (ATT)n repeat (D5S2941) and the C1159A SNP at the 3' untranslated region of IL-12p40 showed a significant association (P = 0.02). Expression studies in individuals heterozygous for the C1159A SNP indicated that the expression of the 1159A allele is approximately 50% higher than that of the 1159C allele. These results provide genetic and functional evidence for IL-12p40 as a type 1 diabetes susceptibility gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein is a putative transcription regulator with two plant homeodomain-type zinc fingers,
a putative DNA-binding domain (SAND), and four nuclear receptor binding LXXLL motifs. We have shown here thatin vitro, recombinant AIRE can form homodimers and homotetramers that were also detected in thymic protein extracts. Recombinant AIRE
also oligomerizes spontaneously upon phosphorylation by cAMP dependent protein kinase A or protein kinase C. Similarly, thymic
AIRE protein is phosphorylated at the tyrosine and serine/threonine residues. AIRE dimers and tetramers, but not the monomers,
can bind to G-doublets with the ATTGGTTA motif and the TTATTA-box. Competition assays revealed that sequences with one TTATTA
motif and two tandem repeats of ATTGGTTA had the highest binding affinity. These findings demonstrate that AIRE is an important
DNA binding molecule involved in immune regulation.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2001 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We report here the cloning and characterization of a novel gene belonging to the tubby superfamily proteins (TUSP) in mouse and human. The mouse Tusp cDNA is 9120 bp in length and encodes a deduced protein of 1547 amino acids, while the human TUSP gene is 11,127 bp and encodes a deduced protein of 1544 amino acids. The human and mouse genes are 87% identical for their nucleotide sequences and 85% identical for their amino acid sequences. The protein sequences of these genes are 40-48% identical to other tubby family proteins at the C-terminal conserved 'tubby domain'. In addition, the TUSP proteins contain a tubby signature motif (FXGRVTQ), two bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs) at the C-terminal, two proline-rich regions, one WD40 repeat region and one suppressor of cytokines signaling domain. Transfection assay with green fluorescent protein-tagged TUSP expression constructs showed that the complete TUSP protein and the N-terminal portion of TUSP are localized in the cytoplasm but the C-terminal portion with the two NLSs produced distinct dots or spots localized in the cytoplasm. Northern blotting analysis showed that the major transcript with the complete coding sequence is expressed mainly in the brain, skeletal muscle, testis and kidney. Radiation hybrid mapping localized the mouse gene to chromosome 17q13 and the human TUSP gene to chromosome 6q25-q26 near the type 1 diabetes gene IDDM5. However, association analysis in diabetic families with a polymorphic microsatellite marker did not show any evidence for association between TUSP and type 1 diabetes. The precise biological function of the tubby superfamily genes is still unknown; the highly conserved tubby domain in different species, however, suggests that these proteins must have fundamental biological functions in a wide range of multi-cellular organisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Here we describe the cloning, localization, and characterization of a novel mammalian endo-apyrase (LALP1) in human and mouse. The predicted human LALP1 gene encodes a 604-amino acid protein, whereas the mouse Lalp1 gene encodes a 606-amino acid protein. The human and mouse genes have 88% amino acid sequence identity. These genes share
considerable homologies with hLALP70, a recently discovered mammalian lysosomal endo-apyrase. The human LALP1 gene resides on chromosome 10q23–q24 and contains 12 exons and 11 introns covering a genomic region of ∼46 kilobase pairs.
The subcellular localization and enzymatic activity of LALP1 indicated that LALP1 is indeed an endo-apyrase with substrate
preference for nucleoside triphosphates UTP, GTP, and CTP.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2001 · Journal of Biological Chemistry