[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon in which a short period of sub-lethal ischemia in one organ protects against subsequent bouts of ischemia in another organ. We hypothesized that RIPC in patients with intermittent claudication would increase muscle tissue resistance to ischemia, thereby resulting in an increased ability to walk.
In a claudication clinic, 52 ambulatory patients who presented with complaints of intermittent claudication in the lower limbs associated with an absent or reduced arterial pulse in the symptomatic limb and/or an ankle-brachial index <0.90 were recruited for this study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups (A, B and C). All of the patients underwent two tests on a treadmill according to the Gardener protocol. Group A was tested first without RIPC. Group A was subjected to RIPC prior to the second treadmill test. Group B was subjected to RIPC prior to the first treadmill test and then was subjected to a treadmill test without RIPC. In Group C (control group), both treadmill tests were performed without RIPC. The first and second tests were conducted seven days apart. Brazilian Clinical Trials: RBR-7TF6TM.
Group A showed a significant increase in the initial claudication distance in the second test compared to the first test.
RIPC increased the initial claudication distance in patients with intermittent claudication; however, RIPC did not affect the total walking distance of the patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Intermittent claudication reflects the presence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of the MetS in claudicants and its correlation with age, gender, localization of arterial obstruction, and symptomatic coronary disease. Patients (n = 170) with intermittent claudication were studied. The mean age was 65 years (33-89). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 98 patients (57.6%). The mean age of patients with MetS was 63.5 years compared with 67.0 years for patients without MetS (P = .027). Considering patients aged ≥65 years, MetS was present in 46 (48.9%) individuals and in 52 (68.4%) patients younger than 65 years (P = .011). Metabolic syndrome must be actively searched for in claudicant patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether oxidized low-density lipoprotein is a suitable predictor of peripheral arterial disease severity. The role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has already been investigated. Its relevance as a predictor of the appearance and worsening of coronary arterial disease is also well known. However, the same is not true regarding peripheral arterial disease.
Eighty-five consecutive patients with an ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) < 0.9 and the presence of either intermittent claudication or critical lower leg ischemia were included. The plasma level of IgG autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein was evaluated through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results were categorized into quartiles according to the ankle-brachial pressure index (a marker of peripheral arterial disease severity), and significant differences were investigated with the Kruskal-Wallis test.
There was no significant difference between the quartiles for this population (p = 0.33). No correlation was found between the ankle-brachial pressure index and oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in subjects with clinically evident peripheral arterial disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations.
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein is not a good predictor of peripheral arterial disease severity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This was a retrospective cohort study aiming to investigate the clinical outcome of patients with intermittent claudication undergoing physical training in whom there was an aggravation of the arterial disease.
Three hundred and sixty-four patients with claudication who presented with femoropopliteal or tibioperoneal obstructions in at least 1 of the lower limbs and who did not have aortic or bilateral iliac obstructions were included. Forty patients developed new stenoses in previously spared arterial segments (confirmed by duplex scanning), which were proximal to preexisting lesions, and formed the progression group, in contrast to the stable group of patients (n = 324) who did not exhibit this worsening of the disease. Follow-up was 276 and 277 days for stable and progression groups, respectively. All patients underwent an unsupervised program of submaximal walking 4 days a week. Changes in maximal walking distance at a progressive treadmill test were appraised during follow-up, with special interest directed to the periods between admission, diagnosis of arterial worsening, and the end of follow-up.
Performance was not significantly different between groups during the entire follow-up period. Furthermore, patients with claudication who evolved with progression of their arteriopathy did not present a reduction of their maximal walking distance in response to the development of new arterial lesions at any time during their follow-up.
Worsening of the peripheral arterial disease in patients with claudication undergoing physical training, manifested as de novo arterial occlusion in proximal and previously spared segments, does not imply in an impairment of their claudication distance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombomodulin (TM) has been described as a marker of endothelial injury in atherosclerosis. The role of TM as a predictor of PAD severity is to be proven. The goal of the present study is to compare the level of plasmatic (TMp) in patients with intermittent claudication with patients with critical ischemia in the lower limbs.
TMp was measured using ELISA in the plasma of 41 patients with intermittent claudication degree 1 and in 40 patients presenting critical ischemia in the lower limbs degrees 2 and 3, according to TASC. The hypotheses of normality and homogeneity of the variance had been proven via Shapiro-Wilk and Levene tests, respectively. The comparison of the TMp between the groups was done using the t-Student test.
No statistically significant difference was observed. The average levels of TMp for intermittent claudication were 5.2 ng/ml (0.78-13.61 ng/ml) and TMp for critical ischemia in the lower limbs were 6.34 (0.82-18.22 ng/ml) where p=0.265.
TMp does not seem to be an appropriate marker for PAD severity.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Thrombosis Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of predictive factors for the evolution of arterial grafts in patients with critical ischemia have been well defined in clinical studies, including diabetes mellitus, dialytic renal insufficiency, smoking, and distal arterial runoff. The goal of this study was to determine whether patients with critical ischemia undergoing arterial reconstruction in which ischemic lesions appeared spontaneously, compared to those in which the ischemic lesion appeared following an external aggression to the limb present different patterns of evolution.
From February 2002 to January 2004, 100 patients undergoing infra-inguinal arterial reconstruction were followed. They were divided into 2 groups: 1) the spontaneous group (n = 52), comprising individuals presenting with ischemic lesions of spontaneous origin and 2) the external aggression to the limb group (n = 48), comprising individuals for which an external causal mechanism for the appearance of the ischemic lesion was identified. The variables analyzed were limb salvage and graft functioning rates.
Patients with spontaneous lesions had rates of limb salvage and graft functioning significantly lower than those for patients with lesions that were secondary to external aggression (42.3% versus 87.5%, respectively for both outcomes; P <.001).
The absence of an external aggression as a contributing factor to a critical ischemic lesion in the lower limb may result in a poorer evolution of both graft function and limb salvage following arterial revascularization. However, this factor is not expected to directly influence the case conduct, since almost half of the patients without evident external aggression had good graft functioning and limb salvage. This prognostic factor should be used just as all others are, i.e., to give patients and doctors a better idea of the possible evolution in such cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the results including long-term follow-up obtained with endovascular treatment of patients with intermittent claudication who did not experience clinical improvement with conservative treatment.
From January 1992 to January 2002, 62 of 1380 patients (4.5%) with intermittent claudication underwent endovascular treatment and were followed up for up to 120 months (mean 76 months). The variables analyzed were the functioning of the arterial segment undergoing the endovascular procedure, the evolution of the maximum walking distance, and incidence of related morbidity and mortality.
Fifty-two patients (84%) experienced no walking limitation after the procedure, and 6 patients (10%) improved but still exhibited some degree of limitation, for a total improved outcome of 94%. The patency rate was 82%. There was no intraoperative mortality. One primary failure and one immediate thrombosis occurred, and both were surgically corrected. Thrombosis of the treated artery occurred in 6 patients 12, 16, 25, 29, 62, and 66 months after the procedure. These patients started to experience intermittent claudication with a walking distance to onset that was similar to their presurgical distance to onset. During follow-up, a mortality rate of 12.9% (8 patients) was observed, 6 due to myocardial infarctions and 2 due cerebral infarction. Three patients underwent coronary bypasses 22, 36, and 55 months after the endovascular surgery, and 2 patients underwent coronary angioplasty after 6 and 26 months. The mean follow up period was 76 months (range 0-120 months).
This study shows that endovascular treatment of intermittent claudication brought about a lasting regression of the ischemic conditions in a significant number of patients, with excellent patency rates. It was concluded that this is a good alternative for selected patients, with low rates of complications and positive long-term results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the results obtained with surgical treatment of patients with intermittent claudication (IC) who did not clinically improve with conservative treatment, accompanied by a long follow-up (average 6 years).
From January 1992 to January 2002, 26 patients treated surgically in a group of 1380 IC patient, representing 1.88% of the total.
Sixteen patients did not experience walking limitations after the surgery. Nine patients improved, however, with some degree of limitation. No intraoperative mortalities occurred. Three patients experienced thrombosis of the treated artery 6, 48, and 60 months after the procedure and started to suffer IC with onset at the same distances as before the surgery. During the long-term follow-up, we observed a mortality rate of 23.0% due to myocardial infarctions (4 patients), renal insufficiency (1 patient), and cerebral infarction (1 patient). Two patients underwent coronary bypasses 2 and 4 years after the vascular surgery, and one underwent coronary angioplasty after 3 years of follow-up. The mean follow-up was 73 months.
In our study, the results from surgical treatment of IC brought about a lasting regression of the ischemic conditions in a significant number of patients, with excellent patency rates (88.4%). We conclude that this is a good alternative for select patients, with low rates of complications and positive long-term results.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2004 · Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJETIVO: Estudar prospectivamente os resultados obtidos com o tratamento cirúrgico de portadores de claudicação intermitente que não obtiveram melhora clínica com o tratamento conservador, acompanhados, em média, por 6 anos. MÉTODOS: De janeiro/1992 a janeiro/2002 foram acompanhados 26 pacientes tratados cirurgicamente de um grupo de 1380 portadores de claudicação intermitente, admitidos num ambulatório de doença arterial obstrutiva periférica e claudicação intermitente, representando 1,88% do total. RESULTADOS: Não referiam limitação para deambular após a cirurgia 16 pacientes. Experimentaram melhora nove, porém com algum grau de limitação, e dois, pequena melhora na distância máxima de marcha. Não houve mortalidade intra-operatória. Três pacientes apresentaram trombose da artéria tratada 6,48 e 60 meses após o procedimento e passaram a apresentar claudicação intermitente para as distâncias prévias à cirurgia. Durante o seguimento a longo prazo observamos uma mortalidade de 23,0% devido a infarto agudo do miocárdio (4 casos), insuficiência renal (um) e acidente vascular cerebral (um). Dois pacientes foram submetidos a revascularização do miocárdio 2 e 4 anos após a reconstrução arterial e um ainda necessitou angioplastia coronariana com 3 anos de seguimento. O tempo de seguimento médio foi de 73 meses. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico diminuiu sintomas isquêmicos da claudicação intermitente em muitos pacientes, com excelente taxa de patência (88,4%) dos enxertos, tornando-se em pacientes que não apresentam melhora com tratamento clínico, boa alternativa com baixas taxas de complicações e bons resultados a longo prazo.
Full-text · Article · May 2004 · Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a need for noninvasive methods for the early identification of patients with intermittent claudication who need surgical treatment. Newer magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) techniques allow detailed study of the arterial tree with image quality similar to that of conventional arteriography. From April 1997 to January 2001, 30 patients with intermittent claudication of the lower limbs were studied with both imaging methods. In each case, the MRA images were examined first and the arteriographic images were examined 15 days later. Examiners interpreting the arteriographic images were blinded to the results of the corresponding MRA images. After each examination (MRA and arteriography), a vascular surgeon suggested a surgical plan. MRA showed results similar to those of arteriography, although with inferior image quality. No patient had an allergic reaction or side effects due to administration of contrast material. There was total agreement between MRA and arteriography in regard to the morphologic analysis and proposed surgical plans in every case. In conclusion, MRA is a feasible, useful, and less invasive alternative for the morphologic evaluation of the aortofemoral area in patients with intermittent claudication of lower limbs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many patients with intermittent claudication continue to be forwarded to the vascular surgeon for initial evaluation after arteriography has already been accomplished.
The main objective of this work was to analyze the usefulness and the need for this procedure.
The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1, with the arteriography already performed and Group 2 without the initial arteriography.
One hundred patients with intermittent claudication were retrospectively studied. Other specialists had forwarded them for the first evaluation of intermittent claudication, without any previous treatment.
All patients were treated clinically for at least a 6-month period. The total number of arteriographies performed in the two groups was compared and the need and usefulness of the initial arteriography (of Group 1) was also analyzed.
The evolution was similar for both groups. The total number of arteriographies was significantly higher in Group 1 (Group 1 with 53 arteriographies vs. Group 2 with 7 arteriographies). For this group, it was found that arteriography was only useful in five cases (10%), because the surgeries were based on their findings. However, even in those cases, no need for arteriography was observed, as the procedure could have been performed at the time of surgical indication.
There are no indications for arteriography in the early evaluation of patients with intermittent claudication, because it does not modify the initial therapy, independent of its result. In cases where surgical treatment is indicated, this procedure should only be performed prior to surgery.
Preview · Article · Apr 2001 · Sao Paulo Medical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ankle-brachial index (ABI) could be used to predict the prognosis for a patient with intermittent claudication (IC). We studied 611 patients prospectively during 28 months of follow-up. We analyzed the predictive power of using various levels of ABI - 0.30 to 0.70 at 0.05 increments - in terms of the measure's specificity (association with a favorable outcome after exercise rehabilitation therapy) and sensitivity (association with a poor outcome after exercise rehabilitation therapy). We found that using an ABI of 0.30 as a cut-off value produced the lowest margin of error overall, but the predictive power was still low with respect to identifying the patients with a poor prognosis after non-aggressive therapeutic treatment. Further study is needed to perhaps identify a second factor that could increase the sensitivity of the test.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2000 · Revista do Hospital das Clínicas
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The routine use of arteriography and duplex scan in arterial trauma has improved the diagnosis of asymptomatic arterial lesions. Specifically, in cases of blunt arterial lesions, intimal flap is the most frequent type of occult arterial trauma and usually follows an arterial contusion. Treatment of traumatic intimal lesions is controversial owing to its unknown natural history. Current therapeutic options include arterial reconstruction and clinical observation. The development of angioplasty catheters and stents has opened a new venue for the treatment of intimal flaps. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoprosthesis in the prevention of arterial thrombosis following traumatic intimal flap. The study was performed on 12 female mongrel dogs weighing more than 15 kg each. The common (CF) and superficial (SF) femoral arteries were exposed from the inguinal region to the midportion of the thigh in both posterior limbs. The SF was first crushed with a hemostatic forceps to induce a severe arterial contusion. A longitudinal arteriotomy of 2 cm was performed distal to the clamp site. A 5 mm deep intimal flap was than created along the 2 cm segment. The arterial wall was than sutured with prolene 7-0. The same procedure was performed on both SF. One of the arteries was randomized to receive a Palmaz Stent while the other was kept untreated for control. After 3 weeks, palpation, ultrasound Doppler and macroscopic studies were performed on both arteries to determine whether the arterial lumen was occluded or not. All arteries treated with stents were patent after 3 weeks, while five of the 12 untreated arteries were occluded (p < 0.05). Large intimal flaps are potentially thrombogenic. The use of stents is a good alternative in this situation, preventing arterial thrombosis, in the first 3 weeks after the trauma.
No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arterial embolisms in the lower limbs occur frequently, and are of great interest to the vascular surgeon. The authors studied 159 cases of arterial embolisms in lower limbs from January 1991 to July 1993. Ages varied from 12 to 98, with a mean of 58. Eighty patients were male and 78 were female. In most cases, etiology of the embolus was well-established, and mainly caused (78 percent) by atrial fibrillation. Occlusion was most frequent in the femoral artery (53.4 percent). All patients presented severe lower limb ischemia, but not gangrene, on admission. The duration of ischemia, between the onset of symptoms and the liberation of arterial flow, was in most patients (67.9 percent) less than 24 hours. All patients were submitted to lower limb embolectomy with the Fogarty catheter, of which 70.9 percent were done through the femoral artery. Fasciotomy was performed on 48 patients due to a compartimental syndrome. Nineteen patients died immediately after operation; 68.4 percent due to heart failure. Twenty-three (16.4 percent) of the 140 surviving patients (150 operated limbs) were submitted to amputations after the occlusion of artery branches, which had undergone embolectomies. One hundred and twenty-seven limbs (84.6 percent) were preserved in 117 patients (83.5 percent). Eleven cases (7.3 percent) required repeated surgery with the Fogarty catheter. The patients with muscle tenderness, paralysis, or ischemia lasting longer than 24 hours had worse results in relation to the preservation of the limb (p < 0.05). We conclude that patients who present lower limb embolisms, are in good clinical condition, and who do not have any necrosis in the limbs, have good outcomes as to limb preservation, along with low complication rates, after embolectomy with the Fogarty catheter. Limb preservation was significantly higher in patients who did not present muscle tenderness, and who had normal motor activity and a ischemia duration of less than 24 hours.
Full-text · Article · Aug 1996 · Sao Paulo Medical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When a melito-diabetic patient presents trophic infected injury on the limb, it is essential an evaluation of the circulatory conditions for therapeutic procedures orientation. In some circumstances, although arterial pulsation is absent, there is no ischemia of tissues. In these cases, the maintenance treatment, with eventual resection of the necrosed and infected tissues may be adopted. Evolution of 70 diabetic patients with trophic injuries on extremities were submitted to a maintenance treatment. Age of patients varied from 28 to 88 years, with an average of 56.8. The most occurrence was verified in women, with 42 cases. Diabetes non-dependent on insulin (type II) was observed in 64 patients (91.5%), being the remaining 6 patients of type I. Diabetic retinopathy was observed in 14 (20%) of the patients, neuropathy in 22 (31%) and nephropathy in 8 patients (11.4%). All the patients presented arterial pulsation until the popliteal region. They were divided in 2 groups, considering trunk arteries of legs: Group I, pervial legs arteries, composed by 48 patients; Group II, occluded legs arteries, with 22 patients. In what refers to the anatomic local of the injuries, patients were classified in three groups: Group A, formed by 32 patients (45.7%), presenting injuries in one or two toes only, without affecting the metatarsic region; Group B, formed by 16 patients (22.9%), trophic injuries affecting the metatarsic region and Group C, formed by 22 patients (31.4%), injuries affecting the calcaneous region. Injuries in both of the groups were caused by mechanical traumatism. Duration of the injury in the inferior member varied from 7 to 48 days, resulting in a 12 days average.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Preview · Article · Jan 1995 · Sao Paulo Medical Journal