[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective symptom control is a primary concern of most heartburn suffers.
To compare the safety and efficacy of pantoprazole, placebo and the H2 antagonist nizatidine in relieving symptoms in patients with erosive oesophagitis.
Data from two randomized, double-blind studies were pooled. Patients received pantoprazole 10, 20 or 40 mg, or placebo daily (study 1, n = 603), or pantoprazole 20 or 40 mg daily or 150-mg nizatidine b.d. (study 2, n = 243) for either 4 or 8 weeks. Endoscopy was performed at baseline, week 4 and week 8. Persistent absence of symptoms was defined as the first day that no symptoms were reported by the patient on that day or any subsequent study day.
A significantly higher percentage (P < 0.05) of pantoprazole patients reported elimination of all symptoms by week 8. Daytime heartburn, night-time heartburn and regurgitation were significantly better controlled with pantoprazole (with a dose-response at most time-points). Absence of symptoms was a powerful predictor of healing; presence of symptoms correlated poorly.
Pantoprazole is more effective than placebo or nizatidine for controlling heartburn and acid regurgitation in patients with erosive oesophagitis. Relief of GERD symptoms is highly predictive of healing of erosive oesophagitis at 4 and 8 weeks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the safety and efficacy of pantoprazole and ranitidine in maintaining erosive oesophagitis healing.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease patients (349) with endoscopically documented healed erosive oesophagitis (grade 0 or 1) were randomly assigned to receive pantoprazole (10, 20 or 40 mg/q.d.s.) or ranitidine (150 mg/b.d.). Erosive oesophagitis status was assessed endoscopically at months 1, 3, 6 and 12 or when relapse symptoms appeared (relapse = reappearance of erosive oesophagitis grade 2 within 12 months). Symptom-free days were also assessed.
Pantoprazole 20- and 40-mg were significantly more effective than ranitidine in maintaining healing regardless of initial erosive oesophagitis grade. Response was dose-related. After 12 months 78, 55, 46 and 21% of patients remained healed (40-, 20-, 10-mg pantoprazole and ranitidine). Pantoprazole 40-mg produced significantly more symptom-free days (83%) than ranitidine (58%). Heartburn-free days/nights were significantly higher with pantoprazole 40-mg (92 and 93%) than ranitidine (73 and 77%). The most frequent reason for discontinuation, unsatisfactory efficacy, occurred most often with ranitidine (P < 0.001).
Once-daily pantoprazole therapy prevented relapse of healed erosive oesophagitis more effectively than ranitidine and with fewer heartburn days. Response to pantoprazole was dose-related. Pantoprazole 40-mg was the most effective regimen and consistent in maintaining erosive oesophagitis healing with a good safety and tolerability profile.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the short-term (7-day) safety and efficacy of two triple-therapy regimens using pantoprazole with those of two dual-therapy regimens (one with pantoprazole and one without), for Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with peptic ulcer disease.
H. pylori infection was identified by rapid urease (CLOtest), and confirmed by histology and culture. Patients were enrolled into one of two randomized, double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group studies. In study A, patients received oral pantoprazole 40 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg, and metronidazole 500 mg (PCM); pantoprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin 1000 mg (PCA); or pantoprazole and clarithromycin (PC). In study B, patients received PCM, PCA, PC, or clarithromycin and metronidazole without pantoprazole (CM). Treatments were given twice daily for 7 days. H. pylori status after therapy was assessed by histology and culture at 4 weeks after completing the course of study treatment. Modified intent-to-treat (MITT; each study: n = 424, n = 512) and per-protocol (PP; each study: n = 371, n = 454) populations were analyzed. The MITT population comprised all patients whose positive H. pylori status was confirmed by culture and histology; the PP population comprised patients who also complied with > or = 85% of study medication doses.
A total of 1016 patients were enrolled. Cure rates among patients with clarithromycin-susceptible H. pylori strains were 82 and 86% for PCM, and 72 and 71% for PCA, in studies A and B, respectively. Cure rates among patients with metronidazole-susceptible H. pylori strains were 82 and 87% for PCM, and 71 and 69% for PCA, in studies A and B, respectively. The combined eradication rates observed with the PCM regimen were superior to those of all other regimens tested. Side-effects were infrequent and mild.
PCM had the highest overall eradication rate in these two studies examining 7-day treatment regimens. All regimens were safe and well tolerated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maintenance proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy is effective for gastric acid hypersecretory states, although data with pantoprazole are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of long term p.o. pantoprazole in individuals with hypersecretion.
All subjects had Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or idiopathic hypersecretion. Baseline acid output was measured in the presence of prior maintenance antisecretory therapy before pantoprazole exposure. The starting dose was 40 mg b.i.d. in most cases, and the dose was adjusted to document control within the first 2 wk of therapy. The maximal allowable dose was 240 mg daily. Acid output was measured on day 28 and then quarterly from month 3. The primary efficacy endpoint was documented control of acid secretion at 6 months, i.e., acid output in the last 1 h before the next dose of therapy of <10 mEq/h (<5 mEq/h in subjects with prior acid-reducing surgery).
A total of 26 subjects had Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (six with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1) and nine had idiopathic hypersecretion. Pre-enrollment therapy included omeprazole in 27 subjects and lansoprazole in eight, and 82.4% of subjects were controlled on their prior regimens. With upward dose titration, acid output was controlled in all subjects by day 10 and in all but two (6%) at the 6-month time point. Median acid secretion on therapy at 6 months was <2 mEq/h (mean 2.2 mEq/h; range 0-10.5 mEq/h) at a dose of 40 mg b.i.d. for 24 subjects, 80 mg b.i.d. for seven subjects, and 120 mg b.i.d. for two subjects. During the course of the study, five subjects required doses of 240 mg daily. Pantoprazole was generally well tolerated. No cases of anterior optic ischemic neuropathy occurred. Five subjects died during follow-up, all because of events unrelated to the study drug.
Maintenance p.o. pantoprazole therapy at a dose of 80-240 mg/day in divided doses was both effective and generally well tolerated for patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and idiopathic hypersecretion.
No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor approved for the treatment of erosive oesophagitis and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
To compare the efficacy and safety of pantoprazole vs. nizatidine for the treatment of symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and endoscopically documented erosive oesophagitis (grade > or = 2).
A multicentre, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled study (221 patients) was performed to compare 20 and 40 mg pantoprazole daily with nizatidine 150 mg b.d. (maximum, 8 weeks). The primary end-point was endoscopic healing of erosive oesophagitis (grade 1 or 0). The secondary end-point was symptomatic improvement.
Healing averaged 61%, 64% and 22% for pantoprazole 20 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg and nizatidine 150 mg, respectively, at 4 weeks, and 79%, 83% and 41% at 8 weeks (P < 0.05, differences between groups at both points). Starting on day 1 of symptom assessment, significantly fewer pantoprazole-treated patients reported night-time heartburn and regurgitation compared with nizatidine-treated patients. Symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease were completely eliminated in 68% and 65% of patients in the pantoprazole 20-mg and 40-mg groups and in 28% of patients in the nizatidine group at study completion. The difference between each pantoprazole group and the nizatidine group was significant (P < 0.05).
Pantoprazole, at single daily doses of 20 mg and 40 mg for up to 8 weeks, provides more rapid relief of symptoms and superior healing of erosive oesophagitis than nizatidine 150 mg b.d., and is well tolerated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives : To compare the safety and efficacy of pantoprazole with ranitidine for the maintenance of endoscopically documented healed (grade 0 or 1) erosive oesophagitis.
Methods : Patients (371) were randomly assigned to receive pantoprazole 10, 20 or 40 mg or ranitidine 150 mg. Endoscopies were performed after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months or when symptoms suggesting relapse (grade = 2) developed. Gastric biopsies were obtained at baseline and on at least one postbaseline visit. Symptom-free days and Gelusil use were assessed.
Results : Pantoprazole was significantly (P < 0.001) more effective in maintaining erosive oesophagitis healing. After 12 months, 33%, 40%, 68% and 82% of patients remained healed for the ranitidine and pantoprazole 10, 20 and 40 mg groups, respectively. Daytime and night-time heartburn were eliminated in > 90% of days for the pantoprazole 40 mg group. Gelusil use was significantly lower with pantoprazole 20 and 40 mg than with ranitidine (P < 0.02) during the first 9 months.
