[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are extensively involved in cortical cognition and learning-induced or experience-dependent
cortical plasticity. The most abundant muscarinic receptor subtype in the cerebral cortex is the M1 receptor, but little is known about its contribution to experience-dependent plasticity of the adult auditory cortex. We
have examined the role of the M1 receptor in experience-dependent plasticity of the auditory cortex in mice lacking the M1 (chrm1) gene. We show here that electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain, a major source of cortical cholinergic inputs, facilitated
the auditory responses of cortical neurons in both wild types and M1 mutants. The basal forebrain stimulation alone caused change in the best frequencies of cortical neurons that were significantly
greater in M1 mutants. When animals received the paired stimuli of electrical stimulation of the basal forebrain and tone, the frequency
tuning of cortical neurons systematically shifted toward the frequency of the paired tone in both wild types and M1 mutants. However, the shift range in M1 mutants was much smaller than that in wild-type mice. Our data suggest that the M1 receptor is important for the experience-dependent plasticity of the auditory cortex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In response to glutamatergic synaptic drive, striatal medium spiny neurons in vivo transition to a depolarized "up state" near spike threshold. In the up state, medium spiny neurons either depolarize enough to spike or remain below spike threshold and are silent before returning to the hyperpolarized "down state." Previous work has suggested that subthreshold K+ channel currents were responsible for this dichotomous behavior, but the channels giving rise to the current and the factors determining its engagement have been a mystery. To move toward resolution of these questions, perforated-patch recordings from medium spiny neurons in tissue slices were performed. K+ channels with pharmacological and kinetic features of KCNQ channels potently regulated spiking at up-state potentials. Single-cell reverse transcriptase-PCR confirmed the expression of KCNQ2, KCNQ3, and KCNQ5 mRNAs in medium spiny neurons. KCNQ channel currents in these cells were potently reduced by M1 muscarinic receptors, because the effects of carbachol were blocked by M1 receptor antagonists and lost in neurons lacking M1 receptors. Reversal of the modulation was blocked by a phosphoinositol 4-kinase inhibitor, indicating a requirement for phosphotidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate resynthesis for recovery. Inhibition of protein kinase C reduced the efficacy of the muscarinic modulation. Finally, acceleration of cholinergic interneuron spiking with 4-aminopyridine mimicked the effects of exogenous agonist application. Together, these results show that KCNQ channels are potent regulators of the excitability of medium spiny neurons at up-state potentials, and they are modulated by intrastriatal cholinergic interneurons, providing a mechanistic explanation for variability in spiking during up states seen in vivo.
No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sensory cortices have multiple and distinct functional maps that systematically represent environmental information. Development of these maps is precisely controlled by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Cortical cholinergic regulation is a crucial factor for normal cortical morphogenesis. In this study, we test the role of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, the main muscarinic receptor subtype in the neocortex in the development of tonotopic maps in the auditory cortex. Mice lacking M1 receptors have normal hearing sensitivity but exhibit disrupted tonotopic organization and frequency tuning in the auditory cortex. In contrast, tonotopic organization and frequency tuning remain normal in the auditory midbrain. In addition, cortical layer IV neurons of M1 mutants exhibit significantly shorter or sparser dendrites compared to neurons of wildtype mice. In summary, our data suggest that the M1 receptor appears to be critical for the refinement or normal maturation of cortical tonotopy that is guided by thalamocortical inputs during early development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscarinic agonist-induced parasympathomimetic effects, in vivo phosphoinositide hydrolysis and seizures were evaluated in wild-type and muscarinic M1-M5 receptor knockout mice. The muscarinic agonist oxotremorine induced marked hypothermia in all the knockout mice, but the hypothermia was reduced in M2 and to a lesser extent in M3 knockout mice. Oxotremorine-induced tremor was abolished only in the M2 knockout mice. Muscarinic agonist-induced salivation was reduced to the greatest extent in M3 knockout mice, to a lesser degree in M1 and M4 knockout mice, and was not altered in M2 and M5 knockout mice. Pupil diameter under basal conditions was increased only in the M3 knockout mice. Pilocarpine-induced increases in in vivo phosphoinositide hydrolysis were completely absent in hippocampus and cortex of M1 knockout mice, but in vivo phosphoinositide hydrolysis was unaltered in the M2-M5 knockout mice. A high dose of pilocarpine (300 mg/kg) caused seizures and lethality in wild-type and M2-M5 knockout mice, but produced neither effect in the M1 knockout mice. These data demonstrate a major role for M2 and M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes in mediating parasympathomimetic effects. Muscarinic M1 receptors activate phosphoinositide hydrolysis in cortex and hippocampus of mice, consistent with the role of M1 receptors in cognition. Muscarinic M1 receptors appear to be the only muscarinic receptor subtype mediating seizures.
