[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to assess the technical feasibility of studying the spatial and temporal interaction of traditionally herded livestock and wildlife using global positioning system (GPS) tracking technology in Northern Kenya. Two types of collars were used on nine cows: radio frequency and global system for mobile communications (GSM) collars and GPS-satellite (SAT) collars. Full results of cattle tracking were available for eight cows (3 GSM and 5 SAT) tracked between July 2008 and September 2010. A cumulative total of 1556 tracking days was recorded over the 17 month period. On average cows walked 10,203m/day (average total monthly distance walked was 234km). Significant seasonal differences were found; on average cows walked 9.607m and 10,392m per day in the rainy and the dry seasons, respectively. This difference was also significant for total monthly and daily distance walked between the dry and the rainy season. On average cows walked daily 9607m and 10,392m on the rainy and the dry season respectively. During the dry months a 48h cycle was observed with cows walking 15-25km to water every 2nd day but only 5-8km/day between watering days. There was a 24% overlap of cattle range with both elephants and zebras. This study demonstrated the feasibility of tracking cattle using radio collars. It shows the complexity of spatial use by cattle and wildlife. Such information can be used to understand the dynamics of disease transmission between livestock and wildlife.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Preventive Veterinary Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spatial aggregation of related individuals can affect disease dynamics by altering contact rates between individuals and/or groups of individuals. However, kin-structure likely affects contact rates in a scale-dependent manner: increasing contact rates within, but decreasing contact rates amongst spatial groups. Thus, the effect of kin-structure on disease exposure risk should depend upon the spatial scale relevant for pathogen transmission. This study was undertaken to test the effects of kin-structure on disease dynamics in raccoons (Procyon lotor) inhabiting a highly fragmented agricultural ecosystem. Raccoons (n = 566) were trapped at 31 spatially discrete habitat patches (local populations). Trapped individuals were genotyped at 13 microsatellites and their serum screened for antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV) and multiple Leptospira spp. serovars. Our analyses revealed that the effects of kin-structure on transmission dynamics are dependent on both spatial scale and the pathogen under consideration. Thus, in the directly transmitted pathogen (CDV), the probability of pathogen co-exposure (the proportion of individual pairs where both individuals were seropositive for a particular pathogen) was positively correlated with genealogical proximity within local populations. Conversely, in the environmentally transmitted leptospires co-exposure was homogeneous within local populations and was positively correlated with gene flow among these populations. Our analyses also revealed that, after controlling for confounding effects of landscape and demographic variables, the effects of kin-structure on disease exposure risk was pathogen-specific. In particular, increasing kin-structure was associated with increased disease exposure risk in the directly transmitted pathogen (CDV), and alternatively with decreased disease exposure risk in environmentally transmitted leptospires. The potential, scale-dependent, effects of kin-structure on disease exposure risk revealed by our analyses could play an important role in elucidating disease dynamics in natural populations and in planning effective disease mitigation strategies.ZusammenfassungDie räumliche Aggregation von verwandten Individuen kann die Seuchendynamik beeinflussen, indem die Kontaktraten zwischen Individuen und/oder Individuengruppen geändert werden. Indessen beeinflusst die Verwandtschaftsstruktur die Kontaktraten wahrscheinlich in skalenabhängiger Weise: Die Kontaktraten steigen innerhalb räumlicher Gruppen, sinken aber zwischen diesen. So sollte der Effekt der Verwandschaftsstruktur auf das Krankheitsrisiko von der räumlichen Skala abhängen, die für die Erregerübertragung maßgeblich ist. Die vorliegende Untersuchung wurde durchgeführt, um den Effekt der Verwandtschaftsstruktur auf die Seuchendynamik bei Waschbären (Procyon lotor) zu untersuchen, die eine stark fragmentierte Agrarlandschaft bewohnen. Die Waschbären (n = 599) wurden in 31 räumlich getrennten Habitaten (lokale Populationen) gefangen. Die gefangenen Individuen wurden für 13 Mikrosatelliten genotypisiert, und ihr Serum wurde auf Antikörper gegen das Hundestaupevirus (CDV) und verschiedene Leptospira-Serotypen untersucht. Unsere Analysen zeigten, dass die Effekte der Verwandtschaftsstruktur auf die Übertragungsdynamik sowohl von der räumlichen Skala als auch vom betrachteten Erregertyp abhängen. So war der Anteil von Individuenpaaren, bei denen beide Individuen seropositiv waren, bei dem direkt übertragenen CDV positiv mit der verwandtschaftlichen Nähe innerhalb der lokalen Populationen korreliert. Dagegen war dieser Anteil bei den indirekt übertragenen Leptospiren innerhalb der lokalen Populationen homogen, aber positiv mit dem Genfluss zwischen diesen Populationen korreliert. Unsere Analysen zeigten auch, dass nach Kontrolle der Konfundierungseffekte von Landschafts- und Demographievariablen der Einfluss der Verwandtschaftsstruktur auf das Expositionsrisiko erregerspezifisch ist. Zunehmende Verwandtschaftsstruktur war bei dem direkt übertragenen CDV mit einem höheren Seuchenexpositionsrisiko assoziiert und mit einem geringeren Risiko bei den indirekt übertragenen Leptospiren. Die bei unseren Analysen festgestellten potentiellen skalenabhängigen Effekte der Verwandtschaftsstruktur auf das Expositionsrisiko könnten eine wichtige Rolle bei der Aufklärung der Seuchendynamik in natürlichen Populationen und bei der Planung von effektiven Seuchenbekämpfungsstrategien spielen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the potential of white-tailed deer (WTD) (Odocoileus virginianus) to be a sentinel for human cases of Lyme disease (LD) in Indiana using location data from a 3-year survey of approximately 3400 hunted deer with associated tick Ixodes scapularis and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) data. Data on human LD cases at the county level were obtained from the Indiana Department of Health. All data were assigned to county centroids to match the resolution of the LD data before creating optimized trend surfaces for LD incidence, hunted deer count, Ixodes scapularis and Bb prevalence. To determine whether LD was spatially associated with the areas of high densities of deer, deer with Ixodes scapularis and deer with ticks infected with Bb, we used spatial analysis with distance indices (SADIE). The SADIE analysis found significant spatial association between LD and the distribution of three organismal predictor variables, that is, WTD, Ixodes ticks and Bb. Lyme disease incident rate varied between 0.08 cases per 10 000 habitants (Johnson county) and 5.9 cases per 10 000 habitants (Warren county). In conclusion, WTD can be used as an accurate and cost-effective sentinel for human LD. This method will permit public health workers to identify potentially endemic areas independently of human case reports.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Zoonoses and Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from experimentally infected white-tailed deer fawns to colostrum-deprived calves by use of a BVDV strain isolated from hunter-harvested white-tailed deer.
5 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns and 6 colostrum-deprived calves.
Fawns were inoculated intranasally with a noncytopathic BVDV-1a isolate (2 mL containing 10(6.7) TCID(50)/mL), and 2 days after inoculation, animals were commingled until the end of the study. Blood and serum samples were obtained on days -6, 0, 7, 14, and 21 after inoculation for reverse transcriptase PCR assay, virus neutralization, and BVDV-specific antibody ELISA. Nasal, oral, and rectal swab specimens were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 17, and 21 for reverse transcriptase PCR testing. By 21 days after inoculation, all animals were euthanized and necropsied and tissues were collected for histologic evaluation, immunohistochemical analysis, and virus isolation.
All fawns became infected and shed the virus for up to 18 days as determined on the basis of reverse transcriptase PCR testing and virus isolation results. Evidence of BVDV infection as a result of cohabitation with acutely infected fawns was detected in 4 of the 6 calves by means of reverse transcriptase PCR testing and virus isolation.
On the basis of these findings, BVDV transmission from acutely infected fawns to colostrum-deprived calves appeared possible.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · American Journal of Veterinary Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective was to evaluate the survival of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (Map) in naturally infected dairy cows feces under long periods of freezing at -18°C and -70°C. Samples were collected from cows previously tested positive with serum ELISA or fecal culture, or with clinical signs of Johne's disease. Samples were stored at -18°C and/or -70°C and recultured in Herrold's egg yolk media every 3-6 months. A proportional odds mixed model was used for data analysis. Sixty nine fecal samples were stored for different periods between September 2002 and January 2005. Of these, 45 (65%) were stored at -18°C and 24 (35%) at -70°C. Average number of days between repeated culture dates was 98 and 84 for -18°C and -70°C, respectively. Median number of repeated cultures was 6 and 4 for samples stored at -18°C and -70°C, respectively. After adjusting for initial sample bacterial load, the effects of temperature or number of thawing and refreezing cycles on Map viability were not significant. The probability that a sample decreases from high to moderate-low bacterial load and from moderate-low to negative bacterial load was 13.5% per month. Although this study found gradual reduction of Map concentration in stored fecal samples through time, overall survival in -18°C can ease fecal samples management in laboratories with low-processing capacity or lack of -70°C freezer.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Veterinary Medicine International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map), the causative agent of Johne's disease, has a robust ability to survive in the environment. However, the ability of Map to migrate through soil to drainage tiles or ground water, leave the farm, and leak into local watersheds is inadequately documented. In order to assess the ability of Map to leach through soil, two laboratory experiments were conducted. In the first study, 8 columns (30 cm long each) of a sandy loam soil were treated with pure cultures of Map. Two soil moisture levels and two Map concentrations were used. The columns were leached with 500 mL of water once a week for three weeks, the leachate was collected, and detection analysis was conducted. In the second experiment, manure from Map negative cows (control) and Map high shedder cows (treatment) were deposited on 8 similar columns and the columns were leached with 500 mL of water once a week for four weeks. Map detection and numeration in leachate samples were done with RT-PCR and culture techniques, respectively. Using RT-PCR, Map could be detected in the leachates in both experiments for several weeks but could only be recovered using culture techniques in experiment one. Combined, these experiments indicate the potential for Map to move through soil as a result of rainfall or irrigation following application.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Veterinary Medicine International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Species and biotype distribution was determined in 44 bovine viral diarrhea virus- (BVDV-) positive samples submitted to the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (ADDL) in Indiana during 2006-2008. BVDV RNA was detected in the 5'-untranslated region and N(pro) region using reverse transcriptase PCR followed by sequencing analysis of the PCR product. Additionally, cases were classified into one of six categories according to history and/or lesions: acute symptomatic, hemorrhagic, respiratory distress, reproductive, persistent infection (PI), and mucosal disease (MD). Of 44 BVDV-positive samples, 33 were noncytopathic (ncp), 10 were cytopathic (cp), and one presented both ncp and cp biotypes. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that all samples belonged to BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, or BVDV-2. The most common isolate was ncp BVDV-1b, (44%) followed by ncp BVDV-2a (24%). Among the six categories, respiratory clinical signs were the most common (36%) followed by PI (25%) and MD (16%).
Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Veterinary Medicine International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe the application of management practices known to be associated with the prevention of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection on Indiana dairy farms and to determine the extent of BVDV vaccine use within Indiana dairy herds. The population in this study was Indiana dairy producers enrolled under the Indiana Premise ID list by the Indiana State Board of Animal Health (n=1600). During the fall of 2008 a questionnaire was mailed to Indiana dairy producers. Returned questionnaires were entered into a database and descriptive statistics were performed. A total of 208 questionnaires were found useful for analysis. Small herds (<100 head) constituted 60% of the sample population, 33% farms were categorized as medium herds (100-499 head) and finally 7% were large herds (>500 head). Most of the herds (68%) acquired their replacements from external sources (open herds); however, preventive measures against the introduction of BVDV into the farm such as purchased animal history, quarantine and BVDV testing were not commonly performed. Even though producers commonly reported the use of BVDV vaccines, not all animals groups were vaccinated within herds. This study highlights the aspects of management practices of BVDV control on Indiana dairy farms that need reinforcement. In particular, dairy producers should be made aware that vaccination should be complementary to a comprehensive biosecurity program.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Preventive Veterinary Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to describe the estimated within-herd prevalence (WHP) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) in a sample of infected dairy herds in Minnesota (N = 66) using test results from bacterial culture of pooled fecal samples. Fecal samples were collected from up to 100 cows in each herd and were tested using bacterial culture in pools of 5 cows based on age order. The mean herd size was 222 (44 to 1500) milking cows; the cows were predominantly Holstein. Using a frequentist approach, the within-herd mean individual fecal prevalence was 10% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 4% to 16%] assuming 70% test sensitivity and 99.5% test specificity. Using Bayesian methods, the estimated true within-herd individual cow prevalence was 14% (95% CI = 7% to 27%). Within-herd prevalence was higher in larger dairy herds than in herds with fewer cows. As Map is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), the results of this study could contribute to the success of a nationwide control program for this disease.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche vétérinaire
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to experimentally infect calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer. Twelve colostrum-deprived male Holstein calves were used. Eight were inoculated intranasally with a BVDV type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer, and the other four were inoculated with the cell culture medium only and served as a control group. Whole blood, saliva, and nasal and rectal secretions were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 after inoculation for virus isolation and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On days 14 and 21, 4 calves in the infected group and 2 in the control group were euthanized; multiple tissue samples were collected for histopathologic study. Histopathologic changes included thymic atrophy and lymphoid depletion of the Peyer's patches in all 8 infected calves. The RT-PCR gave positive results with the buffy coat of all 8 infected calves, the nasal samples of 7, and the saliva samples of 2. Virus neutralization testing of the serum gave positive results for 4 of the 8 infected calves, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the serum gave positive results for 3. All of the samples from the control calves yielded negative results.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche vétérinaire
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and Crohn's disease (CD) is supported by several studies reporting the detection or isolation of MAP from human tissues, but a direct association is still debatable.
To evaluate the survival of MAP in human intestinal cells and to measure the presence of antibodies against two mycobacterial proteins necessary for the survival of the bacterium in the sera of CD patients.
Human-derived intestinal cells were infected with three isolates of MAP and the survival of the microorganism was determined. The presence of antibodies against protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) and protein kinase G (two proteins secreted within the host in the early stages of the invasion) in the sera of CD patients was evaluated. Sera of 20 CD patients and 20 controls were collected and the presence of the antibodies was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Secretion of the PtpA in vivo was visualized by immunostaining.
MAP survived in intestinal cells, and immunostaining of PtpA showed that the protein was secreted within these cells. Wilcoxon rank sum test revealed that CD patient sera had significantly higher titer of antibodies specific for both of these antigens compared to controls. ELISA results for either protein were not statistically different between men and women.
The presence of specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins essential for establishing an infection in the host suggests that MAP can potentially be active in CD patients, and a serological test can be developed for early detection of MAP in CD patients.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to estimate the seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, BHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a population of non-vaccinated, double purpose, dairy and beef herds in the Pacific Region of Central Costa Rica. Blood samples were collected from a total of 496 animals from 35 herds. Sera were tested for antibodies against BHV-1(IBR) and BVDV types 1 and 2 using serum neutralization test. The average number of animals tested in each herd for each of the viruses was 14. Overall individual seroprevalence was 48%, 27%, and 19% for IBR, BVDV type 1, and BVDV type 2, respectively. Median within-herd seroprevalence for IBR, BVDV type 1 and type 2 were 43%, 27%, and 24%, respectively.
No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Tropical Animal Health and Production
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess whether the distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and its vector tick Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae) across Indiana is influenced by large-scale landscape features, specifically the proportion of forest within the surrounding landscape and the distance to water features such as lakes and major streams. Hunter-killed deer were checked for ticks in designated check-stations in the opening firearm hunting season between 2005 and 2007. Hunting locations for approximately 3,600 deer were used in ArcGIS (ESRI, Redlands, CA) to examine the influence of forest and water features in the surrounding area on the occurrence of the tick and bacteria. In total, 82 of the 92 (89%) Indiana counties were sampled from 2005 to 2007. The proportion of tick-infested deer was 13.6, 15.8, and 25.5% in these years, respectively. There was a significant nonlinear response for I. scapularis to forest cover in 1 yr that indicated a greater probability of this tick presence at intermediate levels of forest area. Infested does were harvested in significantly more forested areas than bucks. No significant correlation was found neither between levels of forest area and B. burgdorferi nor between water bodies and both organisms.
No preview · Article · May 2010 · Journal of Medical Entomology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantification of the financial effect of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection on lactation performance is essential to encourage participation of dairy cattle producers in Johne's disease (JD) control programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in net income per lactation of cows shedding Mycobacterium paratuberculosis before calving compared with test-negative cows. Two Minnesota dairies were enrolled in the study and fecal samples were collected from 1,048 cows during the close-up period. Milk production, clinical diseases (other than clinical JD), and reproductive performance data were recorded for each cow. Overall, fecal-culture-positive (FCP) cows produced 1,355 kg less than fecal-culture-negative (FCN) cows. Fecal-culture-positive cows that survived their current lactation produced $276 less in milk income than cows that were FCN ($1,956 vs. $1,680; SD $526, $570). Fecal-culture-positive cows were 3.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.6-5.8) times more likely to be culled than FCN cows. The mean days open (number of days from calving to conception) was not statistically significant and the cost differences for clinical disease other than JD were small and neither statistically nor economically significant between FCP and FCN cows. Among all FCP cows, income over feed costs losses were $366 per cow per lactation compared with FCN cows. Among FCP nonculled cows, income over feed costs losses were $276 more compared with FCN cows and this difference was statistically significant. There was a total loss of $155 per lactation for nonculled FCP cows retained in the herd compared with FCN cows retained in the herd. Among culled cows, FCP cow losses were $50 less because of age at culling and $120 for reduced beef value. This totaled a loss of $441 for culled FCP cows compared with culled FCN cows. The losses as a result of lower lactation performance and early culling from the herd should alarm dairy producers and motivate them to implement the appropriate control measures for the disease.
No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of Dairy Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the current study was to elucidate the within-host dynamics of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type-1 infection to better understand how this virus could be maintained in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, WTD) populations. The BVDV type-1 used in this study was originally isolated from a free-ranging WTD in Indiana. Four fawns were intranasally inoculated with 2 ml BVDV type-1 strain 544 WTD at a 10(6) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID(50))/ml. Two fawns were inoculated with sham inoculum (negative controls). Animals were bled on days -7, 0, 1, 7, and 14 postinoculation (PID) for a complete blood count, chemistry panel, buffy coat (BC), real-time RT-PCR, and virus neutralization (VN). On days 7 and 14 PID, nasal and rectal swabs were obtained for RT-PCR and two of the virus-inoculated fawns and one of the negative controls fawns were euthanized. At necropsy, multiple samples were obtained for histopathology and in situ hybridization (ISH). Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on serum, BC, nasal, and rectal swabs. All animals tested negative for BVDV type 1 neutralizing antibodies on day 0 and animals in the control group remained seronegative throughout the study. No gross lesions were observed at necropsy. BVDV was isolated from lung and pooled lymph nodes from all BVDV-inoculated fawns on days 7 and 14 PID. Infected deer had lymphoid depletion, apoptosis, and lymphoid necrosis in the Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. BVDV was detected in lymphoid tissues of infected animals by ISH. No lesions or virus were identified in control fawns. On day 7 PID, samples from two virus-inoculated fawns were positive for BVDV by virus isolation and RT-PCR from BC and nasal swab samples. One fawn was also positive on a rectal swab. Nasal and rectal swabs from all animals were negative on day 14. Results indicate that infection of WTD with BVDV is possible, and leads to histologic lesions in variety of tissues. In addition, virus shedding into the environment through feces and other secretions is likely.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Journal of wildlife diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to characterize the antibody prevalence of important livestock and domestic animal pathogens in raccoons (Procyon lotor) trapped and sampled in 39 forest patches in north-central Indiana, USA, between 2004 and 2005. A total of 459 serum samples were tested for antibodies to Leptospira serovars, 512 for Canine distemper virus (CDV) antibodies, and 340 for antibodies to Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In total, 47, 16, and 0% of the samples were seropositive for at least one Leptospira serovar, CDV, and PRRSV, respectively. Most of the positive Leptospira results were to serovars grippotyphosa (36%), autumnalis (22%), and hardjo (22%). No statistically significant correlation was found between antibody prevalence estimates for different Leptospira serovars. A significant association was found between body weight and antibodies for Leptospira serovars and CDV. In addition, age (adult vs. juvenile) was significantly associated with the presence of CDV antibody, with adults exhibiting a higher prevalence than juveniles. This study confirmed that raccoons in Indiana, USA, are exposed to different Leptospira interrogans serovars and CDV and that age and weight are associated with the presence of antibodies for both pathogens.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Journal of wildlife diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ixodes scapularis (Say) is the vector for Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD). The increased number and presence of ticks in the environment pose a significant health risk to people and many domestic animals including dogs, cats, and horses. This study characterized the distribution and expansion of I. scapularis and Bb and identified areas of increased risk of LD transmission in Indiana using geographical information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis. A cross-sectional sampling was performed for 3 consecutive years (2005-2007). A total of 3,412 harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were searched for ticks at Department of Natural Resources manned deer check-in stations. Hunters were asked for verbal permission to search the deer and to indicate on a road atlas where the deer was killed. All deer points were digitized into a GIS database. Identification of clustering in space and time for these organisms was performed using geostatistical software. Multiple spatial clusters of I. scapularis-infested deer were identified in western Indiana. B. burgdorferi was isolated from tick pools in 11 counties. In addition to the I. scapularis clusters, one spatial cluster of Bb-infected ticks was identified. Our current survey results and cluster analysis indicate that the western geographic regions of Indiana should be considered by the healthcare community to be at increased risk of LD compared with the rest of Indiana.
No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of single cow calving pens that are cleaned between calvings vs. multiple cow calving pens for the prevention of calf diarrhea (scours), respiratory disease (pneumonia) and morbidity attributable to any cause. Every other pregnant cow or heifer was moved to either the single cow calving pen (treatment) or the multiple cow calving pen (control) within 48-72 h prior to actual calving. The calves born in the single cow calving pens were assigned to the treatment group while the calves born in the multiple calving pens were assigned to the control group. Fecal materials, placental remains, and any other conspicuous dirt were removed from the single cow calving pens between each calving prior to the introduction of the next pregnant cow. The calves were then separated from their dams within 2h of birth. Multiple cow calving pens were managed as usual at the producers' discretion. Upon birth, the calf managers monitored each enrolled calf for signs of diarrhea, pneumonia plus other morbidity up to 90 d of age. The effects of single cow calving pens (vs. multiple cow calving pens) that are cleaned between calvings on the risk of neonatal calf diseases were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. Risk of diarrhea (OR=0.93, P=0.75), pneumonia (OR=1.23, P=0.64), and morbidity due to any cause (OR=0.93, P=0.74) were not significantly different between calves born in single cow vs. multiple cow calving pens. The current study found that, given the management situation evaluated, calves born in single cow calving pens were no different than calves born in multiple cow calving pens with respect to calf diseases risk. Long-term follow-up of the calves enrolled in the present study is ongoing to determine the efficacy of single cow calving pen use for the possible prevention of transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Holstein calves.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Preventive Veterinary Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the economically important diseases of cattle. For many years, different types of vaccines have been commercially available, yet this disease is hard to control in high-density population areas. Detection and isolation of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from any potential reservoir is vital, especially when considering virus eradication from a herd or locale. One potential source is wild ruminants. Ear notches and lymph nodes were collected from the wild population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during deer hunting season in Indiana and tested for BVDV with a commercial BVD antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two samples out of 745 collected samples were positive, and subsequently cp and ncp BVDV was isolated from 1 ear notch and 1 lymph node. These isolates were genotyped as type 1a and 1b based on sequence analysis of the 5' untranslated region (UTR). The results of the present study indicate that the prevalence of BVDV in the white-tailed deer population of Indiana is about 0.3%. Wild ruminants infected with BVDV should be taken into consideration during an eradication program of BVDV from the livestock population.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc