[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists are known to induce both cellular adaptations resulting in tolerance to therapeutic effects and withdrawal symptoms upon treatment discontinuation. Glutamate neurotransmission is an integral part of sleep-wake mechanisms, which processes have translational relevance for central activity and target engagement. Here, we investigated the efficacy and tolerance potential of the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) agonist LY354740 versus mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) JNJ-42153605 on sleep-wake organisation in rats. In vitro, the selectivity and potency of JNJ-42153605 were characterized. In vivo, effects on sleep measures were investigated in rats after once daily oral repeated treatment for 7 days, withdrawal and consecutive re-administration of LY354740 (1-10 mg/kg) and JNJ-42153605 (3-30 mg/kg). JNJ-42153605 showed high affinity, potency and selectivity at mGluR2. Binding site analyses and knowledge-based docking confirmed the specificity of JNJ-42153605 at the mGluR2 allosteric binding site. Acute LY354740 and JNJ-42153605 dose-dependently decreased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time and prolonged its onset latency. Sub chronic effects of LY354740 on REM sleep measures disappeared from day 3 onwards, whereas those of JNJ-42153605 were maintained after repeated exposure. LY354740 attenuated REM sleep homeostatic recovery, while this was preserved after JNJ-42153605 administration. JNJ-42153605 enhanced sleep continuity and efficiency, suggesting its potential as an add-on medication for impaired sleep quality during early stages of treatment. Abrupt cessation of JNJ-42153605 did not induce withdrawal phenomena and sleep disturbances, while the initial drug effect was fully reinstated after re-administration. Collectively, long-term treatment with JNJ-42153605 did not induce tolerance phenomena to its primary functional effects on sleep measures, nor adverse effects at withdrawal, while it promoted homeostatic recovery sleep. From the translational perspective, the present rodent findings suggest that mGluR2 positive allosteric modulation has therapeutic potential based on its superior long term efficacy over agonists in psychiatric disorders, particularly of those commonly occurring with REM sleep overdrive.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alterations in rapid eye movement sleep (REM) have been suggested as valid translational efficacy markers: activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) was shown to increase REM latency and to decrease REM duration. The present paper addresses the effects on vigilance states of the mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) JNJ-40411813 at different circadian times in rats and after afternoon dosing in humans. Due to its dual mGluR2 PAM/serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor antagonism in rodents, mGlu2R specificity of effects was studied in wild-type and mGluR2 (-/-) mice. 5-HT2A receptor occupancy was determined in humans using positron emission tomography (PET). Tolerance development was examined in rats after chronic dosing. EEG oscillations and network connectivity were assessed using multi-channel EEG. In rats JNJ-40411813 increased deep sleep time and latency of REM onset but reduced REM time when administered 2 hours after 'lights on' (CT2): this was sustained after chronic dosing. At CT5 similar effects were elicited, at CT10 only deep sleep was enhanced. Withdrawal resulted in baseline values, while re-administration reinstated drug effects. Parieto-occipital cortical slow theta and gamma oscillations were correlated with low locomotion. A double-blind, placebo-controlled polysomnographic study in healthy, elderly subjects showed that 500 mg of JNJ-40411813 consistently increased deep sleep time, but had no effect on REM parameters. This deep sleep effect was not explained by 5-HT2A receptor binding, as in the PET study even 700 mg only marginally displaced the tracer. JNJ-40411813 elicited comparable functional responses in rodents and men if circadian time of dosing was taken into account. These findings underscore the translational potential of sleep mechanisms in evaluating mGluR2 therapeutics when administered at the appropriate circadian time.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Neuropharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
Allosteric modulation of the mGlu2 receptor is a potential strategy for treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Here we describe the in vitro characterization of the mGlu2 PAM JNJ-46281222 and its radiolabelled counterpart [(3) H]JNJ-46281222. Using this novel tool, we also describe the allosteric effect of orthosteric glutamate binding and the presence of a bound G protein on PAM binding and use computational approaches to further investigate the binding mode.
We have used radioligand binding studies, functional assays, site-directed mutagenesis, homology modelling and molecular dynamics to study the binding of JNJ-46281222.
JNJ-46281222 is an mGlu2 -selective, highly potent PAM with nanomolar affinity (KD = 1.7 nM). Binding of [(3) H]JNJ-46281222 was increased by the presence of glutamate and greatly reduced by the presence of GTP, indicating the preference for a G protein bound state of the receptor for PAM binding. Its allosteric binding site was visualized and analysed by a computational docking and molecular dynamics study. The simulations revealed amino acid movements in regions expected to be important for activation. The binding mode was supported by [(3) H]JNJ-46281222 binding experiments on mutant receptors.
Conclusion and implications:
Our results obtained with JNJ-46281222 in unlabelled and tritiated form further contribute to our understanding of mGlu2 allosteric modulation. The computational simulations and mutagenesis provide a plausible binding mode with indications of how the ligand permits allosteric activation. This study is therefore of interest for mGlu2 and class C receptor drug discovery.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · British Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As part of our efforts to identify a suitable back-up compound to our recently disclosed mGlu5 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) clinical candidate VU0490551/JNJ-46778212, this letter details the investigation and challenges of a novel series of 6,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrazin-4-one derivatives. From these efforts, compound 4k emerged as a potent and selective mGlu5 PAM displaying overall attractive in vitro (pharmacological and ADMET) and PK profiles combined with in vivo efficacy in preclinical models of schizophrenia. However, further advancement of the compound was precluded due to severely limiting CNS-related side-effects confirming the previously reported association between excessive mGlu5 activation and target-related toxicities.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the optimization of a series of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) from an acyl dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidinone class. Investigation of exocyclic amide transpositions with this unique 5,6-bicyclic core were conducted in attempt to modulate physicochemical properties and identify a suitable backup candidate with a reduced half-life. A potent and selective PAM, 1-(2-(phenoxymethyl)-6,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-4(5H)-yl)ethanone (9a, VU0462807), was identified with superior solubility and efficacy in the acute amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion (AHL) rat model with a minimum effective dose of 3mg/kg. Attempts to mitigate oxidative metabolism of the western phenoxy of 9a through extensive modification and profiling are described.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein, we report the structure-activity relationship of a novel series of (2(phenoxymethyl)-6,7-dihydrooxazolo[5,4-c]pyridine-5(4H)-yl(aryl)methanones as potent, selective and orally bioavailable metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). On the basis of its robust in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy in multiple preclinical models of multiple domains of schizophrenia, coupled with a good DMPK profile and an acceptable therapeutic window, 17a (VU0409551/JNJ-46778212) was selected as a candidate for further development.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: JNJ-40411813/ADX71149 (1-butyl-3-chloro-4-(4-phenylpiperidin-1-yl) pyridin-2(1H)-one) is a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the mGlu2 receptor, which also displays 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5HT2A) antagonism after administration in rodents due to a rodent-specific metabolite. JNJ-40411813 was compared with the orthosteric mGlu2/3 agonist LY404039 (4-amino-2-thiabicyclo [3.1.0] hexane-4,6-dicarboxylic acid 2,2-dioxide), the selective mGlu2 PAM JNJ-42153605 (3-(cyclopropylmethyl)-7-(4-phenylpiperidin-1-yl)-8-(trifluoromethyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine) and the 5HT2A antagonist ritanserin in rodent models for antipsychotic activity and potential side effects, attempting to differentiate between the various compounds and mechanisms of action. In mice, JNJ-40411813, JNJ-42153605, and LY404039 inhibited spontaneous locomotion and phencyclidine- and scopolamine-induced but not d-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion; the 5HT2A antagonist ritanserin inhibited only spontaneous locomotion and phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion. As measured by 2-deoxyglucose uptake, all compounds reversed memantine-induced brain activation in mice. The two mGlu2 PAMs and LY404039, but not ritanserin, inhibited conditioned avoidance behavior in rats. Like ritanserin, the mGlu2 ligands antagonized 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine-induced head twitches in rats. LY404039 but not the mGlu2 PAMs impaired rotarod performance in rats and increased the acoustic startle response in mice. Our results show that although 5HT2A antagonism has effect in some models, mGlu2 receptor activation is sufficient for activity in several animal models of antipsychotic activity. The mGlu2 PAMs mimicked the in vivo pharmacodynamic effects observed with LY404039 except for effects on the rotarod and acoustic startle, suggesting that they produce a primary activity profile similar to that of the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist while they can be differentiated based on their secondary activity profile. The results are discussed in light of clinical data available for some of these molecules, in particular JNJ-40411813.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compounds modulating metabotropic glutamate type 2 (mGlu2) receptor activity may have therapeutic benefits in treating psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia and anxiety. The pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of a novel mGlu2 receptor-positive allosteric modulator (PAM), 1-butyl-3-chloro-4-(4-phenyl-1-piperidinyl)-2(1H)-pyridinone (JNJ-40411813/ADX71149) are described here. JNJ-40411813 acts as a PAM at the cloned mGlu2 receptor: EC50 = 147 ± 42 nmol/L in a [35S]GTPγS binding assay with human metabotropic glutamate type 2 (hmGlu2) CHO cells and EC50 = 64 ± 29 nmol/L in a Ca2+ mobilization assay with hmGlu2 Gα16 cotransfected HEK293 cells. [35S]GTPγS autoradiography on rat brain slices confirmed PAM activity of JNJ-40411813 on native mGlu2 receptor. JNJ-40411813 displaced [3H]JNJ-40068782 and [3H]JNJ-46281222 (mGlu2 receptor PAMs), while it failed to displace [3H]LY341495 (a competitive mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist). In rats, JNJ-40411813 showed ex vivo mGlu2 receptor occupancy using [3H]JNJ-46281222 with ED50 of 16 mg/kg (p.o.). PK-PD modeling using the same radioligand resulted in an EC50 of 1032 ng/mL. While JNJ-40411813 demonstrated moderate affinity for human 5HT2A receptor in vitro (Kb = 1.1 μmol/L), higher than expected 5HT2A occupancy was observed in vivo (in rats, ED50 = 17 mg/kg p.o.) due to a metabolite. JNJ-40411813 dose dependently suppressed REM sleep (LAD, 3 mg/kg p.o.), and promoted and consolidated deep sleep. In fed rats, JNJ-40411813 (10 mg/kg p.o.) was rapidly absorbed (Cmax 938 ng/mL at 0.5 h) with an absolute oral bioavailability of 31%. Collectively, our data show that JNJ-40411813 is an interesting candidate to explore the therapeutic potential of mGlu2 PAMs, in in vivo rodents experiments as well as in clinical studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
The activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGlu2 ) reduces glutamatergic transmission in brain regions where excess excitatory signalling is implicated in disorders such as anxiety and schizophrenia. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) can provide a fine-tuned potentiation of these receptors' function and are being investigated as a novel therapeutic approach. An extensive set of mutant human mGlu2 receptors were used to investigate the molecular determinants that are important for positive allosteric modulation at this receptor.
Site-directed mutagenesis, binding and functional assays were employed to identify amino acids important for the activity of nine PAMs. The data from the radioligand binding and mutagenesis studies were used with computational docking to predict a binding mode at an mGlu2 receptor model based on the recent structure of the mGlu1 receptor.
New amino acids in TM3 (R635, L639, F643), TM5 (L732) and TM6 (W773, F776) were identified for the first time as playing an important role in the activity of mGlu2 PAMs.
Conclusions and implications:
This extensive study furthers our understanding of positive allosteric modulation of the mGlu2 receptor and can contribute to improved future design of mGlu2 PAMs.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · British Journal of Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. The glutamate system plays an important role in the formation of synapses during brain development and synaptic plasticity. Dysfunctions in glutamate regulation may lead to hyperexcitatory neuronal networks and neurotoxicity. Glutamate excess is possibly of great importance in the pathophysiology of several neurological and psychiatric disorders such as epilepsy and schizophrenia. Interestingly, cross talk between these disorders has been well documented: psychiatric comorbidities are frequent in epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy is one of the highest risk factors for developing psychosis. Therefore, dysfunctions in glutamatergic neurotransmission might constitute a common pathological mechanism. A major negative feedback system is regulated by the presynaptic group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors including mGlu2/3 receptors. These receptors are predominantly localised extrasynaptically in basal ganglia and limbic structures. Hence, mGlu2/3 receptors are an interesting target for the treatment of disorders like epilepsy and schizophrenia. A dysfunction in the glutamate system may be associated with alterations in mGlu2/3 receptor expression. In this review, we describe the localization of mGlu2/3 receptors in the healthy brain of mice, rats and humans. Secondly, changes in mGlu2/3 receptor density of the brain regions affected in epilepsy and schizophrenia are summarised. Increased mGlu2/3 receptor density might represent a compensatory mechanism of the brain to regulate elevated glutamate levels, while reduced mGlu2/3 receptor density in some brain regions may further contribute to the aberrant hyperexcitability. Further research considering the mGlu2/3 receptor can contribute significantly to the understanding of the etiological and therapeutic role of group II mGlu receptor in epilepsy, epilepsy with psychosis and schizophrenia.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Acta neurologica Belgica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the optimization of a series of novel metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) from a 5,6-bicyclic class of dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-4(5H)-ones containing a phenoxymethyl linker. Studies focused on a survey of non-amide containing hydrogen bond accepting (HBA) pharmacophore replacements. A highly potent and selective PAM, 2-(phenoxymethyl)-6,7-dihydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-4(5H)-one (11, VU0462054), bearing a simple ketone moiety, was identified (LE=0.52, LELP=3.2). In addition, hydroxyl, difluoro, ether, and amino variations were examined. Despite promising lead properties and exploration of alternative core heterocycles, linkers, and ketone replacements, oxidative metabolism and in vivo clearance remained problematic for the series.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported the discovery of 4-aryl substituted pyridones with mGlu2 PAM activity starting from the HTS hit 5. In this paper we describe a different exploration from 5 that led to the discovery of a novel subseries of phenylpiperidine substituted pyridones. The optimization strategy involved the introduction of different spacers between the pyridone core and the phenyl ring of 5. Fine-tuning of metabolism and hERG followed by differentiation of advanced leads identified based on PK profiles and in vivo potency converged on a lead compound 36 (JNJ-40411813). Full in vitro and in vivo profiles indicate that 36 displayed optimal interplay between potency, selectivity, favorable ADMET/PK and cardiovascular safety profile and central EEG activity. Compound 36 has been investigated in the clinic for schizophrenia and anxious depression disorders.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Starting from an acetylene-based lead from high throughput screening an evolved bicyclic dihydronaphthyridinone was identified. We describe further refinements leading to both dihydronaphthyridinone and tetrahydronaphthyridine mGlu5 PAMs containing an alkoxy-based linkage as an acetylene replacement. Exploration of several structural features including western pyridine ring isomers, positional amides, linker connectivity/position, and combinations thereof, reveal that these bicyclic modulators generally exhibit steep SAR, and within specific subseries display a propensity for pharmacological mode switching at mGlu5 as well as antagonist activity at mGlu3. Structure-activity-relationships within a dihydronaphthyridinone subseries uncovered 12c (VU0405372), a selective mGlu5 PAM with good in vitro potency, low glutamate fold-shift, acceptable DMPK properties, and in vivo efficacy in an amphetamine-based model of psychosis.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of conditioned avoidance behavior in rats is generally considered predictive for antipsychotic activity in man. The present study investigated mGlu2-mediated modulation of conditioned avoidance and compared mGlu2 agonists with available antipsychotics for their relative effects on conditioned avoidance behavior and locomotion. The mGlu2/3 orthosteric agonist 4-amino-2-thiabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-4,6-dicarboxylic acid 2,2-dioxide (LY-404039) and mGlu2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) 3-(cyclopropylmethyl)-7-(4-phenylpiperidin-1-yl)-8-(trifluoromethyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine (JNJ-42153605) inhibited avoidance and blocked escape behavior. The mGlu2/3 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) 