[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Presentation of peptides on major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) is essential for the establishment and maintenance of self-tolerance, priming of antigen-specific CD8 þ T cells and the exertion of several T-cell effector functions. Cytosolic proteasomes continuously degrade proteins into peptides, which are actively transported across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). In the ER lumen antigenic peptides are loaded onto MHC I, which is displayed on the cell surface. Here we describe an innovative flow cytometric approach to monitor time-resolved ER compartmentalization of antigenic peptides. This assay allows the analysis of distinct primary human immune cell subsets at reporter peptide concentrations of 1 nM. Thus, this ultrasensitive method for the first time permits quantification of TAP activity under close to physiological conditions in scarce primary cell subsets such as antigen cross-presenting dendritic cells.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Nature Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New spin labeling strategies have immense potential in studying protein structure and dynamics under physiological conditions with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Here, a new spin-labeled chemical recognition unit for switchable and concomitantly high affinity binding to His-tagged proteins was synthesized. In combination with an orthogonal site-directed spin label, this novel spin probe, Proxyl-trisNTA (P-trisNTA) allows the extraction of structural constraints within proteins and macromolecular complexes by EPR. By using the multisubunit maltose import system of E. coli: 1) the topology of the substrate-binding protein, 2) its substrate-dependent conformational change, and 3) the formation of the membrane multiprotein complex can be extracted. Notably, the same distance information was retrieved both in vitro and in situ allowing for site-specific spin labeling in cell lysates under in-cell conditions. This approach will open new avenues towards in-cell EPR.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Chemistry - A European Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The loading of antigen-derived peptides onto MHC class I molecules for presentation to cytotoxic T cells is a key process in adaptive immune defense. Loading of MHC I is achieved by a sophisticated machinery, the peptide-loading complex (PLC), which is organized around the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) with the help of several auxiliary proteins. As an essential adapter protein recruiting MHC I molecules to TAP, tapasin catalyzes peptide loading of MHC I. However, the exact stoichiometry and basic molecular architecture of TAP and tapasin within the PLC remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that two tapasin molecules are assembled in the PLC, with one tapasin bound to each TAP subunit. However, one tapasin molecule bound either to TAP1 or TAP2 is sufficient for efficient MHC I antigen presentation. By specifically blocking the interaction between tapasin-MHC I complexes and the translocation complex TAP, the MHC I surface expression is impaired to the same extent as with soluble tapasin. Thus, the proximity of the peptide supplier TAP to the acceptor MHC I is crucial for antigen processing. In summary, the human PLC consists maximally of 2× tapasin-ERp57/MHC I per TAP complex, but one tapasin-ERp57/MHC I in the PLC is essential and sufficient for antigen processing.-Hulpke, S., Baldauf, C., Tampé, R. Molecular architecture of the MHC I peptide-loading complex: one tapasin molecule is essential and sufficient for antigen processing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ATP-binding cassette transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) plays a key role in the adaptive immune defense against infected or malignantly transformed cells by translocating proteasomal degradation products into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum for loading onto MHC class I molecules. The broad substrate spectrum of TAP, rendering peptides from 8 to 40 residues, including even branched or modified molecules, suggests an unforeseen structural flexibility of the substrate-binding pocket. Here we used EPR spectroscopy to reveal conformational details of the bound peptides. Side-chain dynamics and environmental polarity were derived from covalently attached 2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl spin probes, whereas 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid spin-labeled peptides were used to detect backbone properties. Dependent on the spin probe's position, striking differences in affinity, dynamics, and polarity were found. The side-chains' mobility was strongly restricted at the ends of the peptide, whereas the central region was flexible, suggesting a central peptide bulge. In the end, double electron electron resonance allowed the determination of intrapeptide distances in doubly labeled peptides bound to TAP. Simulations based on a rotamer library led to the conclusion that peptides bind to TAP in an extended kinked structure, analogous to those bound to MHC class I proteins.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recognition of virus infected or malignantly transformed cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes critically depends on the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), which delivers proteasomal degradation products into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen for subsequent loading of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Here we have identified a single cysteinyl residue in the TAP complex that modulates peptide binding and translocation, thereby restricting the epitope repertoire. Cysteine 213 in human TAP2 was found to be part of a newly uncovered substrate-binding site crucial for peptide recognition. This residue contacts the peptide in the binding pocket in an orientated manner. The translocation complex can be reversibly inactivated by thiol modification of this cysteinyl residue. As part of an unexpected mechanism, this residue is crucial in complementing the binding pocket for a given subset of epitopes as well as in maintaining a substrate-receptive conformation of the translocation complex.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences