- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibitors based on a benzo-fused spirocyclic oxazepine scaffold were discovered for stearoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase 1 (SCD1) and subsequently optimized to potent compounds with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles and in vivo efficacy in reducing the desaturation index in a mouse model. Initial optimization revealed potency preferences for the oxazepine core and benzylic positions, while substituents on the piperidine portions were more tolerant and allowed for tuning of potency and PK properties. After preparation and testing of a range of functional groups on the piperidine nitrogen, three classes of analogs were identified with single digit nanomolar potency: glycine amides, heterocycle-linked amides, and thiazoles. Responding to concerns about target localization and potential mechanism-based side effects, an initial effort was also made to improve liver concentration in an available rat PK model. An advanced compound 17m with a 5-carboxy-2-thiazole substructure appended to the spirocyclic piperidine scaffold was developed which satisfied the in vitro and in vivo requirements for more detailed studies.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monkey studies were conducted for the preclinical safety assessment of SCH 412499, an adenovirus encoding p21, administered by subconjunctival injection prior to trabeculectomy for postoperative maintenance of the surgical opening. Biodistribution of SCH 412499 was minimal and there was no systemic toxicity. Findings included swollen, partially closed or shut eye(s) and transient congestion in the conjunctiva. A mononuclear cell infiltrate was present in the conjunctiva, choroid and other ocular tissues, but completely or partially resolved over time. Electroretinograms and visual evoked potentials revealed no adverse findings. Thus, the findings are not expected to preclude the clinical investigation of SCH 412499.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mononuclear cell infiltrate (MCI) in the uvea was observed in naïve, untreated (control group) cynomolgus monkeys in approximately 25% of drug safety evaluation studies. The total incidence of MCI in the choroid and the ciliary body was 29% of 342 males and 25% of 306 female monkeys. In the studies in which MCI was present in the ciliary body or choroid, the incidence was as high as 75%. There were no other ocular histopathologic findings in these monkeys. All monkeys were clinically healthy and the eyes were not remarkable when examined ophthalmoscopically.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if adenovirus-mediated p21(WAF-1/Cip-1) (p21) gene therapy can prevent fibroproliferation and wound healing in a rabbit model of glaucoma filtration surgery. In vitro studies were performed using rabbit Tenon fibroblasts harvested from fresh tissue. In vivo studies were conducted in New Zealand white rabbits. A full-thickness sclerotomy was performed under a limbal-based conjunctival flap. Reagents tested included a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus containing the human p21 gene (rAd.p21); the nonspecific marker gene for green fluorescent protein or beta-galactosidase; mitomycin, 0.5 mg/mL; and balanced saline solution. Each treatment was applied episclerally for 5 minutes before the sclerotomy using a soaked cellulose sponge placed under the surgically created conjunctival flap. Independent experiments were conducted to (1) monitor changes in intraocular pressure during a 30-day period after treatment and examine surgical site histological features, (2) examine changes in bleb morphologic features over 30 days, (3) determine outflow facility 14 days after treatment, and (4) examine the localization and persistence of rAd.p21 expression between 3 and 60 days after treatment. Treatment of Tenon fibroblasts with rAd.p21 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell growth in vitro. In vivo, rAd.p21 inhibited wound healing and fibroproliferation after filtration surgery, comparably to mitomycin. Mitomycin caused notable thinning of the bleb wall. In addition, 2 of the 5 mitomycin-treated eyes exhibited an abscess with hypopyon and hyalitis 30 days after surgery, which was not observed in any of the rAd.p21-treated eyes. None of the treatments resulted in a significantly sustained decrease in intraocular pressure during the 30-day period, although mitomycin treatment resulted in a significant (P =.02) increase in outflow facility 2 weeks after surgery in separate animals. Mitomycin- and rAd.p21-treated eyes had functioning blebs at the end of the experiment based on slitlamp examination. Mitomycin and rAd.p21 were effective in preventing fibroproliferation and wound healing in a rabbit model of glaucoma surgery. Mitomycin treatment increased outflow facility in normal-pressure eyes. Gene therapy with rAd.p21 may provide an effective antiproliferative for glaucoma filtration surgery, without the complications associated with mitomycin.