Shintaro Yukawa

University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

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Publications (31)2.25 Total impact

  • Namiko Kamijo · Shintaro Yukawa
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between meaning making and rumination regarding stressful events. We focused on two facets of rumination: intrusive and deliberate. Participants (N = 121) completed a questionnaire about a stressful event in their life that assessed the possibility of preventing the event, probability of the event occurring, perceived threat of the event, and meaning making. They also completed scales that assessed intrusive and deliberate ruminations about the event, posttraumatic growth after the event, as well as dispositions of self-rumination and self-reflection, and executive function. The results revealed that disposition of self-reflection was positively correlated with deliberate rumination about the event. Furthermore, deliberate rumination at the time of the experience was positively correlated with current positive meaning making, which was associated with current posttraumatic growth. Additionally, current intrusive rumination promoted current negative meaning making, but intrusive rumination at the time of the experience did not. Thus, this study suggests the important role of both intrusive and deliberate ruminations in the process of meaning making and several issues for future research.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Shinrigaku kenkyu: The Japanese journal of psychology
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    Namiko Kamijo · Shintaro Yukawa
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the factors that influence meaning making and rumination related to stressful events. Six hypothetical scenarios were used, all of which were contextualized stressful events. Participants (N = 779) completed a questionnaire about one of the six scenarios, which assessed the possibility of preventing the event, the probability of the event occurring, the perceived threat of the event, the frequency of rumination, and meaning making. They completed a scale that assessed self-rumination and self-reflection as a way of thinking, and a scale that assessed executive function. Executive function and self-rumination were negatively correlated. Furthermore, self-rumination positively correlated with the frequency of rumination on the event. The perceived threat was high when the probability of the event occurring was low and the possibility of preventing the event was high. Although the perceived threat of the event inhibited meaning making, this was promoted by mediating the frequency of rumination. Self-reflection also directly promoted meaning making. Therefore, this study highlighted a number of factors that affect rumination and meaning making.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Shinrigaku kenkyu: The Japanese journal of psychology
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    Namiko Kamijo · Shintaro Yukawa
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    ABSTRACT: Meaning making has been referred to as a coping skill for overcoming stressful experiences. Researchers have found rumination influences meaning making, but the detailed mechanism have not been clarified. The present study examined the factors that influence rumination and meaning making using six hypothetical scenarios of various stressful events with specific contexts. Participants (n=780) completed a questionnaire with one of six hypothetical scenarios. As a result, rumination frequency was high so that evaluation of event threat was high, self-rumination was high, and executive function was low. Also, evaluation of event threat inhibited making meaning, but by mediating rumination, meaning making was promoted.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences
  • Daiki Sekiya · Shintaro Yukawa
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    ABSTRACT: Although it seems that the emotional labor process consisted of surface acting and deep acting, there were no instruments for measurement of these two aspects in Japan. The purposes of the present study were as follows: (a) translating the original version of the Emotional Labour Scales (ELS) into Japanese, (b) developing Emotional Labour Scales Japanese version (ELS-J), and (c) examining its reliability and validity. Previous studies showed that the original ELS as six factors: surface acting, deep acting, intensity, frequency, variety, and duration. However, in accord with the duration subscale consisted of only one item, though in the present study, we assumed that ELS-J has five factors consisted of 14-item and the one duration item. Data from 233 full-time workers were analyzed, and the results of factor analyses were corresponded to the original ELS. Each subscales showed sufficient internal consistency and concurrent validity with burnout scales. These findings provided support for reliability and validity of ELS-J.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
  • Hiroko Endo · Shintaro Yukawa
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    ABSTRACT: Endo and Yukawa (2012) investigated the process of maintaining anger and demonstrated that a sense of unintegration of thoughts maintained anger by promoting recurrent thinking and avoidance behavior. Our present study examined how personality characteristics and situational factors affected the process of maintaining anger. Undergraduates (N=713) wrote about an anger episode, and completed questionnaires assessing their sense of unintegration of thoughts, recurrent thinking, avoidance behaviors, and maintaining anger. The questionnaires also assessed personality characteristics such as difficulty in identifying feelings, and situational factors such as the need for maintaining relationships, anger arousability, and meaning-making for the anger episode. The results of covariance structure analysis indicated that difficulties in identifying feelings and anger arousability contributed to maintaining anger by increasing the sense of unintegration of thoughts just after the episode. However, the need for maintaining relationships directly reduced the sense of unintegration of thoughts just after the episode, and indirectly decreased the present sense of unintegration of thoughts by meaning-making. Moreover, although recurrent thinking promoted the current sense of unintegration of thoughts, it also provided meaning.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Shinrigaku kenkyu: The Japanese journal of psychology
  • Misa Hirano · Shintaro Yukawa
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    ABSTRACT: This study explores the impact of mindfulness meditation on anger. A meditation group (N = 37) attended 5-10 minutes of mindfulness meditation daily for a week. They were assessed with self-report scales measuring three aspects of anger (rumination, arousal, and lengthiness) before, just after, and four weeks after their one-week participation. Their scores were compared to a control group (N = 27), which was assessed at the same intervals as the meditation group. The meditation group was also asked to evaluate their current mood using the Affect Grid before and after each meditation. The results indicated that participants in the meditation group who continued meditation voluntarily after the week of their participation had decreased anger rumination scores just after and four weeks after their participation. Additionally, the pleasant score on the Affect Grid increased after meditation for almost all the participation days. These findings suggest the efficacy of mindfulness meditation on improving the tendency to ruminate about anger episodes in the medium-term to long-term, and also on improving mood in the short-term.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Shinrigaku kenkyu: The Japanese journal of psychology
  • Hiroko Endo · Shintaro Yukawa
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between a recipient's response to a disclosure of negative emotional experiences, and the resulting negative emotions, hesitation in self-disclosure (interpersonal and intra-personal hesitation), and negatively-confused thoughts of the person making the disclosure were investigated. Female undergraduates (N=271) were asked to write about angry or sad events in their interpersonal relationships that they had disclosed to someone. Then they completed a questionnaire assessing the recipient's responses, negative emotions such as anger and depression caused by the recipient's responses, hesitation in self-disclosure about the events, and negatively-confused thoughts about the events. The results of covariance structure analysis indicated that a recipient's rejection in response to the disclosure of negative emotional experiences resulted in negative thoughts caused by an increase of negative emotions and hesitation in self-disclosure. The results also showed that a recipient's acceptance also increased depression in the person making the self-disclosure, which intensified the intra-personal hesitation, and increased negatively-confused thoughts.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Shinrigaku kenkyu: The Japanese journal of psychology
  • Namiko Kamijo · Shintaro Yukawa

    No preview · Conference Paper · Feb 2013
  • Hiroko Endo · Shintaro Yukawa
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    ABSTRACT: Relationships were investigated between the sense of unintegration of thoughts, recurrent thinking, and avoidance behavior, which are considered to be factors in maintaining anger. Undergraduate students (N = 990) were asked to write about anger episodes that they had experienced a week or more ago. Then, they completed a questionnaire assessing their sense of unintegration of thoughts at the present time and just after the episode, their present recurrent thinking, their avoidance behavior after the episode, and their present degree of anger. The results of covariance structure analysis indicated that the sense of unintegration of thoughts just after the episode maintained anger through recurrent thinking. Recurrent thinking also intensified their present sense of unintegration of thoughts, which directly maintained anger. Moreover, the sense of unintegration of thoughts just after the episode led to an increase in avoidance behavior, which was related to recurrent thinking.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Shinrigaku kenkyu: The Japanese journal of psychology
  • Daiki Sekiya · Shintaro Yukawa

    No preview · Article · Jan 2012
  • Daiki Sekiya · Shintaro Yukawa
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined whether burnout and negative ruminations of helping professional were reduced by writing about their dissonant emotional experiences. Twenty helping professionals were randomly assigned to either the experimental condition (writing about emotionally dissonant experiences for three weeks) or the control condition (without writing). The results revealed that participants in the experimental condition had significantly lower scores for emotional dissonance than the control group immediately and three weeks after the experimental intervention. Qualitative analyses of the content written by the participants showed that individuals who had more beneficial change on the score for emotional dissonance wrote more cognitive words. This correlation suggests that writing about emotional dissonance may facilitate cognitive restructuring of emotional experiences, which results in decreasing emotional dissonance.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Shinrigaku kenkyu: The Japanese journal of psychology
  • Shintaro Yukawa
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    ABSTRACT: Relationships between diary-keeping and tendencies toward alexithymia and rumination were studied in 118 Japanese participants. Participants completed a questionnaire that assessed diary-keeping habits (both regular and Web diaries), alexithymia, and rumination. Individuals who wrote about their daily events epically (i.e., focusing on actions and events) in a regular diary considered both identifying and describing their feelings and controlling negative rumination to be less difficult than those who wrote lyrically (i.e., focusing on emotions). Those people who sometimes kept a diary on the Internet reported it was more difficult to both identify and describe their feelings and control negative rumination than those who did not write at all.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Psychological Reports
  • Shintaro Yukawa · Hideji Tokuda · Jun Sato
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    ABSTRACT: The relationships among attachment style, self-concealment, and interpersonal distance were studied with 71 Japanese undergraduates (33 men and 38 women, ages 18 to 20 years, M = 18.7, SD= .6). Participants completed a questionnaire about Self-concealment and Attachment Styles (Secure, Anxious, and Avoidant). One week later, Interpersonal Distance, which individuals maintain between themselves and others, was measured by the stop-distance paradigm. Analysis showed that scores for more Anxious and Avoidant Attachment Styles were positively correlated with those for greater Self-concealment. Scores for greater Self-concealment and more Anxious Attachment Style were also correlated with longer Interpersonal Distance.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Perceptual and Motor Skills
  • Kei Hibino · Shintaro Yukawa · Masahiro Kodama · Fujio Yoshida
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated inhibitory factors in anger expressive behaviors among Japanese junior high school students. It also examined the relations between anger experiences and personality traits: verbal expression and narcissism. The result indicated that the factors of "friend relationships" and "cost-reward consciousness" were selected as those which inhibited anger expressive behaviors. Results of a covariance structure analysis were as follows. First, narcissistic personality elicited feelings of anger and depression and cognitions of inflating and calming, which all facilitated aggressive behavior, social sharing, and object-displacement as anger expressive behaviors. Second, verbal expression elicited cognitions of objectifying and self-reproaching, and the former inhibited anger expressive behaviors, though the latter facilitated them. Finally, "cost-reward consciousness" inhibited anger expressive behaviors for boys, while "normative consciousness" inhibited them for girls.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Shinrigaku kenkyu: The Japanese journal of psychology
  • Shintaro Yukawa
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated sex differences in the relationships among an ger, depression, and coping strategies. Undergraduate students, 77 men and 130 women, 3 not identified by sex, voluntarily participated. Participants made ratings on a self-report about anger, depression, coping strategies, and mental health. Analyses showed that women who reported themselves as angry tended to cope with stress by optimistic and active strategies, while women who reported themselves as depressed tended to cope with stress by withdrawn and passive strategies. Men who reported being depressed tended to select emotion-focused cognitive coping, while men who reported being angry selected no specific coping. Adoption of engaged emotion focused coping strategies were related to mental health only for women.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Psychological Reports
  • Kei Hibino · Shintaro Yukawa
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated time series changes and relationships of affects, cognitions, and behaviors immediately, a few days, and a week after anger episodes. Two hundred undergraduates (96 men, and 104 women) completed a questionnaire. The results were as follows. Anger intensely aroused immediately after anger episodes, and was rapidly calmed as time passed. Anger and depression correlated in each period, so depression was accompanied with anger experiences. The results of covariance structure analysis showed that aggressive behavior was evoked only by affects (especially anger) immediately, and was evoked only by cognitions (especially inflating) a few days after the episode. One week after the episode, aggressive behavior decreased, and was not influenced by affects and cognitions. Anger elicited all anger-expressive behaviors such as aggressive behavior, social sharing, and object-displacement, while depression accompanied with anger episodes elicited only object-displacement.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Shinrigaku kenkyu: The Japanese journal of psychology
  • Shintaro Yukawa · Kei Hibino
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the affects and behaviors that accompany and follow anger episodes, and examined the relationship among them, in hope of developing self-regulated and effective methods of controlling anger. With an open-ended questionnaire, 42 anger episodes were collected and categorized. Results suggested that typical anger episodes were instigated by selfishness, insult, coercion, and trouble and a close person such as friends was often the cause and target of anger. Surprise and depression frequently accompanied it, and eight forms of response followed: rationalization, cause searching, aggression, social sharing, displacement to object, mood change, forgetfulness, and rumination. Another questionnaire examined the relationship among these variables, as well as trait anger, perception of malice, and sense of injury, with a sample of 118 undergraduates. Results indicated, first, that sense of injury was heightened by trait anger and malice perception. Second, anger and depression were evoked only by a sense of injury. Finally, while anger without depression evoked aggression, anger with depression led to mood change and forgetfulness.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2004 · Shinrigaku kenkyu: The Japanese journal of psychology
  • Shintaro Yukawa
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between a diminished sense of self-existence and self-reported aggression among Japanese undergraduate students. Based on the previous scales, 81 items were developed to measure the diminished sense of self-existence and were assumed to represent three dimensions: self, others, and time. 286 undergraduate students rated themselves on the Diminished Sense of Self-existence Scale and the 1992 Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis indicated that men and women had low scores on Verbal Aggression and high scores on Hostility with the diminished sense of self-existence. The diminished sense of self-existence was not generally related to Anger or Physical Aggression in men, whereas in women, Anger and Physical Aggression were found particularly when the sense of self-existence in relations with others was diminished.
    No preview · Article · May 2002 · Psychological Reports
  • Shintaro Yukawa · Kimihisa Endo · Fujio Yoshida
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of anger evoked by earlier provocation on cognition, emotion, and aggressive behavior after being exposed to media violence. Sixty male undergraduates participated in the experiment. Before viewing one of three videos (either highly violent, violent with high entertainment, or nonviolent), half of the subjects were provoked by a confederate posing as another subject. Subjects' heart rates and eyeblink rates were recorded while viewing the video. After viewing the video, subjects described their thoughts that occurred while watching the video and rated their affective reactions toward the video. Finally, subjects' aggressive behavior toward the confederate was measured. Results of covariance structure analysis suggested that (a) anger evoked by provocation and high level of violence in videos additively elicited negative cognition and affect, which further facilitated aggressive behavior, and (b) high level of entertainment in videos elicited positive cognition and affect, which alleviated negative cognition and affect.
    No preview · Article · May 2001 · Shinrigaku kenkyu: The Japanese journal of psychology
  • Shintaro Yukawa · Fujio Yoshida
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence mediate aggressive behavior. Eighty undergraduates, 40 men and 40 women, participated in the experiment. First, subjects were exposed to one of four violent videos which varied in levels of violence and entertainment. Subjects' heart rate and eyeblink rate were continuously recorded while they watched the video. After watching it, subjects described their thoughts which occurred while watching it and rated their affective reactions to it. Finally, their aggressive behavior was measured. Results showed that (1) videos high in violence elicited more aggressive thoughts, more thoughts of negative affect, stronger negative affects, and stronger empty-powerless affects, whereas videos high in entertainment elicited stronger positive affects; (2) no significant differences were found among the videos in terms of physiological reactions and aggressive behavior; and (3) cognitions and emotions elicited by media violence did not mediate aggressive behavior.
    No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · Shinrigaku kenkyu: The Japanese journal of psychology