D. A. Howell

University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States

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Publications (237)756.77 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: SN 2012dn is a super-Chandrasekhar mass candidate in a purportedly normal spiral (SAcd) galaxy, and poses a challenge for theories of type Ia supernova diversity. Here we utilize the fast and highly parameterized spectrum synthesis tool, SYNAPPS, to estimate relative expansion velocities of species inferred from optical spectra obtained with six facilities. As with previous studies of normal SN Ia, we find that both unburned carbon and intermediate mass elements are spatially coincident within the ejecta near and below 14,000 km s−1. Although the upper limit on SN 2012dn's peak luminosity is comparable to some of the most luminous normal SN Ia, we find a progenitor mass exceeding ∼ 1.6 M⊙ is not strongly favored by leading merger models since these models do not accurately predict spectroscopic observations of SN 2012dn and more normal events. In addition, a comparison of light curves and host-galaxy masses for a sample of literature and Palomar Transient Factory SN Ia reveals a diverse distribution of SN Ia subtypes where carbon-rich material remains unburned in some instances. Such events include SN 1991T, 1997br, and 1999aa where trace signatures of C III at optical wavelengths are presumably detected.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present DES14X3taz, a new hydrogen-poor super luminous supernova (SLSN-I) discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova program, with additional photometric data provided by the Survey Using DECam for Superluminous Supernovae (SUDSS). Spectra obtained using OSIRIS on the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) show DES14X3taz is a SLSN-I at z=0.608. Multi-color photometry reveals a double-peaked light curve: a blue and relatively bright initial peak that fades rapidly prior to the slower rise of the main light curve. Our multi-color photometry allows us, for the first time, to show that the initial peak cools from 22,000K to 8,000K over 15 rest-frame days, and is faster and brighter than any published core-collapse supernova, reaching 30% of the bolometric luminosity of the main peak. No physical Ni-powered model can fit this initial peak. We show that a shock-cooling model followed by a magnetar driving the second phase of the light curve can adequately explain the light curve of DES14X3taz, with the cooling of extended material at a distance of ~400 solar radii being preferred over extended stellar envelope models. We compare DES14X3taz to the few double-peaked SLSN-I events in the literature. Although the rise-times and characteristics of these initial peaks differ, there exists the tantalizing possibility that they can be explained by one physical interpretation.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Supernovae (SNe) embedded in dense circumstellar material (CSM) may show prominent emission lines in their early-time spectra ($\leq 10$ days after the explosion), owing to recombination of the CSM ionized by the shock-breakout flash. From such spectra ("flash spectroscopy"), we can measure various physical properties of the CSM, as well as the mass-loss rate of the progenitor during the year prior to its explosion. Searching through the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF and iPTF) SN spectroscopy databases from 2009 through 2014, we found 12 Type II SNe showing flash-ionized (FI) signatures in their first spectra. All are younger than 10 days. These events constitute 14\% of all 84 SNe in our sample having a spectrum within 10 days from explosion, and 18\% of SNe~II observed at ages $<5$ days, thereby setting lower limits on the fraction of FI events. We classified as "blue/featureless" (BF) those events having a first spectrum which is similar to that of a black body, without any emission or absorption signatures. It is possible that some BF events had FI signatures at an earlier phase than observed, or that they lack dense CSM around the progenitor. Within 2 days after explosion, 8 out of 11 SNe in our sample are either BF events or show FI signatures. Interestingly, we found that 19 out of 21 SNe brighter than an absolute magnitude $M_R=-18.2$ belong to the FI or BF groups, and that all FI events peaked above $M_R=-17.6$ mag, significantly brighter than average SNe~II.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the complete set of ultra-violet, optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy for SN 2012ca, covering the period from 6 days prior to maximum light, until 531 days after maximum. The spectroscopic time series for SN 2012ca is essentially unchanged over 1.5 years, and appear to be dominated at all epochs by signatures of interaction with a dense circumstellar medium rather than the underlying supernova (SN). SN 2012ca is a member of the class of type Ia-CSM/IIn SNe, the nature of which have been debated extensively in the literature. The two leading scenarios are either a type Ia SN exploding within a dense CSM from a non-degenerate, evolved companion, or a core-collapse SN from a massive star. While some members of the class have been unequivocally associated with type Ia SNe, in other cases the association is less certain. While it is possible that Sn 2012ca does arise from a thermonuclear SN, this would require a relatively high (between 20 and 70 per cent) efficiency in converting kinetic energy to optical luminosity, and a massive (~2.3-2.6 Msun) circumstellar medium. On the basis of energetics, and the results of simple modelling, we suggest that Sn 2012ca is more likely associated with a core-collapse SN. This would imply that the class of type Ia-CSM/IIn SNe is in fact originated by two populations, and while these are drawn from physically distinct channels, they can have observationally similar properties.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2013fc, a bright type II supernova (SN) in a circumnuclear star-forming ring in the luminous infrared galaxy ESO 154-G010, observed as part of the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects. SN 2013fc is both photometrically and spectroscopically similar to the well-studied type IIn SN 1998S and to the bright type II-L SN 1979C. It exhibits an initial linear decline, followed by a short plateau phase and a tail phase with a decline too fast for 56Co decay with full γ-ray trapping. Initially, the spectrum was blue and featureless. Later on, a strong broad (∼8000 km s−1) H α emission profile became prominent. We apply a starlight stellar population model fit to the SN location (observed when the SN had faded) to estimate a high extinction of AV = 2.9 ± 0.2 mag and an age of $10_{-2}^{+3}$ Myr for the underlying cluster. We compare the SN to SNe 1998S and 1979C and discuss its possible progenitor star considering the similarities to these events. With a peak brightness of B = −20.46 ± 0.21 mag, SN 2013fc is 0.9 mag brighter than SN 1998S and of comparable brightness to SN 1979C. We suggest that SN 2013fc was consistent with a massive red supergiant (RSG) progenitor. Recent mass loss probably due to a strong RSG wind created the circumstellar matter illuminated through its interaction with the SN ejecta. We also observe a near-infrared excess, possibly due to newly condensed dust.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical and near-infrared observations of the type IIb supernova (SN) 2011fu from a few days to ∼300 d after explosion. The SN presents a double-peaked light curve (LC) similar to that of SN 1993J, although more luminous and with a longer cooling phase after the primary peak. The spectral evolution is also similar to SN 1993J's, with hydrogen dominating the spectra to ∼40 d, then helium gaining strength, and nebular emission lines appearing from ∼60 d post-explosion. The velocities derived from the P-Cygni absorptions are overall similar to those of other type IIb SNe. We have found a strong similarity between the oxygen and magnesium line profiles at late times, which suggests that these lines are forming at the same location within the ejecta. The hydrodynamical modelling of the pseudo-bolometric LC and the observed photospheric velocities suggest that SN 2011fu was the explosion of an extended star (R∼ 450 R⊙), in which 1.3 × 1051 erg of kinetic energy were released and 0.15 M⊙ of 56Ni were synthesized. In addition, a better reproduction of the observed early pseudo-bolometric LC is achieved if a more massive H-rich envelope than for other type IIb SNe is considered (0.3 M⊙). The hydrodynamical modelling of the LC and the comparison of our late-time spectra with nebular spectral models for type IIb SNe, point to a progenitor for SN 2011fu with a Zero Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) mass of 13–18 M⊙.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We use observed UV through near IR spectra to examine whether SN 2011fe can be understood in the framework of Branch-normal SNe Ia and to examine its individual peculiarities. As a benchmark, we use a delayed-detonation model with a progenitor metallicity of Z_solar/20. We study the sensitivity of features to variations in progenitor metallicity, the outer density profile, and the distribution of radioactive nickel. The effect of metallicity variations in the progenitor have a relatively small effect on the synthetic spectra. We also find that the abundance stratification of SN 2011fe resembles closely that of a delayed detonation model with a transition density that has been fit to other Branch-normal Type Ia supernovae. At early times, the model photosphere is formed in material with velocities that are too high, indicating that the photosphere recedes too slowly or that SN 2011fe has a lower specific energy in the outer ~0.1 M_sun than does the model. We discuss several explanations for the discrepancies. Finally, we examine variations in both the spectral energy distribution and in the colors due to variations in the progenitor metallicity, which suggests that colors are only weak indicators for the progenitor metallicity, in the particular explosion model that we have studied. We do find that the flux in the U band is significantly higher at maximum light in the solar metallicity model than in the lower metallicity model and the lower metallicity model much better matches the observed spectrum.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The IceCube neutrino observatory pursues a follow-up program selecting interesting neutrino events in real-time and issuing alerts for electromagnetic follow-up observations. In March 2012, the most significant neutrino alert during the first three years of operation was issued by IceCube. In the follow-up observations performed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), a Type IIn supernova (SN) PTF12csy was found 0.2∘ away from the neutrino alert direction, with an error radius of 0.54∘. It has a redshift of z=0.0684, corresponding to a luminosity distance of about 300Mpc and the Pan-STARRS1 survey shows that its explosion time was at least 158 days (in host galaxy rest frame) before the neutrino alert, so that a causal connection is unlikely. The a posteriori significance of the chance detection of both the neutrinos and the SN at any epoch is 2.2σ within IceCube's 2011/12 data acquisition season. Also, a complementary neutrino analysis reveals no long-term signal over the course of one year. Therefore, we consider the SN detection coincidental and the neutrinos uncorrelated to the SN. However, the SN is unusual and interesting by itself: It is luminous and energetic, bearing strong resemblance to the SN IIn 2010jl, and shows signs of interaction of the SN ejecta with a dense circumstellar medium. High-energy neutrino emission is expected in models of diffusive shock acceleration, but at a low, non-detectable level for this specific SN. In this paper, we describe the SN PTF12csy and present both the neutrino and electromagnetic data, as well as their analysis.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the early-time light curves of a large sample of 223 Type II supernovae (SNe II) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Supernova Legacy Survey. Having a cadence of a few days and sufficient non-detections prior to explosion, we constrain rise-times, i.e. the durations from estimated first to maximum light, as a function of effective wavelength. At rest-frame g′ band (λeff = 4722 Å), we find a distribution of fast rise-times with median of (7.5 ± 0.3) d. Comparing these durations with analytical shock models of Rabinak & Waxman and Nakar & Sari, and hydrodynamical models of Tominaga et al., which are mostly sensitive to progenitor radius at these epochs, we find a median characteristic radius of less than 400 solar radii. The inferred radii are on average much smaller than the radii obtained for observed red supergiants (RSG). Investigating the post-maximum slopes as a function of effective wavelength in the light of theoretical models, we find that massive hydrogen envelopes are still needed to explain the plateaus of SNe II. We therefore argue that the SN II rise-times we observe are either (a) the shock cooling resulting from the core collapse of RSG with small and dense envelopes, or (b) the delayed and prolonged shock breakout of the collapse of an RSG with an extended atmosphere or embedded within pre-SN circumstellar material.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present ultraviolet (UV) observations of six nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, three of which were also observed in the near-IR (NIR) with Wide-Field Camera 3. UV observations with the Swift satellite, as well as ground-based optical and NIR data provide complementary information. The combined data set covers the wavelength range 0.2–2 μm. By also including archival data of SN 2014J, we analyse a sample spanning observed colour excesses up to E(B − V) = 1.4 mag. We study the wavelength-dependent extinction of each individual SN and find a diversity of reddening laws when characterized by the total-to-selective extinction RV. In particular, we note that for the two SNe with E(B − V) ≳ 1 mag, for which the colour excess is dominated by dust extinction, we find RV = 1.4 ± 0.1 and RV = 2.8 ± 0.1. Adding UV photometry reduces the uncertainty of fitted RV by ∼50 per cent allowing us to also measure RV of individual low-extinction objects which point to a similar diversity, currently not accounted for in the analyses when SNe Ia are used for studying the expansion history of the Universe.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present near-infrared (NIR) time-series spectroscopy, as well as complementary ultraviolet (UV), optical, and NIR data, of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) iPTF13ebh, which was discovered within two days from the estimated time of explosion. The first NIR spectrum was taken merely 2.3 days after explosion and may be the earliest NIR spectrum yet obtained of a SN Ia. The most striking features in the spectrum are several NIR C I lines, and the C I {\lambda}1.0693 {\mu}m line is the strongest ever observed in a SN Ia. Interestingly, no strong optical C II counterparts were found, even though the optical spectroscopic time series began early and is densely-cadenced. Except at the very early epochs, within a few days from the time of explosion, we show that the strong NIR C I compared to the weaker optical C II appears to be general in SNe Ia. iPTF13ebh is a fast decliner with {\Delta}m15(B) = 1.79 $\pm$ 0.01, and its absolute magnitude obeys the linear part of the width-luminosity relation. It is therefore categorized as a "transitional" event, on the fast-declining end of normal SNe Ia as opposed to subluminous/91bg-like objects. iPTF13ebh shows NIR spectroscopic properties that are distinct from both the normal and subluminous/91bg-like classes, bridging the observed characteristics of the two classes. These NIR observations suggest composition and density of the inner core similar to that of 91bg-like events, and a deep reaching carbon burning layer not observed in slower declining SNe Ia. There is also a substantial difference between the explosion times inferred from the early-time light curve and the velocity evolution of the Si II {\lambda}0.6355 {\mu}m line, implying a long dark phase of ~ 4 days.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical observations of the peculiar Type Ibn supernova (SN Ibn) OGLE-2012-SN-006, discovered and monitored by the OGLE-IV survey, and spectroscopically followed by PESSTO at late phases. Stringent pre-discovery limits constrain the explosion epoch with fair precision to JD = 2456203.8 +- 4.0. The rise time to the I-band light curve maximum is about two weeks. The object reaches the peak absolute magnitude M(I) = -19.65 +- 0.19 on JD = 2456218.1 +- 1.8. After maximum, the light curve declines for about 25 days with a rate of 4 mag per 100d. The symmetric I-band peak resembles that of canonical Type Ib/c supernovae (SNe), whereas SNe Ibn usually exhibit asymmetric and narrower early-time light curves. Since 25 days past maximum, the light curve flattens with a decline rate slower than that of the 56Co to 56Fe decay, although at very late phases it steepens to approach that rate. An early-time spectrum is dominated by a blue continuum, with only a marginal evidence for the presence of He I lines marking this SN Type. This spectrum shows broad absorptions bluewards than 5000A, likely O II lines, which are similar to spectral features observed in super-luminous SNe at early epochs. The object has been spectroscopically monitored by PESSTO from 90 to 180 days after peak, and these spectra show the typical features observed in a number of SN 2006jc-like events, including a blue spectral energy distribution and prominent and narrow (v(FWHM) ~ 1900 km/s) He I emission lines. This suggests that the ejecta are interacting with He-rich circumstellar material. The detection of broad (10000 km/s) O I and Ca II features likely produced in the SN ejecta (including the [O I] 6300A,6364A doublet in the latest spectra) lends support to the interpretation of OGLE-2012-SN-006 as a core-collapse event.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical observations of the peculiar stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) LSQ12btw and LSQ13ccw discovered by the La Silla-QUEST survey. LSQ12btw reaches an absolute peak magnitude of M(g) = -19.3 +- 0.2, and shows an asymmetric light curve. Stringent prediscovery limits constrain its rise time to maximum light to less than 4 days, with a slower post-peak luminosity decline, similar to that experienced by the prototypical SN~Ibn 2006jc. LSQ13ccw is somewhat different: while it also exhibits a very fast rise to maximum, it reaches a fainter absolute peak magnitude (M(g) = -18.4 +- 0.2), and experiences an extremely rapid post-peak decline similar to that observed in the peculiar SN~Ib 2002bj. A stringent prediscovery limit and an early marginal detection of LSQ13ccw allow us to determine the explosion time with an uncertainty of 1 day. The spectra of LSQ12btw show the typical narrow He~I emission lines characterising Type Ibn SNe, suggesting that the SN ejecta are interacting with He-rich circumstellar material. The He I lines in the spectra of LSQ13ccw exhibit weak narrow emissions superposed on broad components. An unresolved Halpha line is also detected, suggesting a tentative Type Ibn/IIn classification. As for other SNe~Ibn, we argue that LSQ12btw and LSQ13ccw likely result from the explosions of Wolf-Rayet stars that experienced instability phases prior to core collapse. We inspect the host galaxies of SNe Ibn, and we show that all of them but one are hosted in spiral galaxies, likely in environments spanning a wide metallicity range.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present multiband ultraviolet and optical light curves, as well as visual-wavelength and near-infrared spectroscopy of the Type II linear (IIL) supernova (SN) 2013by. We show that SN 2013by and other SNe IIL in the literature, after their linear decline phase that start after maximum, have a sharp light-curve decline similar to that seen in SNe IIP. This light-curve feature has rarely been observed in other SNe IIL due to their relative rarity and the intrinsic faintness of this particular phase of the light curve. We suggest that the presence of this drop could be used as a physical parameter to distinguish between subclasses of SNe II, rather than their light-curve decline rate shortly after peak. Close inspection of the spectra of SN 2013by indicate asymmetric line profiles and signatures of high-velocity hydrogen. Late (∼90 d after explosion) near-infrared spectra of SN 2013by exhibit oxygen lines, indicating significant mixing within the ejecta. From the late-time light curve, we estimate that 0.029 M⊙ of 56Ni was synthesized during the explosion. It is also shown that the V-band light-curve slope is responsible for part of the scatter in the luminosity (V magnitude 50 d after explosion) versus 56Ni relation. Our observations of SN 2013by and other SNe IIL through the onset of the nebular phase indicate that their progenitors are similar to those of SNe IIP.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present a time series of the highest resolution spectra yet published for the nearby Type Ia supernova (SN) 2014J in M82. They were obtained at 11 epochs over 33 days around peak brightness with the Levy Spectrograph (resolution R~110,000) on the 2.4m Automated Planet Finder telescope at Lick Observatory. We identify multiple Na I D and K I absorption features, as well as absorption by Ca I H & K and several of the more common diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). We see no evolution in any component of Na I D, Ca I, or in the DIBs, but do establish the dissipation/weakening of the two most blueshifted components of K I. We present several potential physical explanations, finding the most plausible to be photoionization of circumstellar material, and discuss the implications of our results with respect to the progenitor scenario of SN 2014J.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of the early, rising light curves of 18 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory and the La Silla-QUEST variability survey. We fit these early data flux using a simple power law (f(t) = α × tn) to determine the time of first light (t0), and hence the rise time (trise) from first light to peak luminosity, and the exponent of the power-law rise (n). We find a mean uncorrected rise time of 18.98 ± 0.54 d, with individual supernova (SN) rise times ranging from 15.98 to 24.7 d. The exponent n shows significant departures from the simple ‘fireball model’ of n = 2 (or f(t) ∝ t2) usually assumed in the literature. With a mean value of n = 2.44 ± 0.13, our data also show significant diversity from event to event. This deviation has implications for the distribution of 56Ni throughout the SN ejecta, with a higher index suggesting a lesser degree of 56Ni mixing. The range of n found also confirms that the 56Ni distribution is not standard throughout the population of SNe Ia, in agreement with earlier work measuring such abundances through spectral modelling. We also show that the duration of the very early light curve, before the luminosity has reached half of its maximal value, does not correlate with the light-curve shape or stretch used to standardize SNe Ia in cosmological applications. This has implications for the cosmological fitting of SN Ia light curves.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present observational data for a peculiar supernova discovered by the OGLE-IV survey and followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects. The inferred redshift of z=0.07 implies an absolute magnitude in the rest-frame I-band of M$_{I}\sim-17.6$ mag. This places it in the luminosity range between normal Type Ia SNe and novae. Optical and near infrared spectroscopy reveal mostly Ti and Ca lines, and an unusually red color arising from strong depression of flux at rest wavelengths <5000 \AA. To date, this is the only reported SN showing Ti-dominated spectra. Our multi band and bolometric lightcurves, as well as the spectral evolution, are in reasonable agreement with the predictions of models for the pure detonation of a helium shell around a low-mass CO white dwarf and "double-detonation" models that include a secondary detonation of a CO core following a primary detonation in an overlying helium shell.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We analyse spectroscopic measurements of 122 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with z < 0.09 discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory, focusing on the properties of the Si ii λ6355 and Ca ii ‘near-infrared triplet’ absorptions. We examine the velocities of the photospheric Si ii λ6355, and the velocities and strengths of the photospheric and high-velocity Ca ii, in the context of the stellar mass (Mstellar) and star formation rate (SFR) of the SN host galaxies, as well as the position of the SN within its host. We find that SNe Ia with faster Si ii λ6355 tend to explode in more massive galaxies, with the highest velocity events only occurring in galaxies with Mstellar > 3 × 109 M⊙. We also find some evidence that these highest velocity SNe Ia explode in the inner regions of their host galaxies, similar to the study of Wang et al., although the trend is not as significant in our data. We show that these trends are consistent with some SN Ia spectral models, if the host galaxy stellar mass is interpreted as a proxy for host galaxy metallicity. We study the strength of the high-velocity component of the Ca ii near-IR absorption, and show that SNe Ia with stronger high-velocity components relative to photospheric components are hosted by galaxies with low Mstellar, blue colour, and a high sSFR. Such SNe are therefore likely to arise from the youngest progenitor systems. This argues against a pure orientation effect being responsible for high-velocity features in SN Ia spectra and, when combined with other studies, is consistent with a scenario where high-velocity features are related to an interaction between the SN ejecta and circumstellar medium local to the SN.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network comprises nine 1-meter and two 2-meter telescopes, all robotic and dynamically scheduled, at five sites spanning the globe. Instrumentation includes optical imagers and low-dispersion spectrographs. A suite of high-dispersion, high-stability spectrographs is being developed for deployment starting late this year. The network has been designed and built to allow regular monitoring of time-variable or moving objects with any cadence, as well as rapid response to external alerts. Our intent is to operate it in a totally integrated way, both in terms of scheduling and in terms of data quality. The unique attributes of the LCOGT network make it different enough from any existing facility that alternative approaches to optimize science productivity can be considered. The LCOGT network V1.0 began full science operations this year. It is being used in novel ways to undertake investigations related to supernovae, microlensing events, solar system objects, and exoplanets. The network’s user base includes a number of partners, who are providing resources to the collaboration. A key project program brings together many of these partners to carry out large projects. In the long term, our vision is to operate the network as a part of a time-domain system, in which pre-planned monitoring observations are interspersed with autonomously detected and classified events from wide-area surveys.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2014

Publication Stats

6k Citations
756.77 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009-2015
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
      • Department of Physics
      Santa Barbara, California, United States
  • 2009-2014
    • Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network
      Goleta, California, United States
  • 2004-2009
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002-2008
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      Berkeley, California, United States