Robyn Tate

University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Publications (114)229.48 Total impact

  • Paul Gertler · Robyn L Tate · Ian D Cameron
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) there is an increased prevalence of depression compared to the general population. It is unknown whether non-pharmacological interventions for depression are effective for people with TBI. Objectives: To investigate the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for depression in adults and children with TBI at reducing the diagnosis and severity of symptoms of depression. Search methods: We ran the most recent search on 11 February 2015. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), three other databases and clinical trials registers. Relevant conference proceedings and journals were handsearched, as were the reference lists of identified studies. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of non-pharmacological interventions for depression in adults and children who had a TBI. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently selected trials from the search results, then assessed risk of bias and extracted data from the included trials. The authors contacted trial investigators to obtain missing information. We rated the overall quality of the evidence of the primary outcomes using the GRADE approach. Main results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 334 adult participants. We identified no studies that included children as participants. All studies were affected by high risk of bias due to a lack of blinding of participants and personnel; five studies were affected by high risk of bias for lack of blinding of outcome assessors. There was high or unclear risk of biases affecting some studies across all the Cochrane risk of bias measures.Three studies compared a psychological intervention (either cognitive behaviour therapy or mindfulness-based cognitive therapy) with a control intervention. Data regarding depression symptom outcome measures were combined in a meta-analysis, but did not find an effect in favour of treatment (SMD -0.14; 95% CI -0.47 to 0.19; Z = 0.83; P = 0.41). The other comparisons comprised of single studies of depression symptoms and compared; cognitive behaviour therapy versus supportive psychotherapy (SMD -0.09; 95% CI -0.65 to 0.48; Z = 0.30; P = 0.77); repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation plus tricyclic antidepressant (rTMS + TCA) versus tricyclic antidepressant alone (SMD -0.84; 95% CI -1.36 to -0.32; Z = 3;19, P = 0.001); and a supervised exercise program versus exercise as usual (SMD -0.43; 95% CI -0.88 to 0.03; Z = 1.84; P = 0.07). There was very-low quality evidence, small effect sizes and wide variability of results, suggesting that no comparisons showed a reliable effect for any intervention.Only one study mentioned minor, transient adverse events from repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Authors' conclusions: The review did not find compelling evidence in favour of any intervention. Future studies should focus on participants with a diagnosed TBI and include only participants who have a diagnosis of depression, or who record scores above a clinical cutoff on a depression measure. There is a need for additional RCTs that include a comparison between an intervention and a control that replicates the effect of the attention given to participants during an active treatment.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
  • Robyn Tate · Donna Wakim · Michelle Genders
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Many people who have a severe traumatic brain injury CBI) are not able to resume employment and consequently experience profound changes in their lifestyle. They have increased amounts of 'spare time' yet often find it difficult to engage in meaningful activity. Leisure activities are one way in which meaningful activity can be increased. Aims: This systematic review has two purposes: first, to identify and evaluate the efficacy of community-based interventions for leisure/social activity after TBI, and second to provide details on the types of intervention. Method: Systematic searches were conducted of Medline, PsycINFO and PsycBITE to October 2014, as well as hand searches of two occupational therapy journals. Inclusion criteria were as follows: peer reviewed journal articles on adults with TBI who had participated in a trial evaluating a community-based intervention specifically targeting leisure/social activity. All research methodologies using primary studies that provided empirical, quantitative data were considered. Scientific quality of the studies was evaluated using the PEDro Scale for controlled trials and the Risk of Bias in N-of-1 Trials Scale for single-case designs. Results: Two independent raters screened 196 abstracts, resulting in nine articles that met selection criteria. Data were then independently extracted by the raters. Four of the nine studies used a control condition in their research design (two randomised controlled trials, one controlled but non-randomised study, and one single-case experiment using a changing criterion design). Two of the studies conducted between-group analyses with significant treatment effects for mood and quality of life using active leisure programmes (Tai Chi Qigong and a combined programme of outdoor adventure experiences and goal setting respectively). Intervention programmes identified in the review were then grouped and described according to the approach or model used, including active leisure programmes, social peer mentoring, individual brokered leisure services and a therapeutic recreation model. Additional intervention models and approaches that did not result directly from the systematic review were also described because they provide information on the current approaches used in practice (Clubhouse model and leisure education programmes in the stroke population). Conclusions: There is some evidence for the effectiveness of community-based interventions for leisure/social activity for people who have had a TBI to improve mood and quality of life. The conclusions of this review are that the interventions for this area need to be planned and specific, structured and goal-driven, intensive and conducted over a period of months.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Brain Impairment
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the sequence of skills recovery during post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) in children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Fifty children aged 8 to 15 years consecutively admitted to a children's hospital with TBI and PTA>24 were tested in a retrospective cohort study where the main measure was the Westmead PTA Scale (WPTAS). The group analyses show that orientation to time took longer to recover than orientation to person and place, but not memory, while the individual analyses revealed that when orientation to time was grouped with memory, 94% of children recovered orientation to person and place before orientation to time and memory (examiner and pictures). Correlation coefficients between age and the number of days taken to recover skills were not found to be significant. It was established that, in terms of the natural sequence of skills recovery in children aged 8 to 15 years following moderate to severe TBI, recovery of orientation to time is more closely aligned to memory than to orientation to person and place. It was also established that WPTAS items are developmentally appropriate for children aged 8 to 15 years who have sustained TBI. These findings are clinically important because monitoring recovery from PTA both impacts the rehabilitation offered to individuals during acute care and aids discharge planning.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Child Neuropsychology
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    ABSTRACT: Primary objective: Social cognition underlies social skills and can be disrupted in numerous developmental and acquired brain disorders during childhood and adolescence. Despite this, there are few tools to assess social cognition clinically in this age group. This study examined adolescent performance on The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT), a valid measure of social cognition in adults. Design: Cross-sectional design examining performance on Parts 1, 2 and 3 of TASIT (and alternate forms) in Australian girls and boys with varying levels of English familiarity. Methods: 665 schoolchildren from private and government schools were administered TASIT subtests. Of these, 464 students aged 13–15 were selected to provide normative data. Scores from a further 97 provided information about the effects of lack of English familiarity. Results: The two Forms of TASIT were statistically equivalent for two of the three parts. Adolescents performed lower than adults, although the differences were not large. Some incremental effects were seen for chronological age. Gender effects were apparent on all subtests. Lack of English familiarity (i.e., English not spoken at home) reduced scores a further 6–13% relative to high English proficiency. Conclusions: TASIT appears to be suitable for adolescents. Norms are best aggregated across ages in adolescence and stratified according to gender.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Brain Impairment
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    ABSTRACT: The Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale for Children (SPRS-C) assesses psychosocial functioning in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). This article aims to: (1) describe normative data for the parent-rated SPRS-C and, (2) evaluate the discriminant validity of the SPRS-C. For Aim 1, participants were parents of typically developing children (TDC) aged 5-14 years (N = 200). For Aim 2, participants with ABI were aged 5-14 years (n = 26). A matched group of TDC was sampled from the larger normative sample to serve as a control group (n = 26). For Aim 1, SPRS-C scores across the 10 age-bands were in the higher ranges. Correlation coefficients of SPRS-C total score with child's age and parent occupational skill level were not statistically significant. For Aim 2, SPRS-C scores for the ABI group were significantly lower than the control group. These data provide a guide for clinical interpretation of the SPRS-C for measuring psychosocial functioning in children with ABI.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Developmental Neurorehabilitation
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    ABSTRACT: AimIn adults, duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) is a powerful early predictor of functional outcomes in traumatic brain injury. The aim of this work was to assess the predictive validity of PTA duration for outcomes in children (6–18y).Method PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for papers published to January 2014. Ten studies met inclusion criteria: they used standardized instruments to assess PTA and functional outcomes, and examined relationships between the two. Outcomes were classified according to (1) the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) core sets for neurological conditions for post-acute care and (2) global functioning and quality of life. Methodological quality was rated for each study.ResultsThe search identified 10 studies of moderate mean quality (M=11.8 out of 18). Longer PTA duration related to worse functional outcomes: global functioning and in the two ICF categories (‘body function’, ‘activities and participation’). Relationships between PTA duration and quality of life and the ICF category of ‘body structure’ were not examined. PTA duration was, in 46 out of 60 (76.67%) instances, a stronger predictor of outcomes than other indices of injury severity.Conclusion Longer PTA duration is a valid predictor of worse outcomes in school-age children. Thus, PTA should be routinely assessed in children after traumatic brain injury.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Cognitive rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury can aid in optimizing function, independence, and quality of life by addressing impairments in attention, executive function, cognitive communication, and memory. This study aimed to identify and evaluate the methodological quality of clinical practice guidelines for cognitive rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury. Methods: Systematic searching of databases and Web sites was undertaken between January and March 2012 to identify freely available, English language clinical practice guidelines from 2002 onward. Eligible guidelines were evaluated using the validated Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II instrument. Results: The 11 guidelines that met inclusion criteria were independently rated by 4 raters. Results of quality appraisal indicated that guidelines generally employed systematic search and appraisal methods and produced unambiguous, clearly identifiable recommendations. Conversely, only 1 guideline incorporated implementation and audit information, and there was poor reporting of processes for formulating, reviewing, and ensuring currency of recommendations and incorporating patient preferences. Intraclass correlation coefficients for agreement between raters showed high agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.80) for all guidelines except for 1 (moderate agreement; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.76). Conclusion: Future guidelines should address identified limitations by providing implementation information and audit criteria, along with better reporting of guideline development processes and stakeholder engagement.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: After traumatic brain injury (TBI) and emergence from coma, the majority of people experience posttraumatic amnesia (PTA), characterized by confusion, disorientation, retrograde and anterograde amnesia, poor attention, and sometimes agitation and delusions. An international team of researchers and clinicians developed recommendations for assessment and management of PTA. Methods: The experts met to select recommendations, then reviewed literature to ensure they were current. The team then prioritized recommendations for implementation and developed audit criteria to evaluate the adherence to the best practice recommendations. Results: Evidence in support of assessment and management strategies during PTA is weak. It is recommended that duration of PTA be assessed prospectively using a validated tool. Consideration should also be given to use of a delirium assessment tool. No cognitive or pharmacological treatments are known to reduce PTA duration. Recommendations for environmental manipulations to reduce agitation during PTA are made. Minimizing use of neuroleptic medication is supported by animal research and 1 retrospective study. Conclusions: The duration of PTA is an important predictor of late outcome after TBI and should be monitored prospectively with a standardized tool. Neuroleptic medication should be avoided. There is a significant need for controlled studies evaluating the impact of therapy during PTA.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Traumatic brain injury results in complex cognitive sequelae. Impairments in memory are among the most common sequelae resulting in significant functional problems. An international team of researchers and clinicians (known as INCOG) was formed to develop recommendations for the management of impairments in memory. Methods: The experts met to select appropriate recommendations and then reviewed available literature to ensure recommendations were current. Decision algorithms incorporating the recommendations based on inclusion and exclusion criteria of published trials were developed. The team then prioritized recommendations for implementation and developed audit criteria to evaluate adherence to the best practice recommendations. Results: The recommendations for rehabilitation of memory impairments support the integration of internal and external compensatory strategies implemented using appropriate instructional techniques that consider functional relevance and important patient characteristics. Restorative strategies have regained significant popularity, given broader access to computer technology; however, evidence for efficacy of these techniques remains weak and the choice in using these should be guided by special considerations. Conclusion: There is good evidence for the integration of internal and external compensatory memory strategies that are implemented using instructional procedures for rehabilitation for memory impairments. The evidence for the efficacy of restorative strategies currently remains weak.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Traumatic brain injury results in complex cognitive sequelae. However, clinicians have difficulty implementing the available evidence. An international group of researchers and clinicians (known as INCOG) convened to develop clinical practice guidelines for cognitive rehabilitation posttraumatic brain injury. Methods: The Guidelines Adaptation and Development cycle was used to derive the recommendations. Previously published cognitive rehabilitation recommendations were identified and tabulated. An expert panel met to select appropriate recommendations. Afterward, the team enhanced the recommendations by reviewing available literature. To address shortfalls of previous guidelines, the team developed decision algorithms incorporating the recommendations based on inclusion and exclusion criteria of published trials and expert opinion. The team then prioritized the recommendations for implementation and developed audit criteria to evaluate adherence to best practice. Results: The team recommends that individuals have detailed assessments of cognition after resolution of posttraumatic amnesia. Cognitive assessment and rehabilitation should be tailored to the patient's neuropsychological profile, premorbid cognitive characteristics, and goals for life activities and participation. Clinical algorithms and audit tools to evaluate current practice are provided. Conclusion: Cognitive rehabilitation should be offered to select individuals with traumatic brain injury. These guidelines provide assistance to clinicians who want to provide evidence-based care.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in complex cognitive (and other) sequelae. Impairments in executive function and self-awareness are among the most characteristic neuropsychological sequelae and can exert a profound effect on resuming previous life roles. An international group of researchers and clinicians (known as INCOG) convened to develop recommendations for interventions to improve impairments in executive functioning and self-awareness after TBI. Methods: The team reviewed the available literature and ensured the recommendations were current. To promote implementation, the team developed decision algorithms incorporating the recommendations based on inclusion and exclusion criteria of published trials. The team then prioritized the recommendations for implementation and developed audit criteria to evaluate the adherence to the best practice recommendations. Results: Intervention programs incorporating metacognitive strategy instruction for planning, problem-solving, and other cognitive-executive impairments have a solid evidence base. New evidence supports the use of strategies to specifically improve reasoning skills. Substantial support exists for use of direct corrective feedback to improve self-awareness. Conclusions: An increasing number of scientifically well-designed studies are available that demonstrate the effectiveness of a variety of interventions for the remediation of impairments in executive function and self-awareness after TBI.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Traumatic brain injury, due to its diffuse nature and high frequency of injury to frontotemporal and midbrain reticular activating systems, may cause disruption in many aspects of attention: arousal, selective attention, speed of information processing, and strategic control of attention, including sustained attention, shifting and dividing of attention, and working memory. An international team of researchers and clinicians (known as INCOG) convened to develop recommendations for the management of attentional problems. Methods: The experts selected recommendations from published guidelines and then reviewed literature to ensure that recommendations were current. Decision algorithms incorporating the recommendations based on inclusion and exclusion criteria of published trials were developed. The team then prioritized recommendations for implementation and developed audit criteria to evaluate adherence to these best practices. Results: The recommendations and discussion highlight that metacognitive strategy training focused on functional everyday activities is appropriate. Appropriate use of dual task training, environmental modifications, and cognitive behavioral therapy is also discussed. There is insufficient evidence to support mindfulness meditation and practice on de-contextualized computer-based tasks for attention. Administration of the medication methylphenidate should be considered to improve information-processing speed. Conclusion: The INCOG recommendations for rehabilitation of attention provide up-to-date guidance for clinicians treating people with traumatic brain injury.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
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    ABSTRACT: Published reports describing interventions featuring a single participant are common in neurorehabilitation. Yet, not all such reports use rigorous single-case methodology and there is mounting evidence to suggest that the design, conduct and report of single-case research in the behavioural sciences (including neurorehabilitation) needs improvement. The first part of this article describes resources that will guide the improved design, conduct and critical appraisal of single-case research, including recently published standards in the field of special education and the Risk of Bias in N-of-1 Trials (RoBiNT) Scale for evaluating internal and external validity of designs using a single participant. The second part of the article reports on work currently in progress in developing a reporting guideline in the CONSORT tradition specifically for single-case experimental designs in the behavioural sciences, entitled the Single-Case Reporting guideline In BEhavioural interventions (SCRIBE). It is anticipated that adoption and use of these resources by authors, reviewers and journal editors will improve the reporting and, potentially, the quality of the single-case literature.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
  • Cheryl Soo · Robyn Tate · Naomi Brookes
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A large literature documents psychosocial difficulties affecting participation in everyday activities following acquired brain injury (ABI). This study examined executive, behavioural and emotional contributions to psychosocial outcome in children with ABI. Method: Participants with ABI (n = 35; aged 7-18 years) were recruited from a rehabilitation department. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale for Children (SPRS-C). Executive, emotional and behavioural variables were examined using self and parent-report measures. Results: Thirty-eight per cent of the sample was classified as having good psychosocial functioning, with 54% classified as limited and 8% as poor. The sample was dichotomized on executive, behavioural and emotional functioning comparing those with and without difficulties. Participants classified without behavioural difficulties had better functioning on SPRS-C compared to those with difficulties (p < 0.01). In contrast, for executive and emotional functioning, hardly any SPRS-C variable showed significant group differences. Of the total group, 15-21% had elevated levels on emotional outcome measures. This was, however, dependent on age, with 22-44% of the older sample reporting elevated levels on at least one emotional variable compared to 4-16% of the younger sample. Discussion: The pattern of results highlight the contribution of behavioural functioning to psychosocial outcome post-childhood ABI.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Brain Injury
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    ABSTRACT: Objective:To determine the effectiveness of personal digital assistant devices on achievement of memory and organization goals in patients with poor memory after acquired brain injury.Design:Assessor blinded randomized controlled trial.Setting:Specialist brain injury rehabilitation hospital (inpatients and outpatients).Participants:Adults with acquired brain impairments (85% traumatic brain injury; aged ≥17 years) who were assessed as having functional memory impairment on the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (General Memory Index).Interventions:Training and support to use a personal digital assistant for eight weeks to compensate for memory failures by an occupational therapist. The control intervention was standard rehabilitation, including use of non-electronic memory aids.Main outcome measures:Goal Attainment Scale which assessed achievement of participants' daily memory functioning goals and caregiver perception of memory functioning; and General Frequency of Forgetting subscale of the Memory Functioning Questionnaire administered at baseline (pre-randomization) and post intervention (eight weeks later).Results:Forty-two participants with memory impairment were recruited. Use of a personal digital assistant led to greater achievement of functional memory goals (mean difference 1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0 to 2.2), P = 0.0001) and improvement on the General Frequency of Forgetting subscale (mean difference 12.5 (95% CI 2.0 to 22.9), P = 0.021).Conclusions:Occupational therapy training in the use of a handheld computer improved patients' daily memory function more than standard rehabilitation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Clinical Rehabilitation
  • Regina Schultz · Robyn L. Tate
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Previous research addressing cognitive recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adults has predominately used cross-sectional methods. This systematic review examines longitudinal research into cognitive recovery in the first 2 years following moderate-to-severe TBI in adults and aims to identify apparent methodological issues with the existing literature.Design: Systematic review of the first 2 years post-trauma.Setting: Data were extracted from three electronic databases and manual searches of published articles until October 2012.Participants: Two hundred and forty-two participants with severe TBI and 281 comparison participants were used to calculate effect sizes.Results: Twenty papers met the selection criteria, with effect sizes computed from four studies. Moderate-to-large effect sizes were initially observed between the TBI and comparison groups on most measures (range: d = 0.2–2.8). Recovery continued in all five cognitive domains over the 2 years post-injury.Conclusions: Results demonstrated that cognitive recovery was continuous throughout the first 2 years following moderate-to-severe TBI. Findings also indicated different rates of recovery for the specific cognitive domains, highlighting the heterogeneous nature of cognitive recovery after TBI. The review highlighted several methodological issues within the limited existing literature; recommendations were developed to improve the evidence base.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Brain Impairment
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    ABSTRACT: Poor skills generalization poses a major barrier to successful outcomes of rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Error-based learning (EBL) is a relatively new intervention approach that aims to promote skills generalization by teaching people internal self-regulation skills, or how to anticipate, monitor and correct their own errors. This paper describes the protocol of a study that aims to compare the efficacy of EBL and errorless learning (ELL) for improving error self-regulation, behavioral competency, awareness of deficits and long-term outcomes after TBI.Methods and design: This randomized, controlled trial (RCT) has two arms (EBL and ELL); each arm entails 8 x 2 h training sessions conducted within the participants' homes. The first four sessions involve a meal preparation activity, and the final four sessions incorporate a multitasking errand activity. Based on a sample size estimate, 135 participants with severe TBI will be randomized into either the EBL or ELL condition. The primary outcome measure assesses error self-regulation skills on a task related to but distinct from training. Secondary outcomes include measures of self-monitoring and self-regulation, behavioral competency, awareness of deficits, role participation and supportive care needs. Assessments will be conducted at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at 6-months post-intervention. This study seeks to determine the efficacy and long-term impact of EBL for training internal self-regulation strategies following severe TBI. In doing so, the study will advance theoretical understanding of the role of errors in task learning and skills generalization. EBL has the potential to reduce the length and costs of rehabilitation and lifestyle support because the techniques could enhance generalization success and lifelong application of strategies after TBI.Trial registration: ACTRN12613000585729.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Trials
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    ABSTRACT: Recent literature suggests a revival of interest in single-case methodology (e.g., the randomised n-of-1 trial is now considered Level 1 evidence for treatment decision purposes by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine). Consequently, the availability of tools to critically appraise single-case reports is of great importance. We report on a major revision of our method quality instrument, the Single-Case Experimental Design Scale. Three changes resulted in a radically revised instrument, now entitled the Risk of Bias in N-of-1 Trials (RoBiNT) Scale: (i) item content was revised and increased to 15 items, (ii) two subscales were developed for internal validity (IV; 7 items) and external validity and interpretation (EVI; 8 items), and (iii) the scoring system was changed from a 2-point to 3-point scale to accommodate currently accepted standards. Psychometric evaluation indicated that the RoBiNT Scale showed evidence of construct (discriminative) validity. Inter-rater reliability was excellent, for pairs of both experienced and trained novice raters. Intraclass correlation coefficients of summary scores for individual (experienced) raters: ICCTotalScore = .90, ICCIVSubscale = .88, ICCEVISubscale = .87; individual (novice) raters: ICCTotalScore = .88, ICCIVSubscale = .87, ICCEVISubscale = .93; consensus ratings between experienced and novice raters (ICCTotalScore = .95, ICCIVSubscale = .93, ICCEVISubscale = .93. The RoBiNT Scale thus shows sound psychometric properties and provides a comprehensive yet efficient examination of important features of single-case methodology.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
  • Robyn L Tate · Kali Godbee · Linda Sigmundsdottir
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    ABSTRACT: Good assessment is an essential component of effective patient management. Yet the sheer volume of available assessment instruments presents a barrier for the clinician or researcher to (a) be knowledgeable about suitable measures and (b) keep up-to-date with new measures that are published. In order to create a resource of currently-used measures, we conducted a systematic review of assessment tools used in the research literature on traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used two electronic databases (Medline and PsycINFO) to identify full-length, English-language articles published between 2000 and 2012 in which outcome in adults with TBI was assessed with behavioural tests or questionnaires. The searches yielded 5,735 articles and after deletion of duplicates (n = 1,383) and articles not meeting selection criteria (n = 1,759), 2,593 articles were further examined. The articles contained 910 behavioural instruments, with a final set of 728 unique instruments. Each instrument was classified against the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Half of the instruments (n = 370, 50.8%) evaluated the mental functions domain of the ICF body functions component, with a substantially smaller proportion (n = 64, 8.8%) examining specific motor-sensory and other body functions. Instruments also covered domains of activities/participation (n = 109, 15.0%), environmental factors (n = 22, 3.0%) and personal factors (n = 36, 4.9%). A substantial number of scales (n = 93, 12.8%) were multidimensional across the body function domains (n = 32), as well as the functioning and disability part of the ICF (n = 60). The remaining 5% of instruments addressed concepts not covered by the ICF, including quality of life (n = 19, 2.6%) and rehabilitation process tools (such as therapeutic alliance). The 728 instruments were listed and more than 70 of the most common, spread across 20 domains, were highlighted. These data provide a comprehensive and up-to-date resource that gives the researcher or clinician a very large selection of assessment instruments covering the major areas of function pertinent to TBI.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Neurorehabilitation
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jul 2013

Publication Stats

2k Citations
229.48 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999-2015
    • University of Sydney
      • • School of Psychology
      • • Faculty of Health Sciences
      • • Northern Clinical School
      • • Centre for Education and Research on Ageing
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2001-2014
    • Royal Rehabilitation Centre Sydney
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2006
    • Royal North Shore Hospital
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2002
    • Liverpool Hospital
      Liverpool, New South Wales, Australia