[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial pituitary adenomas occur in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, as well as in familial isolated pituitary adenoma syndrome. Familial isolated pituitary adenoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance. Pituitary adenomas occur in familial setting but without any other specific tumors. In 20-40% of families with this syndrome, mutations have been identified in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene while in the rest of the families the causative gene or genes have not been identified. Families carrying aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene mutations have a distinct phenotype with younger age at diagnosis and a predominance of somatotroph and lactotroph adenomas. Germline mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene can be occasionally identified in usually young-onset seemingly sporadic cases. Genetic and clinical testing of relatives of patients with aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein gene mutations can lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment at an earlier stage of the pituitary tumor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The differentiation of adrenocorticotropic hormone producing pituitary adenoma (Cushing's disease) from the ectopic ACTH syndrome is always a complex and difficult task, and in rare cases it is not possible to differentiate between the two disorders, even with the use of dynamic endocrine tests and the most advanced imaging techniques. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) with subsequent ACTH measurements became the gold-standard method of the differential diagnostic process. 34 patients with ACTH dependent Cushing's syndrome in whom the source of ACTH secretion couldn't be identified unambiguously with imaging techniques and/or dynamic endocrine tests underwent altogether 41 IPSS between 1999 and 2005. The sensitivity of the method was calculated on the basis of 31 samplings of 25 patients who had definite endocrinological diagnosis confirmed by the recovery from Cushing's syndrome after surgical intervention and/or by histological examinations (22 patients with ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma and 3 patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome). As a result of IPSS, pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease was diagnosed with a baseline central to peripheral ACTH ratio of >2.0 or with a ratio of >3.0 after corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) administration. IPSS correctly identified ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma in 20 of 28 sampling procedures, with a sensitivity of 71.4%. Three patients had true negative and 8 had false negative results. There was no false positive result. Four of the 8 patients with false negative first sampling had a repeat sampling procedure leading to true positive result in each patient. In patients with Cushing's disease having true positive interventions, the basal and 5 minutes post-CRH ACTH concentrations were diagnostic in 14 and 19 cases, respectively. The sensitivity of IPSS within this series, reported for the first time from Hungary, was lower than it was found in much larger series published in international literature. In addition to technical difficulties, the lower sensitivity can be accounted also for the highly selected nature of the patient group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of thyroid microcarcinomas found at autopsies is 100-1000 times higher than in clinical cancer. The epidemiological and histological characteristics of thyroid microcarcinomas in consecutive series of autopsies performed in two areas of different iodine intake were investigated. Iodine deficient (ID) area: n = 222 (M = 109, F = 113), median age: 74-76 years, median iodine excretion (MIE) of nursing home residents from this area: 70 microg/g creatinine. Iodine sufficient (IS) area: n = 221 (M = 132, F = 89), median age: 68 years, MIE: 500 microg/g creatinine. When compared to the IS area, the results obtained in the ID area showed a higher thyroid weight (mean 27.75 g +/- 18.43 g vs. 16.5 g +/- 9.6 g, p < 0.0001) and a larger number of goitrous glands (50/222 vs. 5/221, p < 0.0001). Altogether 21 microcarcinomas were found (4.74%) with no iodine intake- or gender-related difference: ID n = 11 (4.95%), M/F = 8/3; IS n = 10 (4.52%), M/F = 6/4. Microcarcinomas seemed to be more prevalent in the 40-59-year age group. All microcarcinomas were of the papillary type. In conclusion, compared to clinical cancer, thyroid microcarcinomas are characterized by a two-scale higher prevalence, are not related to iodine intake, gender or nodularity, are most exclusively of the papillary type.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy (36 months) analyzed at a dose adjusted to maintain serum insulin-like growth factor-I level between the median and the upper end of the age-related reference range on bone mineral density, body composition, and carbohydrate metabolism with respect to gender and age in 20 adult patients (9 women, 11 men, mean age: 43 years, range: 21-61 years). The lumbar and femoral T-score was increased after 12 and after 18 months of therapy respectively in men (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002), but did not changed significantly in women. The increase of femoral T-score was greater in young men (< or = 45 years, n = 6) than old men (> 45 years, n = 5, p < 0.001). Body fat was lower in men than in women after 6 months (p = 0.002). The waist/hip ratio only decreased in women (p = 0.044). The waist circumference decreased in both genders after 6 months of therapy (p < 0.001), but more markedly in females than in males (p < 0.05). The sum of skinfold thicknesses was reduced in males after 6 months of therapy (p < 0.001). Changes in body composition parameters measured were independent of age. The glycosylated hemoglobin increased without sex or age difference after 12 months of initiation of therapy (p < 0.001), but fasting glucose and insulin levels did not change during the therapy. Our results indicate that the effect of growth hormone replacement on bone mineral content in adults is age- and gender-dependent, gender dependent on body composition, but independent of age and gender on carbohydrate metabolism.
No preview · Article · May 2004 · Hormone and Metabolic Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that acute hyperglycemia stimulates somatostatin release from the hypothalamus, thus causing inhibition of growth hormone and thyrotropin secretion. Abnormal growth hormone secretory pattern to glucose load is characteristic of acromegaly, and it might reflect alterations in somatostatin release. We evaluated the sensitivity of serum thyrotropin response to presumed somatostatin inhibition during oral glucose tolerance test in 29 patients with active acromegaly, in 13 patients with inactive disease, and in 19 control persons suspected of impaired glucose tolerance. Both the acromegalic patients and the control subjects were euthyroid. Serum insulin, growth hormone, thyrotropin, free triiodthyronine, free thyroxine, and glucose were collected before and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the ingestion of 75 g glucose. While the free triiodthyronine and free thyroxine values did not change during the glucose test, the thyrotropin levels progressively and significantly declined in all groups. The basal to nadir thyrotropin ratio was higher in active acromegaly than in inactive disease and in control subjects (p < 0.01), suggesting that the glucose load inhibited thyrotropin stronger in active acromegalic patients. These data suggest that there is a possible strong somatostatin response to glucose load in acromegalic patients, which inhibits thyrotropin secretion. These data do not support the concept of decreased somatostatin drive in acromegaly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that the regulatory pathways mediating basal and/or stimulus-induced prolactin (PRL) release in mammals are highly sensitive to adrenal corticoid inhibitory influence. We have investigated the effect of four different doses of dexamethasone (DEX) and the effect of adrenocorticotropin on PRL secretion in 197 patients (169 female, 28 male; age: 18-66 yr) with suspected hypercortisolemia--but only those with a normal glucocorticoid suppression test were involved in the study--and in 66 female patients (age: 18-39 yr) with suspected adrenocorticotropin-dependent hyperandrogenism. Overnight (1 mg), low-dose (0.5 mg every 6 h for 2 d), high-dose (2 mg every 6 h for 2 d), and long-lasting administration of DEX (0.5 mg every 6 h for 5 d) resulted in a significant decrease in PRL levels compared to the baseline. Similarly, a reduction in PRL levels could be detected following injection of adrenocorticotropin (250 microg). In hyperprolactinemic patients, the DEX-induced increase in PRL (APRL, expressed in percentage of baseline) was significantly larger compared with normoprolactinemic subjects in all groups except those who received high-dose DEX) or adrenocorticotropin. These data clearly indicate that the secretory function of PRL cells in humans is sensitive to changes in the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in a dose-dependent manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors report five cases of thyrotropin secreting pituitary adenomas (4 males and 1 female) in whom the diagnosis was established by a combined occurrence of elevated serum free thyroid hormone levels and measurable serum thyrotropin concentration, as well as by visualisation of the pituitary adenomas using magnetic resonance imaging (pituitary microadenoma in two and macroadenoma in three cases). Other tests were less diagnostic: only two out of 4 patients proved to be non-responders during testing with thyrotropin releasing hormone, and serum alpha subunit was elevated in only 2 out of 3 cases. There was a significant decrease of serum thyrotropin concentration in all of the four patients tested by 100 micrograms octreotide (Sandostatin, Novartis). Somatostatin-analogue treatment (slow release preparation in two cases) restored euthyroidism in all three cases treated prior to surgery. In one case the hyperthyroidism persisted after surgery of the macroadenoma, but irradiation of the pituitary area and subsequent somatostatin-analogue treatment resulted finally in a complete cure (euthyroidism and no tumor remnant). In the three other operated patients surgery resulted in euthyroidism. These cases demonstrate the variety of diagnostic and therapeutical modalities in the management of thyrotropin secreting pituitary adenomas.