No preview · Article · May 2003 · European Journal of Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blockade of cholinergic neurotransmission by muscarinic receptor antagonists produces profound deficits in attention and memory. However, the antagonists used in previous studies bind to more than one of the five muscarinic receptor subtypes. Here we examined memory in mice with a null mutation of the gene coding the M1 receptor, the most densely distributed muscarinic receptor in the hippocampus and forebrain. In contrast with previous studies using nonselective pharmacological antagonists, the M1 receptor deletion produced a selective phenotype that included both enhancements and deficits in memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) in response to theta burst stimulation in the hippocampus was also reduced in mutant mice. M1 null mutant mice showed normal or enhanced memory for tasks that involved matching-to-sample problems, but they were severely impaired in non-matching-to-sample working memory as well as consolidation. Our results suggest that the M1 receptor is specifically involved in memory processes for which the cortex and hippocampus interact.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2003 · Nature Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The five subtypes (M1-M5) of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors signal through G(alpha)(q) or G(alpha)(i)/G(alpha)(o). M1, M3 and M5 receptors couple through G(alpha)(q) and function predominantly as postsynaptic receptors in the central nervous system. M1 and M3 receptors are localized to brain regions involved in cognition, such as hippocampus and cortex, but their relative contribution to function has been difficult to ascertain due to the lack of subtype specific ligands. A functional and genetic approach was used to identify the predominant muscarinic receptor subtype(s) mediating responses in mouse hippocampus and cortex, as well as the relative degree of spare muscarinic receptors in hippocampus. The nonselective muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M stimulated G(alpha)(q)/11-specific GTP-gamma-35S binding in a concentration dependent manner with a Hill slope near unity in wild type mouse hippocampus and cortex. Muscarinic receptor stimulated G(alpha)(q)/11-specific GTP-gamma-35S binding was virtually abolished in both the hippocampus and cortex of M1 receptor knockout (KO) mice. In contrast, there was no loss of signaling in M3 receptor KO mice in either brain region. Muscarinic receptor reserve in wildtype mouse hippocampus was measured by Furchgott analysis after partial receptor alkylation with propylbenzylcholine mustard. Occupation of just 15% of the M1 receptors in mouse hippocampus was required for maximal efficacy of oxotremorine-M-stimulated GTP-gamma-35S binding indicating a substantial level of spare receptors. These findings support a role for the M1 receptor subtype as the primary G(alpha)(q)/11-coupled muscarinic receptor in mouse hippocampus and cortex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the M(2) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) is the predominant functional mAChR subtype in the heart, some responses of the cardiovascular system to acetylcholine (ACh) may be mediated by other mAChR subtypes. The potential effect of M(1) mAChR on heart function was investigated using M(1) knockout (M(1)-KO) mice. In vivo cardiodynamic analysis showed that basal values of heart rate (HR), developed left ventricular pressure (DLVP), left ventricular dP/dt(max) (LV dP/dt(max)), and mean blood pressure (MBP) were similar between wild-type (WT) and M(1)-KO mice. Injection of the putative M(1)-selective agonist 4-(m-chlorophenyl-carbamoyloxy)-2-butynyltrimethylammonium (McN-A-343) produced an increase in LV dP/dt(max), DLVP, HR, and MBP in WT mice but did not affect hemodynamic function in the M(1)-KO mice. The stimulatory effect of McN-A-343 in WT mice was blocked by pretreatment with propranolol, indicating that stimulation of the M(1) mAChRs on sympathetic postganglionic neurons evoked release of catecholamines. Intravenous injection of ACh in both WT and M(1)-KO mice caused atrioventricular conduction block, without a significant change in the frequency of atrial depolarization, or atrial fibrillation. Immunoprecipitation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction failed to detect the expression of M(1) mAChR in cardiac tissue from WT mice. The carbachol-induced increase of phospholipase C activity in cardiac tissues was not different between WT and M(1)-KO mice. These results demonstrate that 1) activation of M(1) mAChR subtype on sympathetic postganglionic cells results in catecholamine-mediated cardiac stimulation, 2) M(1) mAChR is not expressed in mouse heart, and 3) administration of ACh to mice induces arrhythmia.
No preview · Article · May 2002 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) is crucial for many neural functions, including learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. As muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) modulate many of the same higher brain functions as ERK, we examined mAChR-mediated ERK activation in mouse hippocampal slices. The cholinergic agonist carbachol caused an atropine-sensitive ERK activation in the dendrites and somata CA1 pyramidal neurons. To determine the responsible mAChR subtype, we combined pharmacologic and genetic approaches. Pretreatment with M1 antagonists inhibited ERK activation. Furthermore, mAChR-induced ERK activation was absent in slices from M1 knockout mice. ERK activation was normal in slices derived from other mAChR subtype knockouts (M2, M3, and M4), although these other subtypes are expressed in many of the same neurons. Thus, we demonstrate divergent functions for the different mAChR subtypes. We conclude that M1 is responsible for mAChR-mediated ERK activation, providing a mechanism by which M1 may modulate learning and memory.
No preview · Article · Dec 2001 · Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in the central nervous system are involved in learning and memory, epileptic seizures, and processing the amyloid precursor protein. The M(1) receptor is the predominant mAChR subtype in the cortex and hippocampus. Although the five mAChR fall into two broad functional groups, all five subtypes, when expressed in recombinant systems, can activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The MAPK pathway has been implicated in learning and memory, amyloid protein processing, and neuronal plasticity. We used M(1) knock-out mice to determine the role of this receptor subtype in signal transduction in the mouse forebrain. In primary cortical cultures from mice lacking the M(1) mAChR, agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis was reduced by more than 60% compared with cultures from wild type mice. Although muscarinic agonists induced robust activation of MAPK in cortical cultures from wild type mice, mAChR-mediated activation of MAPK was virtually absent in cultures from M(1)-deficient mice. These results indicate that the M(1) mAChR is the major subtype that mediates activation of phospholipase C and MAPK in mouse forebrain.
No preview · Article · Jun 2001 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many different G protein-coupled receptors modulate the activity of Ca2+ and K+ channels in a variety of neuronal types. There are five known subtypes (M1-M5) of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Knockout mice lacking the M1, M2, or M4 subtypes are studied to determine which receptors mediate modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in mouse sympathetic neurons. In these cells, muscarinic agonists modulate N- and L-type Ca2+ channels and the M-type K+ channel through two distinct, G-protein mediated pathways. The fast and voltage-dependent pathway is lacking in the M2 receptor knockout mice. The slow and voltage-independent pathway is absent in the M1 receptor knockout mice. Neither pathway is affected in the M4 receptor knockout mice. Muscarinic modulation of the M current is absent in the M1 receptor knockout mice, and can be reconstituted in a heterologous expression system using cloned channels and M1 receptors. Our results using knockout mice are compared with pharmacological data in the rat.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cholinergic stimuli are potent regulators of the circadian clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Using a brain slice model, we have found that the SCN clock is subject to muscarinic regulation, a sensitivity expressed only during the night of the clock's 24-h cycle. Pharmacological and signal transduction characteristics are compatible with a response mediated by an M1-like receptor. Molecular manipulation of muscarinic receptors will provide important insights as to the receptor subtype(s) regulating circadian rhythms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used gene targeting to generate mice lacking the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. These mice exhibit a decreased susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced seizures, loss of regulation of M-current potassium channel activity and of a specific calcium channel pathway in sympathetic neurons, a loss of the positive chronotropic and inotropic responses to the novel muscarinic agonist McN-A-343, and impaired learning in a hippocampal-dependent test of spatial memory.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscarinic receptors have been implicated in the regulation of cognition and psychosis based on pharmacological evidence from pre-clinical and clinical studies. Muscarinic agonists have shown promise in the clinic in improving cognition and reducing psychotic episodes in Alzheimer's patients. However, lack of selective muscarinic ligands has limited their use due to troublesome side effects observed at higher doses. Without selective ligands, it has been difficult to assign a specific muscarinic receptor subtype to these high order mental processes. Recent development of muscarinic receptor knockout mice has provided additional tools to investigate cognition and psychosis in behavioral assays and to determine the receptor subtypes associated with parasympathomimetic physiology. Biochemical studies indicate that the M1 receptor plays a significant role in regulating G alpha q-mediated signal transduction in the hippocampus and cortex. Behavioral studies suggest that the M4 receptor is involved in movement regulation and prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex, a measure of attention. These findings support a role for the development of M1 and M4 receptor agonists for diseases in which symptoms include cognitive impairment and psychotic behaviors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor gene expression and localization and generated knockout mice to study the role of the M1 muscarinic receptor in vivo. We have used the MDCK cell system to demonstrate that different subtypes of mAChR can be targeted to different regions of polarized cells. We have also examined the developmental regulation of mAChR expression in the chick retina. Early in development, the M4 receptor is the predominant mAChR while the levels of the M2 and M3 receptors increase later in development. The level of M2 receptor is also initially very low in retinal cultures and undergoes a dramatic increase over several days in vitro. The level of M2 receptor can be increased by a potentially novel, developmentally regulated, secreted factor produced by retinal cells. The promoter for the chick M2 receptor gene has been isolated and shown to contain a site for GATA-family transcription factors which is required for high level cardiac expression. The M2 promoter also contains sites which mediate induction of transcription in neural cells by neurally active cytokines. We have generated knockout mice lacking the M1 receptor and shown that these mice do not exhibit pilocarpine-induced seizures and muscarinic agonist-induced suppression of the M-current potassium channel in sympathetic neurons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expression and function was investigated in cultured cells and in knockout mice. Muscarinic agonist exposure causes m2 receptor desensitization and sequestration and decreases the expression of cardiac potassium channels. The expression of m2 receptors in chick retina is regulated by a developmentally regulated secreted factor. Mice lacking the m1 receptor exhibit a loss of muscarinic regulation of M-current potassium channel activity and pilocarpine-induced seizures.
No preview · Article · Jun 1998 · Journal of Physiology-Paris
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily expressed in neurons, cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle, and a variety of epithelia. Five subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been discovered by molecular cloning, but their pharmacological similarities and frequent colocalization make it difficult to assign functional roles for individual subtypes in specific neuronal responses. We have used gene targeting by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells to produce mice lacking the m1 receptor. These mice show no obvious behavioral or histological defects, and the m2, m3, and m4 receptors continue to be expressed in brain with no evidence of compensatory induction. However, the robust suppression of the M-current potassium channel activity evoked by muscarinic agonists in sympathetic ganglion neurons is completely lost in m1 mutant mice. In addition, both homozygous and heterozygous mutant mice are highly resistant to the seizures produced by systemic administration of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. Thus, the m1 receptor subtype mediates M current modulation in sympathetic neurons and induction of seizure activity in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy.
Full-text · Article · Dec 1997 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily expressed in neurons, cardiomyocytes,
smooth muscle, and a variety of epithelia. Five subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been discovered by molecular
cloning, but their pharmacological similarities and frequent colocalization make it difficult to assign functional roles for
individual subtypes in specific neuronal responses. We have used gene targeting by homologous recombination in embryonic stem
cells to produce mice lacking the m1 receptor. These mice show no obvious behavioral or histological defects, and the m2,
m3, and m4 receptors continue to be expressed in brain with no evidence of compensatory induction. However, the robust suppression
of the M-current potassium channel activity evoked by muscarinic agonists in sympathetic ganglion neurons is completely lost
in m1 mutant mice. In addition, both homozygous and heterozygous mutant mice are highly resistant to the seizures produced
by systemic administration of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. Thus, the m1 receptor subtype mediates M current modulation
in sympathetic neurons and induction of seizure activity in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy.
Full-text · Article · Nov 1997 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated the molecular and cellular basis for the regulation of expression and function of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Treatment of cultured chick cardiac cells with the agonist carbachol results in decreased levels of mRNA encoding the m2 and m4 receptors. Treatment of chick embryos in ovo with carbachol results in decreased levels of mRNA encoding the potassium channel subunits GIRK1 and GIRK4 as well as the m2 receptor. There are thus multiple pathways for the regulation of mAChR responsiveness by long-term agonist exposure. Immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, and solution hybridization analyses have been used to quantitate the regulation of mAChR expression in chick retina during embryonic development. The m4 receptor is the predominant subtype expressed early in development, while the expression of the m3 and m2 receptors increases later in development. A cAMP-regulated luciferase reporter gene has been used to demonstrate that the m2 and m4 receptors have distinct specificities for coupling to G-protein subtypes to mediate inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. This system has also been used to demonstrate that beta-arrestin1 and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-1 act synergistically to promote receptor desensitization. We have isolated the promoter region for the chick m2 receptor gene, identified regions of the promoter required to drive high level expression in cardiac and neural cells, and have identified a region which confers sensitivity of gene expression to neurally active cytokines. Finally, in order to determine the role of individual receptor subtypes in muscarinic-mediated responses in vivo, we have used the method of targeted gene disruption by homologous recombination to generate mice deficient in the m1 receptor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several systems are being used to determine the molecular and cellular basis for the regulation of expression and function of the muscarinic receptors. Treatment of chick heart cells in culture results in decreased levels of mRNA encoding the cm2 and cm4 receptors. This probably results from decreased gene transcription which requires concomitant mAChR-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and mAChR-mediated stimulation of phospholipase C. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to demonstrate that the single tyrosine residue in the carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the m2 receptor is involved in agonist-induced downregulation but not sequestration. Activation of heterologous receptors in chick heart cells can also regulate mAChR mRNA levels. A cAMP-regulated luciferase reporter gene has been used to demonstrate that the m4 receptor preferentially couples to Giα-2 or Goαα over Giθ-l or Gia-3 to mediate inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. Finally, in order to determine the role of individual receptor subtypes in muscarinic-mediated responses in vivo, we are beginning to use the method of targeted gene disruption by homologous recombination to generate mice deficient in specific receptor subtypes.