[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Body size scales are a common method for diagnosing body image disturbances and assessing the cultural valorisation of stoutness, a phenomenon that plays a role in the development of overweight, especially among African populations. Traditionally, body size scales present a front view. In this study, we evaluated a complementary model of representing body shape: the side view of body outlines. In particular, we examined the association between the side-view and a set of bio-anthropometric indices in men and women.
To cover the inter-ethnic variability in the Niger-Congo area, we selected a balanced sex-ratio sample of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese. Individuals wearing close-fitting clothes were photographed from the front-and side-view, and measured following a bio-anthropometric protocol synthesizing body shape variation: Body Mass Index, percentage body fat, somatotype profile, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, mean blood pressure and glycaemia. The shape of each front and side body outline was extracted and characterised by Normalized Elliptic Fourier Descriptors (NEFD). Finally, we assessed associations between NEFD and bio-anthropometric indices.
Variation in the shape of both front and side body outlines was associated with all bio-anthropometrics for at least one sex-population combination. Overall, the side view best captured body shape variation related to changes in almost all bio-anthropometrics in both sexes and populations, with the exceptions of female mesomorphy, male blood pressure and glycaemia (in both sexes). We found that the details of the relationship between bio-anthropometrics and body shape differed between the two male populations, a finding that was reflected in side-views for all criteria, but not front-views.
Variation in body shape assessed by several bio-anthropometrics related to health and nutritional status was larger for side than front body outlines. Integrating side views in body size scales would improve the accuracy of body size assessment and thus, the assessment of behaviours leading to overweight, as well as symptoms of body image disturbances, in Africa and potentially in other populations.
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The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2511-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (1) To describe access to health care in the population of Dakar; (2) to analyze the influence of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics on access to health care; (3) and to describe the fraction of consultations accounted for by chronic non-communicable diseases. These data come from a 2009 survey of 600 individuals aged 20 years and over. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and information about access to health care were collected. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regressions were used for the statistical analyses. Men, people with no schooling, and poor people were underrepresented among users of health care services. Moreover, the majority of Dakar residents who sought health care during the year preceding the survey went to see a doctor (as opposed to a traditional healer, pharmacist, nurse, midwife, or dentist). Finally, chronic diseases accounted for the smallest fraction of reasons for medical consultations; they were mentioned most often by those aged 50 years or older who consult more than 5 times a year. Dakar residents have an access to health care similar to that of people in other African countries, but this conclusion hides major inequalities. Moreover, at the same time that Senegal is undergoing an epidemiological transition, chronic non-communicable diseases are not a major reason for consultations. The epidemiological projections made for Africa for the next 15 years indicate that the development of strategies to avert the development of these diseases in Senegal must be a priority objective.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Medecine et sante tropicales
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were: to compare the prevalence of hypertension, overweight and obesity in rural (Ferlo) and urban (Dakar) Senegalese populations aged 50 and over. The survey was conducted on individuals aged 50 and older living in the rural area (N=478) and in the urban area (N=220). We have collected data about age, gender, marital status, education level, and knowledge, treatment of hypertension, height, weight and blood pressure. We have observed that overweight and obesity were more prevalent in the urban area (Dakar) than in the rural one (Ferlo). The risk of overweight or obesity decreased when age increased, and women had weight problems more often than men. The prevalence of arterial hypertension was lower in rural area (55.86%) than in Dakar (66.36%), but increased at an older age. However, the logistic regression showed that these increased proportion of hypertension in Dakar is linked to the more important proportion of overweight and obese people in this area. Moreover, rates of knowledge, treatment and control of hypertension are particularly low in the rural area of Senegal. In conclusion, age-associated diseases should be better managed in Senegal, particularly in rural areas.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Senegalese lifestyle mutation by an urbanization process associated with the combined effects of demographic, nutritional and epidemiologic transitions (Popkin, 1997), has consequences on body conceptions: evolution of body size standards, new perceptions of sickness-death, food and sexuality (Thomas, 1990) and emergence of a more demanding bodily appearance (Cohen, 2012), which need to be clarified.
To do this, we employed a cross analysis of qualitative and quantitative data (40 semi-structured interviews and two Factorial Correspondance Analysis – FCA 1 and 2 – on 593 subjects) by a comparative study implemented in a representative sample of Senegalese adults from Dakar and a village from the Kaolack region.
The qualitative study shows that sickness-death is less associated with persecutory from supernatural entities, widely questioned by more pregnant Islamic and modern values (Fassin, 1992). The food gradually loses its status as scarce resource, subject to the will of supernatural entities (De Garine, 1990). Finally, the reproductive sexuality is gradually replaced by islamic and modern guilty quests of pleasure (Biaya, 2001). Then, the FCA 1 shows an association between the representation that human cannot control the sickness (1), the food has a sacred status (2), the sexuality is restricted to the reproduction in marriage (3), the desire to use one’s body for the group (4) and the rural area (5) (p<0.001, n=387). The FCA 2 shows an association between the desire to control one’s health (1), eat alone for pleasure (2), wear modern clothes (tight) (3), the desire to have a thin body (4) and the urban area (5) (p<0.001, n=111).
This has implications in the relationship to health, diet and aesthetics which fully reconfigure the relationship to the body (size) : the big person is no longer associated with well-being (sickness-death/health), wealth (food/diet) and fertility (sexuality/aesthetics), but with dysfunction, idleness and sexual undesirability (Fischler, 2001).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prediction of risk profile trends associated with non-communicable diseases in developing countries is among the greatest global health challenges. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Dakar (Senegal). This study was carried out between January and June 2009 on a population sample of 600 individuals living in the department of Dakar. This sample was constructed using the quota method in order to strive for representativeness. Sociodemographic characteristics, hypertension, hypertension awareness, treatment and control, and body mass index of individuals were collected during face-to-face interviews. Statistical analyses used were χ(2)-tests and binary logistic regressions. Prevalence of hypertension was 27.50%. Prevalence of awareness, treatment and control among hypertensives were 27.88%, 16.97% and 5.45%, respectively. Logistic regression showed that the prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension increased with increasing age. Overweight and obese subjects were more often hypertensive but did not differ from others in awareness and treatment. This could be linked to the social valorization of stoutness in West Africa, which explains that excess weight is not perceived as a risk factor for hypertension. In conclusion, given the very low rates of awareness, treatment and control in our sample, developing strategies for averting a hypertension epidemic must be a priority objective.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 16 January 2014; doi:10.1038/jhh.2013.142.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of human hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body size perceptions were assessed among members of the Bamiléké, an ethnic group in an urban setting in Cameroon with high rates of obesity, but also a positive perception of stoutness in its social representations. We first implemented a qualitative study (April 2007) to identify local representations of body weight among Bamiléké using semi-structured interviews. We then quantitatively assessed body size perceptions among a representative sample of Bamiléké (May to June 2007), employing a body image assessment scale and a questionnaire that included declarative body weight self-satisfaction, health status, and attempts to reduce weight. Results indicate Desired Body Size (DBS) for women, and particularly for men, was situated in the overweight category. Qualitative analyses show that overweight is considered as a normal and healthy body size in the Bamiléké. On the other hand, the quantitative study reveals that high rates of obesity, especially in women (40.8% obese), are associated with high blood pressure. Moreover, subjects who had a negative perception of their health status wanted to lose weight (p < 0.01). Unlike males, females have a DBS lower than their Current Body Size (p < 0.001). In addition, subjects (particularly males) who felt they were too lean, were older than those who felt too fat. We therefore conclude that the social valorisation of stoutness exposes Bamiléké, particularly males, to obesity. Although the women stated a desire to lose weight and present aesthetic criteria more oriented towards slimness, the attitude of the Bamiléké remained oriented toward stoutness appreciation. This preference can help protect against body image disturbances identified in Western societies, but may also increase of the incidence of obesity and its associated pathologies in this part of the world.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Social Science [?] Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Sahelian zone, the drought phenomenon, combined with anthropic factors (monoculture, bush fires, defect or deficit of manure, overgrazing, etc.), has seriously affected ecological great balances, involving a degradation of the natural resources as well as a fall in agricultural productions, pointing to a process of desertification. To face these challenges, in the course of the 8th ordinary session of the conference of the Heads of States of the African Union held in January 2007 in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), 11 countries adopted the Panafrican project called the Green Great Wall (GGW). The total objective of the GGW is to contribute i) to the fight against the desert's advance, ii) to the development of the Saharan-Sahelian zones toward a durable management of the natural resources, and iii) to the fight against poverty. It deals with the construction of a set of zones of afforestation crossing the whole African continent in the long term (7000km of which are in the west). Even if some decisions in the launching phase the GGW must be taken quickly, one cannot do without investment in interdisciplinary research. In particular, associating fundamental research and applied research will allow us to ensure the success in the medium and long term of such a large-scale reforestation project. Research segmented in compartmentalized knowledge fields needed to get adequate tools, among which OHMi Tessékéré, initiated by INNEE (Centre national de la recherche scientifique [CNRS]), in partnership with UCAD, constitutes an example. This suitable scientific tool, capable of action flexibility, of self-financing capacity, anchored in civil society, ready to implement a pragmatic and local interdisciplinarity founded currently on the concept of socio-ecological system (SES), is the one we chose to conduct our studies on the Ferlo arid ecosystems.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Comptes rendus biologies
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Corps du monde offre un tour d’horizon des pratiques corporelles contemporaines, en explorant leurs origines, leurs différences et leurs significations. D’un continent à l’autre, anthropologues, ethnologues, historiens et philosophes interrogent le rapport que chacun entretient à son corps selon sa culture, son sexe, son mode de vie.
Le corps se pare et se transforme au gré des normes locales ou des canons de beauté mondialisés. Il se vit comme une épreuve lorsqu’il est condamné à ramper dans les souterrains de Las Vegas, à se monnayer sur le marché du travail ou à se prostituer. Il soulève parfois des questions éthiques ou juridiques plus vastes, comme dans le cas des mères porteuses. Mais il peut aussi imposer sa puissance comme arme de lutte identitaire ou encore s’inventer hybride et bionique dans le futur.
Spiritualité, alimentation, sexualité, transformation, marchandisation… prenant le parti du métissage et de la diversité, cet ouvrage richement illustré propose au lecteur curieux de géographie, de cultures diverses et d’histoires précises un passionnant voyage en terre humaine.
Sous la direction de Bernard ANDRIEU, philosophe, professeur en épistémologie du corps et des pratiques corporelles à la faculté du sport de l’Université de Lorraine, et Gilles BOËTSCH, anthropobiologiste, directeur de recherche au CNRS, directeur de l'UMIESS (Dakar).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Sahelian zone, the drought phenomenon, combined with anthropic factors (monoculture, bush fires, defect or deficit of manure, overgrazing, etc.), has seriously affected ecological great balances, involving a degradation of the natural resources as well as a fall in agricultural productions, pointing to a process of desertification. To face these challenges, in the course of the 8th ordinary session of the conference of the Heads of States of the African Union held in January 2007 in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), 11 countries adopted the Panafrican project called the Green Great Wall (GGW). The total objective of the GGW is to contribute i) to the fight against the desert's advance, ii) to the development of the Saharan-Sahelian zones toward a durable management of the natural resources, and iii) to the fight against poverty. It deals with the construction of a set of zones of afforestation crossing the whole African continent in the long term (7000 km of which are in the west). Even if some decisions in the launching phase the GGW must be taken quickly, one cannot do without investment in interdisciplinary research. In particular, associating fundamental research and applied research will allow us to ensure the success in the medium and long term of such a large-scale reforestation project. Research segmented in compartmentalized knowledge fields needed to get adequate tools, among which OHMi Tessékéré, initiated by INNEE (Centre national de la recherche scientifique [CNRS]), in partnership with UCAD, constitutes an example. This suitable scientific tool, capable of action flexibility, of self-financing capacity, anchored in civil society, ready to implement a pragmatic and local interdisciplinarity founded currently on the concept of socio-ecological system (SES), is the one we chose to conduct our studies on the Ferlo arid ecosystems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L’objectif de cet article est de déterminer si la notion d’ethnie est, à Dakar, un critère pertinent d’analyse en anthropologie démographique, en testant sa validité lors de l’analyse de l’évolution de la structure des populations au cours des générations. L’échantillon de population, comprenant des individus habitant le département de Dakar, comprend 600 individus. Les caractéristiques socioéconomiques, démographiques, l’ethnie déclarée sur trois générations et la force de l’identification à l’ethnie ont été recueillies. Les analyses statistiques utilisées sont des tests du Chi2, des Anova et des tests exacts de Fisher. Cette étude a permis de montrer que la transmission de l’ethnie déclarée se révèle majoritairement homogène sur trois générations. Le pourcentage de mariages « interethniques » est beaucoup plus faible que celui consigné dans les données de la littérature: 17,9 % à la génération des parents, et entre 3 % (côté paternel) et 5,1 % (côté maternel) à la génération des grandsparents. Cette étude a également permis de montrer que les Dakarois s’identifient très fortement à leur ethnie. L’ethnie déclarée ne peut pas être considérée comme une variable permettant de retracer l’évolution de la structure des populations au cours des générations en contexte dakarois, du fait de l’homogénéisation consécutive à la reconstruction subjective de l’histoire familiale de l’ethnie.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d anthropologie de Paris
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes in the urban population living in Dakar, Senegal, and to investigate the factors associated with diabetes.
Data from a 2009 survey of 600 individuals, aged 20 years or above and considered representative of the population of the city of Dakar, were evaluated. Socioeconomic characteristics, hypertension, capillary whole blood glucose, and weight and height measurements of these subjects were collected during face-to-face interviews. The statistical analyses used chi-square (chi(2)) tests and binary logistic regressions.
The percentage of participants with fasting blood glucose levels greater than or equal to 1.10g/L and/or currently being treated for diabetes was 17.9% (n=107, 95% CI: 14.7-20.8). Observed rates of diabetes were significantly higher among women (chi(2)=6.3; P<0.05), in subjects aged>40 years (chi(2)=33.6; P<0.001), in those with low educational levels (chi(2)=11.9; P<0.05) and in those with hypertension (chi(2)=13.9; P<0.001), and in those who were overweight (BMI≥25kg/m(2) and<30kg/m(2)) or obese (BMI≥30kg/m(2); chi(2)=40.3; P<0.001). After adjusting for gender, age, educational level, BMI and blood pressure, the results showed that gender, age and BMI were associated with diabetes: women, older people and those with a higher BMI had significantly greater chances of being diabetic than the rest of the population, whatever their blood pressure and educational level.
Diabetes is becoming a pressing public-health problem in Senegal, and the major risk factors for the increasing diabetes prevalence in the city of Dakar are gender, age and body mass index.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood donor retention represents a fundamental objective in public health. Comparison between the sociodemographic characteristics and motivational factors between lapsed and regular donors is then required. The objectives of this analysis were: (1) to compare the sociodemographic characteristics of lapsed donors and current donors; (2) to compare the motivations to donate blood expressed by lapsed and current donors.
Data from a 2008 survey, representative of the population by crossed quotas method, of 1400 individuals questioned by phone were used to reach these objectives. Chi(2) tests and binary logistic regressions were used.
Results show that socio-occupational categories and motivational factors are different between lapsed and regular donors. Workers, senior management and higher intellectual professions are more often lapsed than regular donors. Concerning motivations, results show that lapsed donors more frequently mention the first experience with blood donation (with colleagues, friends, and parents) than regular donors, for whom altruistic and community motivations are more frequently cited.
Workers, senior management and higher intellectual professions should be targeted uppermost, in order to convert them in regular donors. Finally, concerning motivations, the social pressure applied to lapsed donors for their first blood donation appears crucial, whereas regular donors have internalized their motives, more often altruistic and community motivations.
No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Transfusion Clinique et Biologique
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The results of this study are derived from a cross-sectional survey of 205 Moroccan men aged 60 years and older living in the city of Marrakesh, the aim being to analyse their perceptions of ageing and their subjective health status. Perceptions of ageing are strongly associated with economic activity and morbidity. Individuals who were not economically active at the time of the survey expressed negative perceptions of ageing: 28.9% of non-active men and 24.0% of retirees compared with 7.6% of economically active men. Thus the passage from an active working life to retirement may contribute to the deterioration of the individual's mental health. Similarly, 27.5% of men who reported chronic illnesses perceived themselves negatively compared with 5.7% of healthy individuals. As for subjective health, we observed a positive correlation with the actual health status of the individual. Among those who said they suffered from a chronic illness, 55.1% felt themselves to be in poor health, compared with 44.9% of those without chronic illnesses. The decline in the economic activity of older persons and the deterioration of their health with age may lead to difficulties in their daily lives and consequently induce negative perceptions of ageing and subjective health status.