Conclusions : Twelve months of maintenance therapy with pantoprazole (10–40 mg once daily) was superior to ranitidine (150 mg twice daily) in maintaining erosive oesophagitis healing. Pantoprazole 40 mg provided the most consistent efficacy and was well tolerated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Under normal physiological conditions, gastric acid production is controlled by a negative feedback mechanism. Proton pump inhibitors, such as pantoprazole, inhibit gastric acid secretion by irreversibly binding and inactivating luminally active hydrogen potassium ATPase. Recovery of acid production after treatment with a proton pump inhibitor is driven by new pump synthesis, activation of existing cytoplasmic pumps, or reversal of proton pump inhibition. The authors measured the time course of the inhibition and recovery of acid secretion in healthy volunteers following intravenous administration of pantoprazole to determine the rate of proton pump activation under maximally stimulated conditions. Gastric acid production was measured in 27 Helicobacter pylori negative healthy volunteers (mean age = 31 +/- 7 years; 17 men, 10 women) who received single doses of intravenous pantoprazole (20, 40, 80, or 120 mg) in the presence of a continuous intravenous infusion of 1 ug/kg/h of pentagastrin. From the time profile of acid secretion, the authors described the rate of change of acid output using an irreversible pharmacodynamic response model represented by the equation dR/dt = -k x R x Cpanto + Ln2/PPR x (Ro-R) and correlated the parameter values with demographic factors and gastric acid measurements. Mean stimulated acid output secretion was 21.6 +/- 18.4 mEq/h (range: 1.6-90.5) prior to the administration of pantoprazole and remained steady for 25 hours after placebo administration. Intravenous pantoprazole inhibited acid output in a dose-response fashion, with maximal inhibition (99.9%) occurring after an 80 mg dose. Mean proton pump recovery time was 37.1 +/- 21.0 hours (range: 6.7-75), and recovery was independent of the dose of pantoprazole. There was no association noted between proton pump recovery time and gender, age, race, body weight, or pantoprazole dose. However, there was an inverse correlation between acid output during baseline stimulation and recovery of acid secretion. Mean proton pump recovery time in stimulated normal human volunteers was 37.1 +/- 21.0 hours, with a range of 6.7 to 75 hours. The authors hypothesize that there may be a normal homeostatic mechanism that maintains acid secretory capability within a normal range by altering the rate of proton pump activation dependent on the individual's parietal cell mass. Abnormalities of this process may be responsible for the development of acid peptic disease in susceptible individuals.
Preview · Article · Jun 2002 · The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proton pump inhibitors have emerged as the most effective class of drugs for the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that has demonstrated high clinical efficacy.
To evaluate the effect of once-daily doses of pantoprazole, 10, 20 and 40 mg, on gastric acidity in healthy volunteers.
Thirty-six subjects received pantoprazole in a three-way crossover design study. Ambulatory 24-h intragastric pH and distal oesophageal pH were monitored at baseline and on the last day of each treatment period. The measured endpoints were the median intragastric and oesophageal pH, the percentage of time the intragastric pH < 4 and oesophageal pH < 4 and the area under the curve for gastric acidity over 24 h. Safety was evaluated by incidence and severity of adverse events.
Pantoprazole demonstrated a linear dose- dependent suppression of gastric acidity over the dose range 10-40 mg. The dose of 40 mg demonstrated a significantly greater response than the lower doses, particularly at night. All pantoprazole doses were well tolerated.
Pantoprazole demonstrates a dose-related effect in the range 10-40 mg once daily. The once-daily dose of 40 mg provides the highest and most consistent control of gastric pH, especially at night.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) or other conditions requiring oral doses of proton pump inhibitors, it frequently becomes necessary to use parenterally administered gastric acid inhibitors. However, i.v. histamine-2 receptor antagonists are not effective at usual doses and lose their effectiveness because of tachyphlaxis. With the approval in the United States of i.v. pantoprazole, a substituted benzimidazole available in i.v. formulation, it will become possible to acutely manage gastric acid secretion in the acute care setting of a hospital. This study was developed to monitor the safety and establish the efficacy of i.v. pantoprazole as an alternative to oral proton pump inhibitors for the control of gastric acid hypersecretion in patients with ZES.
The efficacy of replacing oral PPI therapy with i.v. pantoprazole was evaluated in 14 ZES patients. After study enrollment, patients taking their current doses of oral PPI (omeprazole or lansoprazole) were switched to pantoprazole i.v. for 6 days during an 8-day inpatient period in the clinical research center. Effective control was defined as an acid output (AO) of < 10 mEq/h (< 5 mEq/h in patients with prior gastric acid-reducing surgery).
