Publications (42)122.16 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhaled steroids are currently the most important drugs for asthma patients, but compliance tends to be low. Compliance could be improved by reducing the number of daily administrations. In the present study, we compared once- and twice-daily administration of fluticasone propionate (FP) to determine the differences in efficacy. Subjects were 40 patients diagnosed with bronchial asthma with stable symptoms and pulmonary functions who were on twice-daily FP administration of 100 microg. There were 14 men and 26 women ranging from 29 to 72 years of age. After a 4-week observation period, subjects were randomized into two administration groups by the envelope method and followed for 8 weeks: group A, once-daily administration (200 microg of FP at night), and group B, twice-daily administration (100 microg of FP in the morning and at night). Clinical symptoms, pulmonary functions and airway responsiveness were compared between these two groups. No significant deterioration in clinical symptoms, pulmonary functions and airway responsiveness were observed in group A compared with group B. These results demonstrate that once-daily FP administration is as effective as twice-daily administration, and that it may improve the compliance for inhaled steroids.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate depression among caregivers of elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design: Cross sectional study. Subjects: Seventeen pairs of family caregivers and outpatients with COPD at Kyushu University Hospital in July 2002. Methods: Caregivers answered a self-administered questionnaire about various factors that might affect their depression, and also completed a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale evaluation (CESD). Results: Seven (41%) of 17 caregivers were depressed. Compared with non-depressed caregivers, depressed caregivers spent more money for public long-term care insurance (LTCI) services for their patients as well as for non-LTCI services caring for their patients. Conclusion: More inexpensive services for COPD patients and family caregivers should be provided.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because eosinophilic airway inflammation is a characteristic of bronchial asthma, the treatment of such inflammation is important in the management of this disease. Suplatast tosilate is a novel anti-asthma drug that suppresses eosinophil proliferation and infiltration through selective inhibition of Th2 cytokine synthesis. We investigated the effect of oral suplatast tosilate therapy in patients with mild and moderate asthma. Twenty-eight asthma patients were randomized into two groups with or without suplatast tosilate treatment (100 mg t.i.d. for 28 days). We examined the blood eosinophil counts, eosinophilic cationic protein level, sputum eosinophil count, exhaled nitric oxide level, and airway responsiveness before and after treatment. In patients treated with suplatast tosilate, the eosinophil count in the blood and sputum was significantly decreased after treatment, while there was no such change in the patients without suplatast treatment. The exhaled nitric oxide level and airway responsiveness (measured using an Astograph) were also decreased after treatment with suplatast tosilate, while there were no significant changes in patients without suplatast tosilate. These results strongly suggest that oral administration of suplatast tosilate suppresses airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma patients by reducing eosinophilic inflammation in the airways.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ozone induces airway hyperresponsiveness, but there is controversy about effects of ozone on smooth muscle per se. We therefore investigated effects of in vivo ozone exposure on intracellular calcium mobilization in relation to tracheal smooth muscle contractility in the guinea pig in vitro. Guinea pigs underwent ozone exposure or sham exposure (3 ppm, 2 h). Then, a tracheal smooth muscle strip was mounted in an organ bath to record isometric tension. Effects of ozone exposure on acetylcholine-induced contraction of smooth muscle were as follows. Contraction was not altered in normal Krebs solution, but was increased in Ca(2+)-free solution in ozone-exposed animals. Decline of tension on repetitive application of acetylcholine in Ca(2+)-free solution was reduced, while the tension decline rate while acetylcholine was washed out with Ca(2+)-free solution was facilitated in ozone-exposed animals. Tension decline during the continuous administration of acetylcholine in Ca(2+)-free solution was slowed. Contraction occurred more quickly in Ca(2+)-free solution in ozone-exposed animals. Results suggest that ozone has a direct action on airway smooth muscle by changing Ca(2+) mobilization; Ca(2+) refilling via a Ca(2+) pump and Ca(2+) release via Ca(2+) channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum were increased, while Ca(2+) extrusion via the plasma membrane Ca(2+) pump was unchanged.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 60-year-old asthmatic woman was admitted to our department because of bloody sputum and pneumonia. She had been treated with inhaled becromethasone dipropionate (800 micrograms/day) on an outpatient basis for 3 years. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed polypoid lesions in the trachea, most of which were removed with forceps during the procedure. Numerous lymphocytes were observed in the biopsy specimen. Because immunohistochemical staining denied a monoclonal origin for the accumulated lymphocytes, the lesion was diagnosed as an inflammatory polyp. The patient was treated successfully with antibiotics for her pneumonia, and on a follow-up bronchoscopy 6 months later, only a small remnant of the lesion was noted. This is the fourth report about inflammatory polyps in asthmatics. In the previous 3 cases, however, marked eosinophil infiltration was consistently reported. The lymphocyte predominance in the present case therefore suggests a distinct etiology rather than asthmatic airway inflammation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 64-year old woman presented with an asymptomatic occlusion of the intermediate bronchus associated with a peripheral mass occupying the entire middle and lower lobes. As malignancy was suspected, inferior bilobectomy was done. There was a complete atelectasis of both lobes, with massive parenchymal necrosis. Pathological examinations suggested a tuberculous granuloma in the bronchus and parenchyma although tuberculous bacilli were not found. This case was unusual as congenital anomaly, and was suspected as bronchial tuberculosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has hitherto been no report describing idiopathic interstitial pneumonia associated with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, but we herein report one such rare case. A 75-year-old man who had received a diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia had been followed in our hospital since 1995, and had been treated with cyclophosphamide since September 1999. He discontinued taking cyclophosphamide without informing us, and two months later he was admitted to our hospital with deterioration of dyspnea on September 13, 2000. Since chest radiography and CT findings demonstrated alveolar infiltrates in the right middle lung field, he was treated with antibiotic agents. Although no deterioration of symptoms occurred, on September 14 he began to suffer rapidly progressive dyspnea accompanied with production of bloody sputum, which eventually developed into full-blown hemoptysis in the evening of September 15. He died of respiratory failure early the next morning. The autopsy findings demonstrated diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, diffuse alveolar damage, interstitial pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Goblet cell metaplasia is an important morphological feature in the airways of patients with chronic airway diseases; however, the precise mechanisms that cause this feature are unknown. We investigated the role of endogenous platelet-activating factor (PAF) in airway goblet cell metaplasia induced by cigarette smoke in vivo. Guinea pigs were exposed repeatedly to cigarette smoke for 14 consecutive days. The number of goblet cells in each trachea was determined with Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff staining. Differential cell counts and PAF levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were also evaluated. Cigarette smoke exposure significantly increased the number of goblet cells. Eosinophils, neutrophils, and PAF levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were also significantly increased after cigarette smoke. Treatment with a specific PAF receptor antagonist, E-6123, significantly attenuated the increases in the number of airway goblet cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils observed after cigarette smoke exposure. These results suggest that endogenous PAF may play a key role in goblet cell metaplasia induced by cigarette smoke and that potential roles exist for inhibitors of PAF receptor in the treatment of hypersecretory airway diseases.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 26-year-old nurse consulted our department because of shortness of breath, wheezing and skin eruption after eating lunch several days before. At the consultation, the symptoms had disappeared, pulmonary function showed no abnormality, and there were no abnormal findings on chest auscultation. Latex allergy was suspected because of a history of wheezing and skin eruption after wearing latex gloves and an elevated serum IgE level specific to latex antigen. After a usage test of medical latex gloves, wheezing, skin eruption, and a decrease of FEV1.0 on pulmonary function testing were observed. The case was therefore diagnosed as latex allergy with bronchial asthma. Her symptoms were not observed after polymer coated gloves were substituted. Latex allergy is apt to complicate food allergy, an initial symptom of the present case. Specific IgE for several kinds of food was also elevated.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness occurs concurrently with neutrophilic inflammation and epithelial injury in various species including humans. The mechanism of neutrophil-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, however, has not yet been fully clarified. Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a multipotent protease released from activated neutrophils, which may play a role in ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. In order to address this issue, the effects of ONO-5046, a specific NE inhibitor, were investigated in ozone-exposed guinea-pigs. Awake animals were exposed to ozone at 3 parts per million for 2 h, airway responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) measured and examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) performed. Ozone exposure increased airway responsiveness to both inhaled and intravenous ACh, the concentration of NE in BALF and the number of neutrophils and airway epithelial cells in BALF. Although pretreatment with ONO-5046 (200 mg x kg(-1), i.p.) had no effect on these changes immediately after the exposure, it significantly inhibited airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled ACh, whilst decreasing the number of neutrophils and epithelial cells in BALF 3-5 h after the exposure. In contrast, ONO-5046 showed no significant effect on airway hyperresponsiveness to intravenous ACh at any time. These results suggest that neutrophil elastase contributes to ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness developing during the hours after exposure, presumably by means of inducing epithelial injury.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 48-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of shortness of breath and abnormal shadows on chest roentgenograms. Although he had been given a diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) at the onset of his symptoms, a diagnosis of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) was made by our orthopedics department on the basis of bone X-ray findings. Spirograms demonstrated a restrictive pattern and residual volume was increased. Total lung capacity and respiratory muscle function were normal, suggesting that the abnormal spirogram findings were due to decreased thoracic cage compliance. Chest roentgenograms and computed tomographic scans showed apical fibrobullous changes in both lungs, similar to those observed in AS. To our knowledge, this is the first case of DISH with pulmonary involvement to be reported to date. The pulmonary manifestations were similar to those of AS, and it was speculated that they were due to limitation of the thoracic cage.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) inhibits airway smooth muscle contraction and plasma extravasation. We thus hypothesized that PACAP may regulate airway responsiveness through these effects and examined the effects of exogenously applied PACAP on the airway hyperresponsiveness induced by ozone exposure. Ozone exposure was carried out in awake, spontaneously breathing guinea pigs using 3 ppm for 2 h. Airway responsiveness to histamine was determined before and 30 and 90 min after the termination of ozone exposure for 2 h in anesthetized animals. Extravasation of Evans blue was measured before and 90 min after the termination of ozone exposure. Either PACAP (10(-6) mol/kg) or vehicle was administered intravenously 60 min after exposure. The airway responsiveness was expressed as the concentration of histamine required to produce a 200% increase in total pulmonary resistance (PC(200)). Ozone exposure caused a significant decrease in PC(200) (n = 5, p < 0.05) 30 min after ozone exposure which persisted 90 min thereafter, thus suggesting that ozone caused airway hyperresponsiveness. PACAP significantly suppressed the increase in airway hyperresponsiveness induced by ozone 90 min after exposure (n = 5, p < 0.05). In contrast, this peptide did not have any effect on plasma extravasation. We thus conclude that PACAP decreases ozone-induced airway responsiveness, and, therefore, intravenously administered PACAP may be useful in reversing airway hyperresponsiveness.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation in asthmatic airways can lead to characteristic airway smooth muscle (ASM) thickening and pathological changes within the airway wall. This study assessed the effect of repeated allergen exposure on ASM and epithelial cell deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, cell recruitment and airway wall pathology. Brown-Norway rats were sensitized and then exposed to ovalbumin or saline aerosol every 3 days on six occasions. After the final exposure, rats were administered twice daily for 7 days with the DNA S-phase marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Using a triple immunohistochemical staining technique, BrdU incorporation into ASM and epithelium was quantified employing computer-assisted image analysis. There were >3-fold mean increases in BrdU incorporation into ASM from 1.3% of cells (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.6) in saline controls to 4.7% (95% CI 2.6-6.7) after allergen exposure (p<0.001), and in airway epithelium, from 1.3 (95% CI 0.6-2.0) BrdU-positive cells x mm basement membrane(-1) in saline controls to 4.9 (95% CI 3.0-6.7) after allergen exposure (p<0.001). There was increased subepithelial collagen deposition and mucus secretion along with a significant eosinophil and lymphocyte recruitment to the airways. Increased rates of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in both airway smooth muscle and epithelial cells along with changes to the airway wall pathology may precede the establishment of smooth muscle thickening and airway remodelling after repeated allergen exposure in rats. This model seems to be appropriate for studying structural changes within the airways as observed in asthma.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The precise role of inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic (iNANC) neurons and nitric oxide in airway hyperresponsiveness remains uncertain. The role of NO in the regulation of airway responsiveness was studied in anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated cats. To assess airway responsiveness, the changes in total pulmonary resistance (RL) produced by delivering serotonin aerosol to the airways were measured before and after N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or a ganglionic blocker, hexamethonium, which has been reported to block iNANC. Serotonin was chosen because it causes bronchoconstriction in part by neural reflex. To further clarify the mechanism(s) involved, the effect of inhaled capsaicin was also determined in animals with sustained bronchoconstriction induced by serotonin after treatment with atropine and propranolol. Inhibition of NO synthase by L-NAME or blockade of iNANC neurons by hexamethonium significantly increased airway responsiveness. However, addition of L-NAME did not further increase airway responsiveness in animals treated with hexamethonium. In the presence of atropine and propranolol, inhaled capsaicin caused a marked bronchodilation during serotonin-induced sustained bronchoconstriction. The bronchodilation induced by capsaicin was significantly suppressed by hexamethonium and by L-NAME. These results suggest that the nitric oxide released from inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic neurons is important in modulating the airway responsiveness of cats in vivo.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokines are considered to play a role in the airway inflammation of bronchial asthma. We examined the cellular profile and cytokine levels in induced sputum samples obtained before and after treatment with beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP, 800 microg/day, for 4 weeks) in 12 mild to moderate asthmatic subjects who had not previously received inhaled glucocorticosteroids. Sputum was induced with a 20-min inhalation of 3% saline by an ultrasonic nebulizer. The freshly expectorated sputum separated from the saliva was analyzed for cell counts, for the concentration of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and for the concentration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The mean percentage of eosinophils in the sputum samples decreased significantly after BDP treatment, but no significant change in the percentage of neutrophils was observed. The mean IL-8 and GM-CSF levels also decreased significantly after treatment. The BDP treatment was associated with an increase in the mean peak expiratory flow (PEF) and with a decrease in the diurnal variation of PEF. These results suggest that inhaled steroids improve airway inflammation and lung function in asthmatics, presumably in part by inhibiting the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8 and GM-CSF.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined effects of a thromboxane A2 (TXA2) antagonist seratrodast on airway hyperresponsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide (NO), and eosinophils in induced sputum in 14 asthmatics. Subjects were administered 80 mg of seratrodast once a day for 4 weeks. Respiratory conductance (Grs) was measured by the forced oscillation method and airway responsiveness was evaluated as the inhaled dose of methacholine, which induced 35% decrease in Grs. Subjects breathed into a Teflon bag, and NO concentration in the bag was measured by a chemiluminescence analyzer. Induced sputum comprised the entire expectorate produced during a 20 min inhalation of 3% saline, and was analyzed for total and differential cell counts. Airway hyperresponsiveness was significantly decreased by seratrodast. By contrast, no differences in either exhaled NO or percentage of eosinophils in sputum were observed before or after seratrodast. We conclude that seratrodast may attenuate airway hyperresponsiveness, presumably by antagonizing TXA2 released from the inflamed airways.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute exposure to cigarette smoke causes airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in guinea-pigs, which resolves within a few hours. Repeated exposure may have a different effect on the airways. To address this question, guinea-pigs were repeatedly exposed to cigarette smoke (six cigarettes for 1 h x day(-1)) for 14 consecutive days. Airway responsiveness to inhaled histamine and differential cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were evaluated 1 day after the last exposure. Significant neutrophilia in BALF was observed after 3 days of smoke exposure. Significant eosinophilia in BALF and AHR were observed after 14 days of smoke exposure, but not after 3 or 7 days of smoke exposure. These changes persisted until 3 days after the last exposure and resolved 7 days afterwards. Histologically, the recruited eosinophils were observed predominantly in the airways, but not in the alveoli. Treatment with E-6123, a specific platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist (1 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) p.o. during smoke exposure) significantly inhibited the eosinophil influx and AHR. Repeated exposure to cigarette smoke may induce prolonged airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea-pigs. Platelet-activating factor or platelet-activating factor-like lipids may play a key role in airway hyperresponsiveness, presumably by the induction of eosinophilic airway inflammation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated previously that tachykinin depletion by capsaicin prevented the ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and the bronchial wall oedema in guinea pigs. To further clarify the role of neurogenic inflammation in ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, we investigated the effects of a specific tachykinin receptor antagonist (FK-224) in guinea pigs. Animals were anaesthetized, tracheostomized and mechanically ventilated. Total pulmonary resistance (RL) was calculated from transpulmonary pressure and box flow in a plethysmograph. Airway responsiveness was assessed by determining the provocative concentration of histamine aerosol that increased RL to twice the baseline value (PC200). Animals were injected with either FK-224 (10 mg/kg, dissolved in 0.2 mL/kg DMSO) or vehicle (0.2 mL/kg DMSO) intravenously, then pre-ozone PC200 was determined. Following this measurement, animals were exposed to 3 ppm ozone for 60 min. Immediately after exposure, the histamine dose response curve was evaluated again. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in animals treated with FK-224 or vehicle. In animals treated with vehicle, ozone exposure caused significant decrease in PC200 and moderate increase in neutrophils in BAL fluid. FK-224 pre-treatment significantly inhibited ozone-induced hyperresponsiveness. Neutrophils in BAL fluid did not significantly increase after ozone exposure in animals treated with FK-224. By contrast, the degree of epithelial desquamation did not differ significantly between the two groups. We conclude that neurogenic inflammation caused by tachykinin release may be responsible for ozone-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and that tachykinins may play a role in the initiation of airway inflammation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of ovalbumin (OA) sensitization and challenge on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene and protein expression in Brown-Norway rats in vivo. By use of Northern analysis, a 4.4-kb iNOS mRNA transcript was weakly observed in control rat lung but there was a 3 fold increase in lungs sensitized to OA alone (P<0.05). In sensitized rats, four hours after exposure to OA aerosol, there was a 6 fold increase in iNOS mRNA transcript (P<0.05), which returned to baseline at 24 h. Immunostaining with an anti-mouse iNOS antibody revealed some patchy staining of airway epithelium in naïve rats. There were no changes in sensitized rats exposed to saline, but sensitized and OA-exposed rats showed increased expression in iNOS staining in macrophages. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of lung nuclear extracts showed a marked increase in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-binding activity at 2 h after allergen exposure with return to baseline at 6, 12 and 24 h. We concluded that there is increased iNOS gene and protein expression associated with increased NF-κB DNA-binding in lungs of sensitized and challenged rats. The increase in iNOS expression may underlie the increase in exhaled NO found after allergen challenge and may contribute to the development of allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness.
Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
- Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest
Imperial College London
Londinium, England, United Kingdom
- Department of Medicine