[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibodies that neutralize autologous transmitted/founder (TF) HIV occur in most HIV-infected individuals and can evolve to neutralization breadth. Autologous neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against neutralization-resistant (Tier-2) viruses are rarely induced by vaccination. Whereas broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb)-HIV-Envelope structures have been defined, the structures of autologous nAbs have not. Here, we show that immunization with TF mutant Envs gp140 oligomers induced high-titer, V5-dependent plasma neutralization for a Tier-2 autologous TF evolved mutant virus. Structural analysis of autologous nAb DH427 revealed binding to V5, demonstrating the source of narrow nAb specificity and explaining the failure to acquire breadth. Thus, oligomeric TF Envs can elicit autologous nAbs to Tier-2 HIVs, but induction of bnAbs will require targeting of precursors of B cell lineages that can mature to heterologous neutralization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influenza-virus antigenicity evolves to escape host immune protection. Antibody lineages within individuals evolve in turn to increase affinity and hence potency. Strategies for a "universal" influenza vaccine to elicit lineages that escape this evolutionary arms race and protect against seasonal variation and novel, pandemic viruses will require directing B cell ontogeny to focus the humoral response on conserved epitopes on the viral hemagglutinin (HA). The unmutated common ancestors (UCAs) of six distinct, broadly neutralizing antibody lineages from one individual bind the HA of a virus circulating at the time the participant was born. HAs of viruses circulating more than 5 years later no longer bind the UCAs, but mature antibodies in the lineages bind strains from the entire 18-year lifetime of the participant. The analysis shows how immunological memory shaped the response to subsequent influenza exposures and suggests that early imprinting by a suitable influenza antigen may enhance likelihood of later breadth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 Env V1V2 arise in multiple donors. However, atomic-level interactions had previously been determined only with antibodies from a single donor, thus making commonalities in recognition uncertain. Here we report the cocrystal structure of V1V2 with antibody CH03 from a second donor and model Env interactions of antibody CAP256-VRC26 from a third donor. These V1V2-directed bNAbs used strand-strand interactions between a protruding antibody loop and a V1V2 strand but differed in their N-glycan recognition. Ontogeny analysis indicated that protruding loops develop early, and glycan interactions mature over time. Altogether, the multidonor information suggested that V1V2-directed bNAbs form an 'extended class', for which we engineered ontogeny-specific antigens: Env trimers with chimeric V1V2s that interacted with inferred ancestor and intermediate antibodies. The ontogeny-based design of vaccine antigens described here may provide a general means for eliciting antibodies of a desired class.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complementarity Determining Region 3 of the immunoglobulin (Ig) H chain (CDR-H3) lies at the center of the antigen-binding site where it often plays a decisive role in antigen recognition and binding. Amino acids encoded by the diversity (DH) gene segment are the main component of CDR-H3. Each DH has the potential to rearrange into one of six DH reading frames (RFs), each of which exhibits a characteristic amino acid hydrophobicity signature that has been conserved among jawed vertebrates by natural selection. A preference for use of RF1 promotes the incorporation of tyrosine into CDR-H3 while suppressing the inclusion of hydrophobic or charged amino acids. To test the hypothesis that these evolutionary constraints on DH sequence influence epitope recognition, we used mice with a single DH that has been altered to preferentially use RF2 or inverted RF1. B cells in these mice produce a CDR-H3 repertoire that is enriched for valine or arginine in place of tyrosine. We serially immunized this panel of mice with gp140 from HIV-1 JR-FL isolate and then used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or peptide microarray to assess antibody binding to key or overlapping HIV-1 envelope epitopes. By ELISA, serum reactivity to key epitopes varied by DH sequence. By microarray, sera with Ig CDR-H3s enriched for arginine bound to linear peptides with a greater range of hydrophobicity but had a lower intensity of binding than sera containing Ig CDR-H3s enriched for tyrosine or valine. We conclude that patterns of epitope recognition and binding can be heavily influenced by DH germ line sequence. This may help explain why antibodies in HIV-infected patients must undergo extensive somatic mutation in order to bind to specific viral epitopes and achieve neutralization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The partial efficacy reported in the RV144 HIV vaccine trial in 2009 has driven the HIV vaccine field to define correlates of risk associated with HIV-1 acquisition and connect these functionally to preventing HIV infection. Immunological correlates, mainly including CD4+ T cell responses to the HIV envelope and Fc-mediated antibody effector function, have been connected to reduced acquisition. These immunological correlates place immunological and genetic pressure on the virus. Indeed, antibodies directed at conserved regions of the V1V2 loop and antibodies that mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to HIV envelope in the absence of inhibiting serum immunoglobulin A antibodies correlated with decreased HIV risk. More recently, researchers have expanded their search with nonhuman primate studies using vaccine regimens that differ from that used in RV144; these studies indicate that non-neutralizing antibodies are associated with protection from experimental lentivirus challenge as well. These immunological correlates have provided the basis for the design of a next generation of vaccine regimens to improve upon the qualitative and quantitative degree of magnitude of these immune responses on HIV acquisition.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Science translational medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance:
Studies of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) provide valuable information for vaccine design, and the most potent and broadly reactive of these bNAbs have potential for clinical use. We previously described a family of V1V2-directed neutralizing antibodies from an HIV-1 clade C infected donor. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of new members of the family, mostly from time points of peak serum breadth and potency. One of the new antibodies, CAP256-VRC26.25, displayed 10-fold greater neutralization potency than previous described lineage members. It neutralized 57% of diverse clade viral isolates and 70% of clade C isolates with remarkable potency: a median IC50 of 0.001 micrograms per ml. Our results highlight the ongoing evolution within a single antibody lineage, and describe more potent and broadly neutralizing members with potential clinical utility, particularly in clade C-prevalent areas.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enhancement of HIV-specific immunity is likely required to eliminate latent HIV infection. Here, we have developed an immunotherapeutic modality aimed to improve T cell-mediated clearance of HIV-1-infected cells. Specifically, we employed Dual-Affinity Re-Targeting (DART) proteins, which are bispecific, antibody-based molecules that can bind 2 distinct cell-surface molecules simultaneously. We designed DARTs with a monovalent HIV-1 envelope-binding (Env-binding) arm that was derived from broadly binding, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating antibodies known to bind to HIV-infected target cells coupled to a monovalent CD3 binding arm designed to engage cytolytic effector T cells (referred to as HIVxCD3 DARTs). Thus, these DARTs redirected polyclonal T cells to specifically engage with and kill Env-expressing cells, including CD4+ T cells infected with different HIV-1 subtypes, thereby obviating the requirement for HIV-specific immunity. Using lymphocytes from patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), we demonstrated that DARTs mediate CD8+ T cell clearance of CD4+ T cells that are superinfected with the HIV-1 strain JR-CSF or infected with autologous reservoir viruses isolated from HIV-infected-patient resting CD4+ T cells. Moreover, DARTs mediated CD8+ T cell clearance of HIV from resting CD4+ T cell cultures following induction of latent virus expression. Combined with HIV latency reversing agents, HIVxCD3 DARTs have the potential to be effective immunotherapeutic agents to clear latent HIV-1 reservoirs in HIV-infected individuals.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The third variable (V3) loop and the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of the HIV-1 envelope are frequently targeted by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in infected individuals. In chronic infection, HIV-1 escape mutants repopulate the plasma, and V3 and CD4bs nAbs emerge that can neutralize heterologous tier 1 easy-to-neutralize but not tier 2 difficult-to-neutralize HIV-1 isolates. However, neutralization sensitivity of autologous plasma viruses to this type of nAb response has not been studied. We describe the development and evolution in vivo of antibodies distinguished by their target specificity for V3 and CD4bs epitopes on autologous tier 2 viruses but not on heterologous tier 2 viruses. A surprisingly high fraction of autologous circulating viruses was sensitive to these antibodies. These findings demonstrate a role for V3 and CD4bs antibodies in constraining the native envelope trimer in vivo to a neutralization-resistant phenotype, explaining why HIV-1 transmission generally occurs by tier 2 neutralization-resistant viruses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the risk of transmitting HIV-1, mothers in resource-poor areas are encouraged to breastfeed their infants because of beneficial immunologic and nutritional factors in milk. Interestingly, in the absence of antiretroviral prophylaxis, the overwhelming majority of HIV-1-exposed, breastfeeding infants are naturally protected from infection. To understand the role of HIV-1 envelope (Env)-specific antibodies in breast milk in natural protection against infant virus transmission, we produced 19 HIV-1 Env-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from colostrum B cells of HIV-1-infected mothers and investigated their specificity, evolution, and anti-HIV-1 functions. Despite the previously reported genetic compartmentalization and gp120-specific bias of colostrum HIV Env-specific B cells, the colostrum Env-specific mAbs described here demonstrated a broad range of gp120 epitope specificities and functions, including inhibition of epithelial cell binding and dendritic cell-mediated virus transfer, neutralization, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. We also identified divergent patterns of colostrum Env-specific B-cell lineage evolution with respect to crossreactivity to gastrointestinal commensal bacteria, indicating that commensal bacterial antigens play a role in shaping the local breast milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) repertoire. Maternal vaccine strategies to specifically target this breast milk B-cell population may be necessary to achieve safe breastfeeding for all HIV-1-exposed infants.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 5 August 2015. doi:10.1038/mi.2015.70.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Mucosal Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Within-host genetic sequencing from samples collected over time provides a
dynamic view of how viruses evade host immunity. Immune-driven mutations might
stimulate neutralization breadth by selecting antibodies adapted to cycles of
immune escape that generate within-subject epitope diversity. Comprehensive
identification of immune-escape mutations is experimentally and computationally
challenging. With current technology, many more viral sequences can readily be
obtained than can be tested for binding and neutralization, making
down-selection necessary. Typically, this is done manually, by picking variants
that represent different time-points and branches on a phylogenetic tree. Such
strategies are likely to miss many relevant mutations and combinations of
mutations, and to be redundant for other mutations. Longitudinal Antigenic
Sequences and Sites from Intrahost Evolution (LASSIE) uses transmitted-founder
loss to identify virus "hot-spots" under putative immune selection and chooses
sequences that represent recurrent mutations in selected sites. LASSIE favors
earliest sequences in which mutations arise. With well-characterized
longitudinal Env sequences, we confirmed selected sites were concentrated in
antibody contacts and selected sequences represented diverse antigenic
phenotypes. Practical applications include rapidly identifying immune targets
under selective pressure within a subject, selecting minimal sets of reagents
for immunological assays that characterize evolving antibody responses, and for
immunogens in polyvalent "cocktail" vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An HIV-1 DNA prime vaccine, with a recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) boost, failed to protect from HIV-1 acquisition. We
studied the nature of the vaccine-induced antibody (Ab) response to HIV-1 envelope (Env). HIV-1–reactive plasma Ab titers
were higher to Env gp41 than to gp120, and repertoire analysis demonstrated that 93% of HIV-1–reactive Abs from memory B cells
responded to Env gp41. Vaccine-induced gp41-reactive monoclonal antibodies were non-neutralizing and frequently polyreactive
with host and environmental antigens, including intestinal microbiota (IM). Next-generation sequencing of an immunoglobulin
heavy chain variable region repertoire before vaccination revealed an Env-IM cross-reactive Ab that was clonally related to
a subsequent vaccine-induced gp41-reactive Ab. Thus, HIV-1 Env DNA-rAd5 vaccine induced a dominant IM-polyreactive, non-neutralizing
gp41-reactive Ab repertoire response that was associated with no vaccine efficacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 mucosal transmission begins with virus or virus-infected cells moving through mucus across mucosal epithelium to infect CD4+ T cells. Although broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are the type of HIV-1 antibodies that are most likely protective, they are not induced with current vaccine candidates. In contrast, antibodies that do not neutralize primary HIV-1 strains in the TZM-bl infection assay are readily induced by current vaccine candidates and have also been implicated as secondary correlates of decreased HIV-1 risk in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial. Here, we have studied the capacity of anti-Env monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against either the immunodominant region of gp41 (7B2 IgG1), the first constant region of gp120 (A32 IgG1), or the third variable loop (V3) of gp120 (CH22 IgG1) to modulate in vivo rectal mucosal transmission of a high-dose simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-BaL) in rhesus macaques. 7B2 IgG1 or A32 IgG1, each containing mutations to enhance Fc function, was administered passively to rhesus macaques but afforded no protection against productive clinical infection while the positive control antibody CH22 IgG1 prevented infection in 4 of 6 animals. Enumeration of transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses revealed that passive infusion of each of the three antibodies significantly reduced the number of T/F genomes. Thus, some antibodies that bind HIV-1 Env but fail to neutralize virus in traditional neutralization assays may limit the number of T/F viruses involved in transmission without leading to enhancement of viral infection. For one of these mAbs, gp41 mAb 7B2, we provide the first co-crystal structure in complex with a common cyclical loop motif demonstrated to be critical for infection by other retroviruses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the wide availability of antiretroviral drugs, more than 250,000 infants are vertically infected with HIV-1 annually, emphasizing the need for additional interventions to eliminate pediatric HIV-1 infections. Here, we aimed to define humoral immune correlates of risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1, including responses associated with protection in the RV144 vaccine trial. Eighty-three untreated, HIV-1-transmitting mothers and 165 propensity score-matched nontransmitting mothers were selected from the Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS) of US nonbreastfeeding, HIV-1-infected mothers. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the magnitude of the maternal IgG responses specific for the third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope was predictive of a reduced risk of MTCT. Neutralizing Ab responses against easy-to-neutralize (tier 1) HIV-1 strains also predicted a reduced risk of peripartum transmission in secondary analyses. Moreover, recombinant maternal V3-specific IgG mAbs mediated neutralization of autologous HIV-1 isolates. Thus, common V3-specific Ab responses in maternal plasma predicted a reduced risk of MTCT and mediated autologous virus neutralization, suggesting that boosting these maternal Ab responses may further reduce HIV-1 MTCT.
Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The Journal of clinical investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural analyses show the second light chain complementarity determining region Glu-Asp motif of the CH58 antibody isolated from an RV144 vaccinee is optimally pre-conformed from germline to interact with the gp120 V2 loop. The increased binding affinity and neutralization capacity of the mature antibody compared to its germline precursor were achieved with only 2-3% mutation from germline, and the fact that these gains appeared to be a result of the tuning of local interactions rather than gross sequential or conformational changes provides hope that a rational immunogen design for HIV-1 treatment may become a reality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eliciting broadly reactive functional antibodies remains a challenge in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine development that is complicated by variations in envelope (Env) subtype and structure. The majority of new global HIV-1 infections are subtype C, and novel antigenic properties have been described for subtype C Env proteins. Thus, an HIV-1 subtype C Env protein (CO6980v0c22) from an infected person in the acute phase (Fiebig stage I/II) was developed as a research reagent and candidate immunogen. The gp145 envelope is a novel immunogen with a fully intact membrane-proximal external region (MPER), extended by a polylysine tail. Soluble gp145 was enriched for trimers that yielded the expected "fan blade" motifs when visualized by cryoelectron microscopy. CO6980v0c22 gp145 reacts with the 4E10, PG9, PG16, and VRC01 HIV-1 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), as well as the V1/V2-specific PGT121, 697, 2158, and 2297 MAbs. Different gp145 oligomers were tested for immunogenicity in rabbits, and purified dimers, trimers, and larger multimers elicited similar levels of crosssubtype binding and neutralizing antibodies to tier 1 and some tier 2 viruses. Immunized rabbit sera did not neutralize the highly resistant CO6980v0c22 pseudovirus but did inhibit the homologous infectious molecular clone in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) assay. This Env is currently in good manufacturing practice (GMP) production to be made available for use as a clinical research tool and further evaluation as a candidate vaccine.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Virology