The mean age of the 14 patients enrolled in the study was 52.4 yr (range = 38-67). Mean basal AO was 0.55 +/- 0.32 mEq/h and mean fasting gastrin was 1089 pg/ml (range = 36-3720). Four patients were also diagnosed with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I syndrome, nine were male, and two had previously undergone acid-reducing surgery. Before study enrollment, gastric acid hypersecretion was controlled in nine of 14 patients with omeprazole (20-200 mg daily) and five of 14 with lansoprazole (30-210 mg daily). In the oral phase of the study all patients had adequate control of gastric acid secretion, with a mean AO of 0.55 +/- 0.32 mEq/h (mean +/- SEM). Thereafter, 80 mg of i.v. pantoprazole was administered b.i.d. for 7 days by a brief (15 min) infusion and the dose was titrated upward to a predetermined maximum of 240 mg/24 h to control AO. A dose of 80 mg b.i.d. of i.v. pantoprazole controlled AO in 13 of 14 of the patients (93%) for the duration of the study (p > 0.05 compared to baseline values for all timepoints). One sporadic ZES patient (oral control value = 0.65 mEq/h on 100 mg of omeprazole b.i.d. p.o.) was not controlled with 80 mg of i.v. pantoprazole b.i.d. and dosage was titrated upward to 120 mg b.i.d. after day 2.
There were no serious adverse events observed. Intravenous pantoprazole provides gastric acid secretory control that is equivalent to the acid suppression observed with oral proton pump inhibitors. Most ZES patients (93%) maintained effective control of AO previously established with oral PPIs when switched to 80 mg of i.v. pantoprazole b.i.d.; however, for difficult-to-control patients, doses > 80 mg b.i.d. may be required.
No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emergence of antibiotic resistant Helicobacter pylori has necessitated the identification of alternate therapies for the treatment of this infection.
To assess the in vitro efficacy of two investigational agents: DMG-MINO CL 344 (a N,N-dimethylglycylamido derivative of minocycline), and davercin, a cyclic carbonate of erythromycin A as compared to older antibiotics (clarithromcyin, azithromycin, minocycline, tetracycline, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cefixime) against clinical isolates of H. pylori.
Testing was performed using the agar dilution method approved by the NCCLS subcommittee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Helicobacter pylori working group. Under these guidelines, Mueller-Hinton agar containing 5% aged sheep blood was used. All incubations were done under CampyPak Plus conditions for 72 h at 37 degrees C. The drug concentrations in the agar ranged from 0.016 to 16 microg/mL. Twenty-one clarithromycin-resistant and 16 clarithromycin-susceptible clinical isolates of H. pylori obtained from patients with duodenal ulcer were used. H. pylori ATCC 43504 was used as the control in all determinations.
Against clarithromycin susceptible isolates, all antimicrobial agents except the fluoroquinolones were highly effective. Against clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori, the MIC50/MIC90 values showed that the tetracyclines and cefixime were the most efficacious agents. The fluoroquinolones and macrolides were ineffective. Macrolide cross-resistance was detected.
Macrolide cross-resistance prevents the use of this entire class of antimicrobials when clarithromycin resistance is present. Tetracyclines and cefixime are possible alternative agents for the treatment of H. pylori infection in these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this dose-response study was to compare the effectiveness of 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg of pantoprazole with that of placebo tablets in the healing and symptom relief of gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with erosive esophagitis, and to determine the optimal dose.
A total of 603 patients with endoscopically confirmed (Hetzel-Dent scale) erosive esophagitis of grade 2 (64.5%) or grades 3 or 4 (35.3%) were enrolled in a double-blind, multicenter study and randomly assigned to receive pantoprazole (10 mg, 20 mg, or 40 mg) or placebo, administered once daily in the morning, for 4 or 8 wk depending on healing.
The healing rates after 4 wk for placebo and pantoprazole 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg/day were 14%, 42%, 55%, and 72%, respectively (p < 0.001 for all doses of pantoprazole vs placebo). Cumulative healing rates after 8 wk for placebo and pantoprazole 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg/day were 33%, 59%, 78%, and 88%, respectively (p < 0.001 for all doses of pantoprazole vs placebo). The 40-mg pantoprazole dose produced greater rates of healing and earlier healing of esophagitis than either the 10- or 20-mg dose, regardless of severity. Pantoprazole, at any dose, was significantly more effective than placebo in relieving reflux symptoms. Patients on pantoprazole 40 mg experienced relief of symptoms on day 1 of treatment. No serious treatment-related adverse events occurred.
Pantoprazole was safe and effective for healing erosive esophagitis and provided rapid symptomatic relief. These results indicate that pantoprazole offers a new option for treatment of erosive esophagitis. Among the three doses studied, the 40-mg dose was the most effective.
No preview · Article · Dec 2000 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology