Yongsheng Song

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

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Publications (4)15.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Control of human immunodeficiency virus through the use of inexpensive chemotherapeutics, with minimal side effects and decreased potential for engendering resistant virus, is a long-term therapeutic goal. In principle, this goal can be accomplished if viral replication in reservoirs of chronically and latently infected cells is addressed. As a first step, we have developed novel antiviral compounds based on a 2-mercaptobenzamide thioester chemotype, including the pyridinioalkanoyl thioesters, which specifically target the zinc fingers of the human immunodeficiency virus nucleocapsid protein (NCp7). Using these compounds in a murine transgenic model, in which infectious human immunodeficiency virus is induced from an integrated provirus, we show inhibition of transgenic spleen cell p24 expression with potencies comparable to acute infection assays using human peripheral blood lymphocytes. More importantly, transgenic mice treated in vivo with two 2-mercaptobenzamide thioesters expressed significantly lower plasma p24, and splenocytes from these animals produced fewer infectious virions. Thus, these thioesters may provide an effective means for inhibiting the expression of human immunodeficiency virus from integrated viral reservoirs.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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    ABSTRACT: Hyper-mutable retroviruses such as HIV can become rapidly resistant to drugs used to treat infection. Strategies for coping with drug-resistant strains of virus include combination therapies, using viral protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Another approach is the development of antiviral agents that attack mutationally nonpermissive targets that have functions essential for viral replication. Thus, the highly conserved nucleocapsid protein, NCp7, was chosen as a prime target in our search for novel anti-HIV agents that can overcome the problem of viral drug resistance. Recently, we reported (J. Med. Chem. 1999, 42, 67) a novel chemotype, the pyridinioalkanoyl thioesters (PATEs), based on 2-mercaptobenzamides as the thiol component and having its amide nitrogen substituted with various phenylsulfonyl moieties. These compounds were identified as relatively nontoxic anti-HIV agents in the XTT cytoprotection assay. In this study, we wish to report a separate genre of active PATEs wherein the thiol component consists of an N-2-mercaptobenzoyl-amino acid derivative. Active derivatives (EC(50) < 10 microM) reported herein were confined to amino acid primary amides or methyl amides having side chains no larger than isobutyl. Amino acids terminating in free carboxyl or carboxylic acid ester groups were mostly inactive. Selected compounds were shown to be active on chronically infected CEM/SK-1, TNFalpha-induced U1, ACH-2 cells and virucidal on cell-free virus, latently infected U1 cells and acutely infected primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
    Full-text · Article · May 2002 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis and antiviral properties of pyridinioalkanoyl thioester (PATE) compounds that target nucleocapsid p7 protein (NCp7) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been described previously (Turpin, J. A., Song, Y., Inman, J. K., Huang, M., Wallqvist, A., Maynard, A., Covell, D. G., Rice, W. G., and Appella, E. (1999) J. Med. Chem. 42, 67–86). In the present study, fluorescence and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry were employed to determine the mechanism of modification of NCp7 by two lead compounds,N-[2-(5-pyridiniovaleroylthio)benzoyl]sulfacetamide bromide andN-[2-(5-pyridiniovaleroylthio)benzoyl]-4-(4-nitrophenylsulfonyl)aniline bromide (compounds 45 and 47, respectively). Although both compounds exhibit antiviral activity in cell-based assays, we failed to detect appreciable ejection of zinc from NCp7 under conditions in which previously described NCp7-active disulfides readily eject zinc. However, upon “activation” by Ag+, compound 45 reacted with NCp7 resulting in the zinc ejection from both zinc fingers. The reaction followed a two-step mechanism in which zinc was ejected from the carboxyl-terminal zinc finger faster than from the amino-terminal zinc finger. Both compounds covalently modified the protein with pyridinioalkanoyl groups. Compound 45 modified cysteines 36 and 49 of the carboxyl-terminal zinc finger. The results obtained herein demonstrate that PATE compounds can be constructed that selectively target only one of the two zinc fingers of NCp7, thus providing an impetus to pursue development of highly selective zinc finger inhibitors.
    No preview · Article · May 2000 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleocapsid p7 protein (NCp7) zinc finger domains of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are being developed as antiviral targets due to their key roles in viral replication and their mutationally nonpermissive nature. On the basis of our experience with symmetrical disulfide benzamides (DIBAs; Rice et al. Science 1995, 270, 1194−1197), we synthesized and evaluated variants of these dimers, including sets of 4,4‘- and 3,3‘-disubstituted diphenyl sulfones and their monomeric benzisothiazolone derivatives (BITA). BITAs generally exhibited diminished antiviral potency when compared to their disulfide precursors. Novel, monomeric structures were created by linking haloalkanoyl groups to the benzamide ring through −NH−C(O)− (amide) or −S−C(O)− (thiolester) bridges. Amide-linked compounds generally lacked antiviral activity, while haloalkanoyl thiolesters and non-halogen-bearing analogues frequently exhibited acceptable antiviral potency, thus establishing thiolester benzamides per se as a new anti-HIV chemotype. Pyridinioalkanoyl thiolesters (PATEs) exhibited superior anti-HIV-1 activity with minimal cellular toxicity and appreciable water solubility. PATEs were shown to preferentially target the NCp7 Zn finger when tested against other molecular targets, thus identifying thiolester benzamides, and PATEs in particular, as novel NCp7 Zn finger inhibitors for in vivo studies.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1998 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry