[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined whether high-glucose-induced beta cell dysfunction is associated with oxidative stress in the DBA/2 mouse, a mouse strain susceptible to islet failure.
Glucose- and non-glucose-mediated insulin secretion from the islets of DBA/2 and control C57BL/6 mice was determined following a 48-h exposure to high glucose. Flux via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway was assessed by determining O-glycosylated protein levels. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring hydrogen peroxide levels and the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes.
Exposure to high glucose levels impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in DBA/2 islets but not C57BL/6 islets, and this was associated with reduced islet insulin content and lower ATP levels than in C57BL/6 islets. Exposure of islets to glucosamine for 48 h mimicked the effects of high glucose on insulin secretion in the DBA/2 islets. High glucose exposure elevated O-glycosylated proteins; however, this occurred in islets from both strains, excluding a role for O-glycosylation in the impairment of DBA/2 insulin secretion. Additionally, both glucosamine and high glucose caused an increase in hydrogen peroxide in DBA/2 islets but not in C57BL/6 islets, an effect prevented by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L: -cysteine. Interestingly, while glutathione peroxidase and catalase expression was comparable between the two strains, the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase, which converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, was increased in DBA/2 islets, possibly explaining the increase in hydrogen peroxide levels.
Chronic high glucose culture caused an impairment in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in DBA/2 islets, which have a genetic predisposition to failure, and this may be the result of oxidative stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies using isolated perfused rat liver in vivo have suggested that during the erythrocytic phase of malaria infection, overall phagocytosis by Kupffer cells is enhanced. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the individual phagocytic capacity and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) secretion of isolated Kupffer cells in vitro, and the immunohistochemical characteristics of Kupffer cells in vivo.
Malaria was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) by inoculation with parasitized red cells containing Plasmodium berghei. Kupffer cells were isolated by centrifugal elutriation.
A significantly increased yield of Kupffer cells was obtained from malaria-infected livers compared to controls (36.7 +/- 4.5 vs 11.8 +/- 1.1 x10(6) cells, P < 0.0001, n = 12). There was an increased internalization by phagocytosis of [(3)H]-BSA latex microspheres after 60 min in malaria-infected Kupffer cells compared to controls (65.05 +/- 1.5 vs 48.6 +/- 0.7, P < 0.001, n = 12). PGE(2) secretion into the cell culture medium was significantly suppressed in malaria-infected Kupffer cells compared to controls (1167 +/- 88 vs 4537 +/- 383 pg per 10(6) cells, P < 0.001, n = 5). Staining of ED1, ED2 and PCNA was greater in malaria-infected livers compared to control.
The results indicate that the number of Kupffer cells is significantly increased and their phagocytic activity on a cell-by-cell basis is enhanced during the erythrocytic stage of malaria.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by islet dysfunction resulting in hyperglycemia, which can then lead to further deterioration in islet function. A possible mechanism for hyperglycemia-induced islet dysfunction is the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE). The DBA/2 mouse develops pancreatic islet dysfunction when exposed to a high glucose environment and/or obesity-induced insulin resistance. To determine the biochemical cause of dysfunction, DBA/2 and C57BL/6 control islets were incubated in 11.1 mM or 40 mM glucose in the absence or presence of the AGE inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) for 10 days. Basal (2.8 mM glucose) insulin release was increased in both DBA/2 and C57BL/6 islets incubated with 40 mM vs 11.1 mM glucose for 10 days. Chronic exposure to hyperglycemia decreased glucose (20 mM)-stimulated insulin secretion in DBA/2 but not in C57BL/6 islets. AG significantly increased fold-induced insulin release in high glucose cultured DBA/2 mouse islets, but did not affect C57BL/6 islet function. DBA/2 islet glucokinase was significantly reduced following 40 mM glucose culture, compared with 11.1 mM glucose cultured DBA/2 islets and 40 mM glucose cultured C57BL/6 islets. Incubation of islets with AG resulted in a normalization of DBA/2 islet glucokinase levels. In conclusion, chronic high glucose-induced increases in AGE can result in islet dysfunction and this is associated with reduced glucokinase levels in a mouse model with susceptibility to islet failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in insulin secretion following chronic exposure to non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) levels were predominantly elevated in the soluble fraction of mouse islets exposed to palmitate. This coincided with an impairment of insulin secretion to glucose and non-glucose secretagogues, consistent with a defect at a distal regulatory step in exocytosis. Removal of palmitate from the media restored both SNAP-25 protein levels and insulin secretion to control levels. We conclude that increased expression of SNAP-25 is associated with NEFA-induced impairment of insulin secretion in mouse islets.
No preview · Article · May 2004 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To produce biologically active recombinant human (rh) ZP proteins in a human cell for use in sperm function tests.
The human embryonic kidney cell line 293T was employed to produce rhZP1, rhZP2 and rhZP3 proteins individually and together by co-expression. Presence of these proteins in the culture medium and cell lysate was assessed by Western blotting analysis. The effect of the recombinant proteins on the human AR was assessed.
RhZP2 and rhZP3 were secreted into the culture medium, whereas rhZP1 was found only in the cell lysate. Interestingly, when all zona pellucida proteins were co-expressed in the same cells, rhZP1 was also secreted into the culture medium. However, despite the presence of all three ZP proteins in sufficient concentration and evidence of heavy glycosylation on gel electrophoresis, biological activity to induce the AR was not observed.
RhZP1, rhZP2 and rhZP3 were successfully expressed in the human embryonic kidney cell line 293T. It appears that an interaction amongst these proteins may be required for release of rhZP1 from the cell. Although this approach is not satisfactory for producing active human ZP proteins, it makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of the ZP proteins.
No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Asian Journal of Andrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have shown diabetes to be associated with alterations in composition of extracellular matrix and that such proteins modulate signal transduction. The present studies examined if non-enzymatic glycation of fibronectin or a mixed matrix preparation (EHS) alters endothelial cell Ca(2+) signaling following agonist stimulation. Endothelial cells were cultured from bovine aorta and rat heart. To glycate proteins, fibronectin (10 microg/ml), or EHS (2.5 mg/ml) were incubated (37 degrees C, 30 days) with 0.5 M glucose-6-phosphate. Matrix proteins were coated onto cover slips after which cells (10(5) cells/ml) were plated and allowed to adhere for 16 h. For measurement of intracellular Ca(2+), cells were loaded with fura 2 (2 microM) and fluorescence intensity monitored. Bovine cells on glycated EHS showed decreased ability for either ATP (10(-6) M) or bradykinin (10(-7) M) to increase Ca(2+) (i). In contrast, glycated fibronectin did not impair agonist-induced increases in Ca(2+) (i). In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), ATP elicited a transient increase in Ca(2+) (i) consistent with intracellular release. Re-addition of Ca(2+) resulted in a secondary rise in Ca(2+) (i) indicative of store depletion-mediated Ca(2+) entry. Both phases of Ca(2+) mobilization were reduced in cells on glycated mixed matrix; however, as the ratio of the two components was similar in all cells, glycation appeared to selectively impair Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Thapsigargin treatment demonstrated an impaired ability of cells on glycated EHS to increase cytoplasmic Ca(2+) consistent with decreased endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. Further support for Ca(2+) mobilization was provided by increased baseline IP(3) levels in cells plated on glycated EHS. Impaired ATP-induced Ca(2+) release could be induced by treating native EHS with laminin antibody or exposing cells to H(2)O(2) (20-200 microM). Glycated EHS impaired Ca(2+) signaling was attenuated by treatment with aminoguanidine or the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid. The results demonstrate that matrix glycation impairs agonist-induced Ca(2+) (i) increases which may impact on regulatory functions of the endothelium and implicate possible involvement of oxidative stress.
No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hexosamine biosynthesis pathway plays a role in the modification of cellular proteins via the provision of substrate for addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). The relative importance of the GlcNAc modification of proteins to insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells has not been investigated and so remains unclear. In the present study, we show that inhibition of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway decreases insulin secretion from mouse islets in response to a number of secretagogues, including glucose. This impairment in beta-cell function could not be attributed to reduced islet insulin content, altered ATP levels, or cell death and was restored with the addition of N-acetylglucosamine, a substrate that enters the pathway below the point of inhibition. Western blot analysis revealed that decreased islet protein glycosylation paralleled the decrease in insulin secretion following inhibition of the pathway. In conclusion, the data suggest a role for the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway in regulating the secretion of insulin by altering protein glycosylation. This finding may have implications for the development of type 2 diabetes, as chronic increase in flux through the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway may lead to the deterioration of beta-cell function via abnormal protein glycosylation.
No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) on human acrosome morphology and the acrosome reaction.
Controlled experiments on sperm and unfertilized oocytes from volunteers.
Academic research and teaching tertiary hospital.
Sperm samples were from normospermic men and unfertilized oocytes from IVF patients.
Acrosome morphology was assessed by using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The acrosome reaction was assessed by using fluorescein-labeled Pisum sativum agglutinin.
PMA induced acrosome ruffling, indicated by a marked wavy appearance. A significant correlation was found between PMA-induced ruffling and PMA enhancement of the zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction. Protein kinase C inhibitors bisindolylmalemide I and sangivamycin had no effect on PMA-induced acrosomal ruffling, but actin polymerization inhibitors cytochalasin B and cytochalasin D significantly decreased PMA-induced acrosomal ruffling. In contrast, bisindolylmalemide I, sangivamycin, cytochalasin B, and cytochalasin D significantly decreased both the zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction and the PMA enhancement of the zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction.
PMA-induced acrosomal ruffling involves actin polymerization, possibly independent of conventional protein kinase C. Acrosomal ruffling is involved in the PMA augmentation of the zona pellucida-induced acrosome reaction.
No preview · Article · Aug 2002 · Fertility and Sterility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies using pharmacologic inhibitors have implicated the enzyme aldose reductase in the pathogenesis of albuminuria and diabetic renal disease. However, a clear conclusion is not easily drawn from such studies since these pharmacologic inhibitors have nonspecific properties. To examine further the role of aldose reductase, we have overexpressed the human enzyme in a transgenic rat model. Transgene expression in the kidney was predominantly localized to the outer stripe of the outer medulla, compatible with the histotopography of the straight (S3) proximal tubule. The effect of enzyme overexpression on diabetes-induced renal function and structure was then investigated. Contrary to what may have been anticipated from the previous enzyme inhibition studies, diabetes-induced albuminuria was completely prevented by the overexpression of aldose reductase. No effect of overexpression of aldose reductase on renal structure nor on urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase was observed in this transgenic rat model. In conclusion, our study strongly suggests that multiple roles for aldose reductase may give it a more complex place in diabetic nephropathy than is currently recognized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a susceptibility to beta-cell failure. However, subjects at risk of developing type 2 diabetes, such as those with obesity or a family history of diabetes, have been shown to display hyperinsulinemia. Although this hyperinsulinemia may be an adaptive response to insulin resistance, the possibility that insulin hypersecretion may be a primary defect has not been thoroughly investigated. The DBA/2 mouse is a model of pancreatic islet susceptibility. Unlike the resistant C57BL/6 mouse strain, the DBA/2 mouse islet fails when stressed with insulin resistance or when exposed to chronic high glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to compare insulin secretory function in the DBA/2 and C57BL/6 strains in the absence of insulin resistance or high glucose. Insulin secretion was assessed in vivo using the iv glucose tolerance test and in vitro using isolated islets in static incubations. It was shown that DBA/2 mice hypersecreted insulin in vivo, compared with C57BL/6 mice, at 1 d and at 4 and 10 wk of age. This hypersecretion was not attributable to insulin resistance (as assessed by the insulin tolerance test) or increased parasympathetic nervous system outflow. Insulin hypersecretion was also demonstrated in vitro. This was associated with higher glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and elevated activity (but not protein levels) of islet glucokinase and hexokinase. Furthermore, GLUT2 protein levels were higher, which may explain an increase in glucokinase activity in DBA/2 mouse islets. In summary, the DBA/2 mouse, a model of islet failure, has increased glucose-mediated insulin secretion from a very early age, which is associated with an increase in glucose utilization. Further studies will determine whether there is a link between insulin hypersecretion and subsequent beta-cell failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity in Western society has reached epidemic proportions and its aetiological role in the development of type 2 diabetes has made finding an effective treatment for the condition of crucial importance. Of the many consequences of obesity, derangements in glucose metabolism present one of the greatest problems to health. While the role of obesity in causing insulin resistance has received much attention, the effect of obesity on beta-cell failure and the consequent development of type 2 diabetes requires re-emphasis. In this review, the current understanding of the effects of elevated free-fatty acids on beta-cell function will be examined, including a discussion of potential mechanisms. In particular, dysregulation of biochemical pathways and alterations in key enzymes, proteins and hormones will be considered as grounds for the progression to a diabetic phenotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulation of the matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan occurs in many types of renal injury but could follow any provision of hyaluronan substrate to the kidney, for example, through widespread use of supplementary glucosamine in osteoarthritic conditions. Hyaluronan can increase cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and prostaglandin production. This effect was characterized in rat renal glomeruli to determine the cellular mechanism of activation.
Isolated glomeruli were treated with purified hyaluronan (molecular mass 2 x 105 D) for up to 24 hours.
An increase in cyclooxygenase capacity and COX-2 protein was shown to follow the activation of p38-mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and to be inhibited by a specific pyridinyl imadazole inhibitor (SB 202190). Hyaluronan-induced activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 also was shown to be a p38 MAP kinase effect in these preparations. Prostaglandin production was inhibited by COX-2-specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds (NS-398 and celecoxib) but, as shown for many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), an increase in COX-2 protein accompanied this inhibition.
We propose that these findings have clinical relevance. Prostaglandins have a number of important intrarenal regulatory effects leading to some debate over renal function with the use of NSAIDs. Where hyaluronan is increased, p38 MAP-kinase-dependent provision of prostaglandin substrate, via activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2, and a concomitant increase in cyclooxygenase-2 protein would raise renal prostaglandin levels. While NSAID treatment can prevent a rise in prostaglandin levels, it needs to be maintained to avoid possible exacerbation of pro-inflammatory conditions due to increased COX-2 protein levels.
Preview · Article · Jun 2002 · Kidney International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a susceptibility to -cell failure. However, subjects at risk of developing type 2 diabe- tes, such as those with obesity or a family history of diabetes, have been shown to display hyperinsulinemia. Although this hyperinsulinemia may be an adaptive response to insulin re- sistance, the possibility that insulin hypersecretion may be a primary defect has not been thoroughly investigated. The DBA/2 mouse is a model of pancreatic islet susceptibility. Un- like the resistant C57BL/6 mouse strain, the DBA/2 mouse islet fails when stressed with insulin resistance or when exposed to chronic high glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to compare insulin secretory function in the DBA/2 and C57BL/6 strains in the absence of insulin resistance or high glucose. Insulin secretion was assessed in vivo using the iv glucose tolerance test and in vitro using isolated islets in static incubations. It was shown that DBA/2 mice hypersecreted in- sulin in vivo, compared with C57BL/6 mice, at 1 d and at 4 and 10 wk of age. This hypersecretion was not attributable to in- sulin resistance (as assessed by the insulin tolerance test) or increased parasympathetic nervous system outflow. Insulin hypersecretion was also demonstrated in vitro. This was as- sociated with higher glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and elevated activity (but not protein levels) of islet glucokinase and hexokinase. Furthermore, GLUT2 protein levels were higher, which may explain an increase in glucokinase activity in DBA/2 mouse islets. In summary, the DBA/2 mouse, a model of islet failure, has increased glucose-mediated insulin secre- tion from a very early age, which is associated with an in- crease in glucose utilization. Further studies will determine whether there is a link between insulin hypersecretion and subsequent-cell failure. (Endocrinology 143: 2085-2092, 2002)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report an inhibitory effect of an anti-actin monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the human zona pellucida (ZP)-induced acrosome reaction (AR). Motile sperm were incubated with native human ZP for 2 h in medium containing either the anti-actin mAb, an irrelevant control mAb or cytochalasins B or D (40 micromol/l). Sperm bound to the ZP were recovered and the AR was determined by fluorescein-labelled Pisum Sativum agglutinin. Anti-mouse immunoglobulin G (mIgG) Dynabeads, immunofluorescence and immunogold were used to detect the location of the anti-actin mAb in sperm. The anti-actin mAb significantly inhibited the ZP-induced AR (equivalent to cytochalasins), the ionophore A23187-induced AR and hyperactivation of sperm in medium. After incubation with anti-actin mAb, anti-mIgG beads bound to the head of >50% of sperm recovered after binding to the ZP and 10% of sperm remaining in the medium. The proportion of sperm that bound anti-mIgG beads after recovery from binding to the ZP in the presence of the anti-actin mAb was significantly correlated with the ZP-induced AR in the absence of the antibody. Immunofluorescence and immunogold demonstrated entry of the anti-actin mAb into sperm. This study suggests that the sperm plasma membrane becomes permeable to the anti-actin mAb during capacitation and initiation of the AR.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2002 · Molecular Human Reproduction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interaction of mesangial cells with extracellular matrix proteins can provide a means to modify cellular anchorage and traction through an interaction of integrins with activation of the actin cytoskeleton. We investigated intracellular signalling of matrix components fibronectin and laminin in mesangial cells in monolayer and 3-dimensional configurations to show a fibronectin-dependent activation of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (up to threefold), which is augmented by a laminin-dependent increase in phospholipase D activity. Functional responsiveness to fibronectin and laminin addition was seen in the contraction of free-floating 3-dimensional mesangial cell-embedded collagen gels, a well-defined system reflecting coupling of extracellular matrix-cell events to activation of the actin cytoskeleton. Activation of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase and contraction of mesangial cell-embedded collagen gels in response to fibronectin and laminin were inhibited by pretreatment of mesangial cells with lovastatin and restored by isoprenoid augmentation with geranylgeraniol, supporting a role for the ras-related protein Rho in this process.
No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND; In diabetic renal complications, hyperglycemia may cause damage at a cellular level in both glomerular and tubular locations, often preceding overt dysfunction. Our previous work has implicated aldose reductase in a pathway whereby aldose reductase-induced use of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced form) (NADPH) drives the pentose phosphate pathway, which culminates in a protein kinase C-induced increase in glomerular prostaglandin production and loss of mesangial cell contractility as a possible cause of hyperfiltration and glomerular dysfunction in diabetes. In this model, aldose reductase inhibition in vitro redresses all aspects of the pathway proposed to lead to hyperfiltration; aldose reductase inhibition in vivo gives only a partial amelioration over the short-term or is without effect in the longer term on microalbuminuria, which follows glomerular and tubular dysfunction. In diabetes, hyperglycemia-induced renal polyol pathway activity does not occur in isolation but instead in tandem with oxidative changes and the production of reactive dicarbonyls and alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. Aldose reductase may detoxify these compounds. We investigated this aspect in a transgenic rat model with human aldose reductase cDNA under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter with tubular expression of transgene.
Tubules (S3 region-enriched) from transgenic and control animals were prepared, exposed to oxidative stress, and analyzed to determine the cellular protein dicarbonyl content.
In tubules from transgenic animals, oxidative stress-induced dicarbonyls were significantly reduced, an effect not seen when an aldose reductase inhibitor was present.
Aldose reductase may both exacerbate and alleviate the production of metabolites that lead to hyperglycemia-induced cellular impairment, with the balance determining the extent of dysfunction.
Preview · Article · Oct 2000 · Kidney international. Supplement
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small heat shock proteins are expressed in many tissues and are proposed to regulate actin filament dynamics when dissociated into small aggregates and phosphorylated in a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)-dependent manner.
p38MAPK activity and small heat shock protein-25 (Hsp25) were determined in glomeruli from rats with experimental diabetes induced by streptozotocin administration and in isolated glomeruli exposed to a free radical stress. Contractile responsiveness of mesangial cells was determined by the serum-induced contraction of cell-embedded type I collagen gels.
In experimental diabetes, there is an activation of p38MAPK, a decrease in the size of Hsp25 molecular aggregates, from large to small homo-oligomers, and an increase in the phosphorylation of Hsp25. In control glomeruli, a free radical stress, H2O2, activated p38MAPK and increased Hsp25 in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, H2O2 decreased the contractility of cultured mesangial cells concomitant with an increase in Hsp25 phosphorylation and a reduction in Hsp25 aggregate size. These effects were significantly reduced by SB202190, an imidazole-derivative cell-permeable inhibitor of p38MAPK.
It has been proposed that the generation of oxygen-derived free radicals in diabetes may be linked causally to a loss of glomerular contractile reactivity and thus hyperfiltration in the early stages of diabetes mellitus. This study provides a mechanism for alteration of mesangial cell contractile responsiveness through phosphorylation of Hsp25 and may be a mechanism underlying abnormalities in glomerular hemodynamics in diabetes and in the presence of free radical stress.
Preview · Article · Mar 2000 · Kidney International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of inhibitors of actin polymerization and depolymerization, cytochalasins and phalloidin, on the human zona pellucida (ZP)-induced acrosome reaction (AR) were investigated. Motile spermatozoa, selected by swim-up technique from normozoospermic men, were incubated in medium with or without the actin modulators. Oocytes (four per test) which had failed to fertilize in vitro were added and incubation continued for 2 h. The spermatozoa bound to the ZP were dislodged by repeatedly aspirating the oocytes with a small-bore pipette and the status of the acrosomes was determined by fluorescein-labelled Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA). Double immunofluorescent staining with PSA and an anti-actin monoclonal antibody illuminated the acrosomal region of acrosome-intact spermatozoa. In calcium ionophore-induced AR spermatozoa, actin staining was confined to the equatorial segment, post-acrosomal region and tail. Cytochalasins B and D significantly inhibited ZP-induced AR in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.001). Both inhibitors had no effect on the acrosome of spermatozoa in the insemination medium. Cytochalasin B or D (10-40 micromol/l) had no effect on total percentage motile spermatozoa but decreased sperm velocity and hyperactivation. Phalloidin had no effect on the ZP-induced AR or sperm motility. In conclusion, actin polymerization plays an important role in human ZP-induced AR.
No preview · Article · Nov 1999 · Molecular Human Reproduction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken in order to investigate whether the production of vasodilatory prostaglandins is increased in the retinal vasculature of the diabetic rat.
Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats using streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were left uncontrolled for 3-4 weeks or were treated with insulin replacement throughout the period of diabetes. Control rats were age-matched. Retinal vessels extracted from retinae removed at sacrifice were incubated in a physiological salts solution. Prostaglandin E and prostaglandin I2 were measured in collected medium.
The production of both prostaglandin E and prostaglandin I2 by blood vessels isolated from the retina was increased by approximately 40% in streptozotocin-diabetic rats, compared to controls, within 4 weeks of the onset of diabetes. This increase was reversed by treatment of streptozotocin-diabetic rats with insulin. The increase in prostaglandin production was not due to alteration in the maximal capacity of cyclooxygenase enzyme.
Increased production of vasodilatory prostaglandins occurs in the rat retinal vasculature early in diabetes. Prostaglandins may contribute to altered retinal hemodynamics in early diabetic retinopathy.
No preview · Article · Mar 1999 · Current Eye Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An early increased formation of renal prostaglandins in diabetes which follows the hydrolysis of cellular phospholipids by cytosolic phospholipase A2 is of considerable importance in determining subsequent cellular function. As the disposition of concomitantly formed lysophosphatidylcholine may also affect cellular function, we investigated the cellular fate of exogenous lysophosphatidylcholine in mesangial cell-enriched glomerular cores and showed that in cells taken from diabetic rats there is an increased net reformation of phosphatidylcholine. Positional distribution of labelled palmitate from sn-1 position palmitate-labelled lysophosphatidylcholine showed distribution to both sn-1 and sn-2 position of the phosphatidylcholine formed with a significantly increased sn-2 position labelling in diabetes. Although both a coenzyme A-dependent acyltransferase activity and a coenzyme A-independent transacylase activity could be shown in these cells, the increased phosphatidylcholine formation in cells taken from diabetic animals was due to an increase in coenzyme A-independent transacylase activity. By contrast, an increase in coenzyme-A independent transacylase activity could not be demonstrated in cultured mesangial cells maintained with prolonged raised glucose concentrations. Cell homogenates possess the ability to transfer fatty acid from lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine with subsequent formation of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, respectively. In preparations from diabetic animals phosphatidylethanolamine formed in this manner was increased in the presence of an inhibitor of cytosolic phospholipase A2, indicating that it may provide a substrate for phospholipase A2 activity; an effect not seen in cultured cells maintained at raised glucose concentrations. It is concluded that one effect of an altered disposition of lysophosphatidylcholine in cells from diabetic animals would be to spare fatty acids released following phospholipase A2 hydrolysis of phospholipid, possibly providing the substrate for prostaglandin production, an effect not seen with raised glucose alone.
No preview · Article · May 1997 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta