Timothy Ledgeway

University of Nottingham, Nottigham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (75)

  • Richard Johnston · Nicola J Pitchford · Neil W Roach · Timothy Ledgeway
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with dyslexia are purported to have a selective dorsal stream impairment that manifests as a deficit in perceiving visual global motion relative to global form. However, the underlying nature of the visual deficit in readers with dyslexia remains unclear. It may be indicative of a difficulty with motion detection, temporal processing, or any task that necessitates integration of local visual information across multiple dimensions (i.e. both across space and over time). To disentangle these possibilities we administered four diagnostic global motion and global form tasks to a large sample of adult readers (N=106) to characterise their perceptual abilities. Two sets of analyses were conducted. First, to investigate if general reading ability is associated with performance on the visual tasks across the entire sample, a composite reading score was calculated and entered into a series of continuous regression analyses. Next, to investigate if the performance of readers with dyslexia differs from that of good readers on the visual tasks we identified a group of forty-three individuals for whom phonological decoding was specifically impaired, consistent with the dyslexic profile, and compared their performance with that of good readers who did not exhibit a phonemic deficit. Both analyses yielded a similar pattern of results. Consistent with previous research, coherence thresholds of poor readers were elevated on a random-dot global motion task and a spatially one-dimensional (1-D) global motion task, but no difference was found on a static global form task. However, our results extend those of previous studies by demonstrating that poor readers exhibited impaired performance on a temporally-defined global form task, a finding that is difficult to reconcile with the dorsal stream vulnerability hypothesis. This suggests that the visual deficit in developmental dyslexia does not reflect an impairment detecting motion per se. It is better characterised as a difficulty processing temporal information, which is exacerbated when local visual cues have to be integrated across multiple (>2) dimensions.
    Article · Jul 2016 · Brain and Cognition
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    Elisa Zamboni · Timothy Ledgeway · Paul V. McGraw · Denis Schluppeck
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visual perception is strongly influenced by contextual information. A good example is reference repulsion, where subjective reports about the direction of motion of a stimulus are significantly biased by the presence of an explicit reference. These perceptual biases could arise early, during sensory encoding, or alternatively they may reflect decision-related processes occurring relatively late in the task sequence. To separate these two competing possibilities, we asked (human) subjects to perform a fine motion-discrimination task and then estimate the direction of motion in the presence or absence of an oriented reference line. When subjects performed the discrimination task with the reference, but subsequently estimated motion direction in its absence, direction estimates were unbiased. However, when subjects viewed the same stimuli but performed the estimation task only, with the orientation of the reference line jittered on every trial, the directions estimated by subjects were biased and yoked to the orientation of the shifted reference line. These results show that judgments made relative to a reference are subject to late, decision-related biases. A model in which information about motion is integrated with that of an explicit reference cue, resulting in a late, decision-related re-weighting of the sensory representation, can account for these results.
    Full-text Article · May 2016 · Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • Elisa Zamboni · Timothy Ledgeway · Paul McGraw · Denis Schluppeck
    Article · Oct 2015 · Perception
  • Timothy Ledgeway · David Heslip · Paul McGraw
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become a popular method for studying the functional properties, connectivity and chronometry of brain regions associated with visual encoding. However comparatively little is known about the precise mechanisms by which TMS influences on-going visual processing, though studies suggest it may suppress the processing of the signals associated with a task and/or induce increased levels of internal noise. To investigate this issue single-pulse TMS was applied over left-hemisphere V1 in eight observers during a forced-choice, orientation-identification task (horizontal vs. vertical) using a Gabor target (2 c/deg, centred 6 deg in the right visual field). Stimulus contrast was set to each observer's threshold, corresponding to 79% correct performance, measured in the absence of TMS. When TMS was applied over V1 performance decreased in all observers (~ 10% on average) compared to accuracy levels obtained during stimulation over a control site (Cz). Unexpectedly we found accuracy levels improved during V1 stimulation across a block of 200 trials in most (5/8) subjects, but remained stable during control site stimulation. Furthermore, no recovery was found when a brief, external, visual noise mask was used instead of a TMS pulse. These results show that the magnitude of TMS disruption can dissipate with repeated stimulation. To explore the potential mechanism underlying this recovery phenomenon we also measured the critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), using an LED driven by a square-wave temporal waveform of variable frequency, both prior to and following the same TMS protocol. For observers that previously exhibited TMS recovery, occipital simulation extended temporal integration periods by an average of 12% (by 3-8 ms). This suggests that the visual system can dynamically adapt to increased internal noise levels, by increasing the temporal interval over which visual stimuli are integrated, thus minimising the deleterious effects of TMS-induced cortical activity on sensory judgments. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015.
    Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Vision
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    Full-text Article · Jun 2015 · Vision research
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    Andrew N Kelly · Walter J.B. Van Heuven · Nicola J Pitchford · Timothy Ledgeway
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study prelexical processes involved in visual word recognition a task is needed that only operates at the level of abstract letter identities. The masked priming same-different task has been purported to do this, as the same pattern of priming is shown for words and nonwords. However, studies using this task have consistently found a processing advantage for words over nonwords, indicating a lexicality effect. We investigated the locus of this word advantage. Experiment 1 used conventional visually-presented reference stimuli to test previous accounts of the lexicality effect. Results rule out the use of different strategies, or strength of representations, for words and nonwords. No interaction was shown between prime type and word type, but a consistent word advantage was found. Experiment 2 used novel auditorally-presented reference stimuli to restrict nonword matching to the sublexical level. This abolished scrambled priming for nonwords, but not words. Overall this suggests the processing advantage for words over nonwords results from activation of whole-word, lexical representations. Furthermore, the number of shared open-bigrams between primes and targets could account for scrambled priming effects. These results have important implications for models of orthographic processing and studies that have used this task to investigate prelexical processes.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • D. Heslip · T. Ledgeway · P. McGraw
    Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Vision
  • T. Ledgeway · P. McGraw · B. Thompson
    Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Vision
  • D Heslip · T Ledgeway · P McGraw
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background / Purpose: Local orientation and motion cues can be used to reduce the ambiguity of motion direction using a phenomenon known as “motion streaks”. We systematically quantify the orientation tuning of motion streak masking. Main conclusion: The orientation tuning of motion streak masking is non-monotonic, especially at “slow” speeds. “Off-orientation looking” may explain these results.
    Conference Paper · Jun 2013
  • P.J. Knox · T Ledgeway · A.J. Simmers
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of a general global motion processing deficit in amblyopia is now well established, although its severity may depend on image speed and amblyopia type, but its underlying cause(s) is still largely indeterminate. To address this issue and to characterize further the nature of the global motion perception deficit in human amblyopia, the effects of varying spatial offset (jump size - Δs) and temporal offset (delay between positional updates - Δt) in discriminating global motion for a range of speeds (1.5, 3 and 9 °/s) in both amblyopic and normal vision were evaluated. For normal adult observers (NE) and the non-amblyopic eye (FE) motion coherence thresholds measured when Δt was varied were significantly higher than those when Δs was varied. Furthermore when Δt was varied, thresholds rose significantly as the speed of image motion decreased for both NEs and FEs. AE thresholds were higher overall than the other eyes and appeared independent of both the method used to create movement and speed. These results suggest that the spatial and temporal limits underlying the perception of global motion are different. In addition degrading the smoothness of motion has comparatively little effect on the motion mechanisms driven by the AE, suggesting that the internal noise associated with encoding motion direction is relatively high.
    Article · Apr 2013 · Vision research
  • Craig Aaen-Stockdale · Timothy Ledgeway · Paul McGraw · Robert F Hess
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intention of this series of experiments was to determine the extent to which the pathways sensitive to first-order and second-order motion are independent of one another at, and above, the level of global motion integration. We used translational, radial and rotational motion stimuli containing luminance-modulated dots, contrast-modulated dots, or a mixture of both. Our results show that the two classes of motion stimuli interact perceptually in a global motion coherence task, and the extent of this interaction is governed by whether the two varieties of local motion signal produce an equivalent response in the pathways that encode each type of motion. This provides strong psychophysical evidence that global motion and optic flow processing are cue-invariant. The fidelity of the first-order motion signal was moderated by either reducing the luminance of the dots or by increasing the displacement of the dots on each positional update. The experiments were carried out with two different types of second-order elements (contrast-modulated dots and flicker-modulated dots) and the results were comparable, suggesting that these findings are generalisable to a variety of second-order stimuli. In addition, the interaction between the two different types of second-order stimuli was investigated and we found that the relative modulation depth was also crucial to whether the two populations interacted. We conclude that the relative output of local motion sensors sensitive to either first-order or second-order motion dictates their weight in subsequent cue-invariant global motion computations.
    Article · Sep 2012 · Vision research
  • Nicola J Pitchford · Walter J B van Heuven · Andrew N Kelly · [...] · Timothy Ledgeway
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We agree with many of the principles proposed by Frost but highlight crucial caveats and report research findings that challenge several assertions made in the target article. We discuss the roles that visual processing, development, and bilingualism play in visual word recognition and reading. These are overlooked in all current models, but are fundamental to any universal model of reading.
    Article · Aug 2012 · Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • Article · Jan 2012 · Perception
  • A. Arena · C. V. Hutchinson · T. Ledgeway · [...] · M. D. Long
    Article · Jan 2012 · Perception
  • F. Rocchi · T. Ledgeway · B. S. Webb
    Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of Vision
  • T. Ledgeway · P.V. McGraw · A.J. Simmers
    Article · Sep 2011 · Journal of Vision
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    A.J. Simmers · T Ledgeway · C V Hutchinson · P J Knox
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well established that amblyopes exhibit deficits in processing first-order (luminance-defined) patterns. This is readily manifest by measuring spatiotemporal sensitivity (i.e. the "window of visibility") to moving luminance gratings. However the window of visibility to moving second-order (texture-defined) patterns has not been systematically studied in amblyopia. To address this issue monocular modulation sensitivity (1/threshold) to first-order motion and four different varieties of second-order motion (modulations of either the contrast, flicker, size or orientation of visual noise) was measured over a five-octave range of spatial and temporal frequencies. Compared to normals amblyopes are not only impaired in the processing of first-order motion, but overall they exhibit both higher thresholds and a much narrower window of visibility to second-order images. However amblyopia can differentially impair the perception of some types of second-order motion much more than others and crucially the precise pattern of deficits varies markedly between individuals (even for those with the same conventional visual acuity measures). For the most severely impaired amblyopes certain second-order (texture) cues to movement in the environment are effectively invisible. These results place important constraints on the possible architecture of models of second-order motion perception in human vision.
    Full-text Article · Aug 2011 · Vision research
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    Ben S Webb · Timothy Ledgeway · Francesca Rocchi
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The brain estimates visual motion by decoding the responses of populations of neurons. Extracting unbiased motion estimates from early visual cortical neurons is challenging because each neuron contributes an ambiguous (local) representation of the visual environment and inherently variable neural response. To mitigate these sources of noise, the brain can pool across large populations of neurons, pool the response of each neuron over time, or a combination of the two. Recent psychophysical and physiological work points to a flexible motion pooling system that arrives at different computational solutions over time and for different stimuli. Here we ask whether a single, likelihood-based computation can accommodate the flexible nature of spatiotemporal motion pooling in humans. We examined the contribution of different computations to human observers' performance on two global visual motion discriminations tasks, one requiring the combination of motion directions over time and another requiring their combination in different relative proportions over space and time. Observers' perceived direction of global motion was accurately predicted by a vector average readout of direction signals accumulated over time and a maximum likelihood readout of direction signals combined over space, consistent with the notion of a flexible motion pooling system that uses different computations over space and time. Additional simulations of observers' performance with a population decoding model revealed a more parsimonious solution: flexible spatiotemporal pooling could be accommodated by a single computation that optimally pools motion signals across a population of neurons that accumulate local motion signals on their receptive fields at a fixed rate over time.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2011 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • Francesca Rocchi · Ben Webb · Timothy Ledgeway
    Article · Jan 2011 · Perception
  • C.V. Hutchinson · H.A. Allen · Timothy Ledgeway
    Article · Jan 2011 · Perception