7-(dimethylamino)-4-(3-pyridin-3-ylphenyl)-8-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-dihydro-2 H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one (JNJ-42112265) and 4-[3-(2,6-dimethylpyridin-4-yl)phenyl]-7-methyl-8-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one (RO-4491533) reversed the LY-404039-induced impairment of avoidance and escape. JNJ-42112265 also reversed the impairment of avoidance and escape induced by the mGlu2-specific PAM JNJ-42153605, suggesting that the effects on conditioned avoidance are specifically mGlu2-mediated. The mGlu2/3 antagonist (2-(2-carboxycyclopropyl)-3-(9H-xanthen-9-yl)-D-alanine (LY-341495; s.c.) reversed the LY-404039-induced escape impairment but failed to restore avoidance, suggesting interfering side effects. Like the tested antipsychotics, mGlu2/3 orthosteric and allosteric agonists inhibited avoidance behavior and locomotion at similar doses. Hence no clear-cut differences between mGlu2 modulators and currently available antipsychotics in the way they interfere with avoidance behavior in relation to inhibition of locomotion could be established.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · European journal of pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a common and severe, often disabling psychiatric illness of unknown aetiology that affects approximately 24 million people worldwide. The illness is characterized by symptomatology comprising positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusional behaviours), negative symptoms (anhedonia, social withdrawal and apathy) and cognitive dysfunction (diminished capacity for learning, memory and executive function). Current pharmacological treatments are effective at alleviating positive symptoms but have limited impact on negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. Furthermore, the extrapyramidal symptoms, hyperprolactinemia and metabolic syndrome, including substantial weight gain, are typical side effects limiting the value of many of these drugs for patients. Thus, drugs that better serve the patient population by effectively treating all symptoms with improved safety and tolerability remain a critical unmet need. Modulation of the metabotropic glutamate type 2 (mGlu2) receptor has emerged as a promising mechanism for the treatment of CNS diseases, with the potential to provide a new and more effective avenue for the treatment of schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-two neuroleptics were studied for interaction with the behavior induced by intravenous injection of apomorphine in rats. All compounds dose-dependently shortened the duration of the apomorphine-induced agitation and - with exception of clozapine - shortened the onset of the de-arousal grooming that typically occurs immediately after the agitation phase has been terminated. Progressively higher doses were required to antagonize the higher levels of apomorphine at earlier time intervals after the i.v. injection. The compounds also decreased palpebral opening and most of them suppressed grooming behavior at higher doses. Compounds differed considerably in dose increments required for: A. Suppression of grooming: from 0.33 for clozapine to > 600 for remoxipride, raclopride and droperidol; B. Blockade of agitation at 5 min after apomorphine: from 2.6 for pimozide to 165 for chlorprothixene and 254 for remoxipride; C. Mild decrease of palpebral opening: from 0.21 for sertindole to 191 for remoxipride; and D. Pronounced decrease of palpebral opening: from 10 for melperone to > 820 for raclopride. Only 4 compounds were able to advance grooming to 15 min post apomorphine but again dose increments varied considerably: droperidol (3.4), pimozide (9.1), raclopride (42) and remoxipride (383). Based on these results obtained in one single animal model, compounds were differentiated in terms of behavioral specificity, incisiveness (the power to counteract the effects of progressively higher apomorphine concentrations) and sedative side-effect liability. Possible explanations for the observed differences and clinical relevance are discussed.
Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allosteric modulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) has gained considerable attention in the drug discovery arena as it opens avenues to achieve greater selectivity over orthosteric ligands. We recently identified a series of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) for the treatment of schizophrenia that exhibited robust heterotropic activation of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. The prototypical compound from this series, VU0448187, was found to activate CYP3A4 to > 100 % of its baseline intrinsic midazolam (MDZ) hydroxylase activity in vitro; activation was CYP3A substrate-specific and mGlu5 PAM-dependent. Additional studies revealed the concentration-dependence of CYP3A activation by VU0448187 in multi-species hepatic and intestinal microsomes and hepatocytes, as well as diminished effect observed in the presence of ketoconazole. Kinetic analyses of the effect of VU0448187 on MDZ metabolism in recombinant CYPs or human liver microsomes resulted in a significant increase in Vmax (minimal change in Km) and required the presence of cytochrome b5. The atypical kinetics translated to in vivo, as rats receiving an intraperitoneal administration of VU0448187 prior to MDZ treatment demonstrated a significant increase in circulating 1- and 4-hydroxy midazolam (1-OH-MDZ, 4-OH-MDZ) levels compared to rats administered MDZ alone. The discovery of a potent, substrate-selective activator of rodent CYP3A with an in vitro to in vivo translation, serves to illuminate the impact of increasing intrinsic enzymatic activity of hepatic and extrahepatic CYP3A in rodents, and presents the basis to build models capable of framing the clinical relevance of substrate-dependent heterotropic activation.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals