David T Redden

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States

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Publications (172)836.63 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Racial differences exist for a number of health conditions, services, and outcomes, including end-of-life (EOL) care. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine differences in processes of care in the last 7 days of life between African American and white inpatients. Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted of data collected in the Best Practices for End-of-Life Care for Our Nation's Veterans (BEACON) trial (conducted 2005-2011). Subjects were 4891 inpatient decedents in six Veterans Administration Medical Centers. Data were abstracted from decedents' medical records. Multi-variable analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between race and each of 18 EOL processes of care controlling for patient characteristics, study site, year of death, and whether the observation was pre- or post-intervention. Results: The sample consisted of 1690 African American patients (34.6%) and 3201 white patients (65.4%). African Americans were less likely to have: do not resuscitate (DNR) orders (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67; p = 0.004), advance directives (OR: 0.71; p = 0.023), active opioid orders (OR: 0.64, p = 0.0008), opioid medications administered (OR: 0.61, p = 0.004), benzodiazepine orders (OR: 0.68, p < 0.0001), benzodiazepines administered (OR: 0.61, p < 0.0001), antipsychotics administered (OR: 0.73, p = 0.004), and steroids administered (OR: 0.76, p = 0.020). Racial differences were not found for other processes of care, including palliative care consultation, pastoral care, antipsychotic and steroid orders, and location of death. Conclusions: Racial differences exist in some but not all aspects of EOL care. Further study is needed to understand the extent to which racial differences reflect different patient needs and preferences and whether interventions are needed to reduce disparities in patient/family education or access to quality EOL care.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of palliative medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose . The association between transarterial chemoembolization- (TACE-) induced HCC tumor necrosis measured by the modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (mRECIST) and patient survival is poorly defined. We hypothesize that survival will be superior in HCC patients with increased TACE-induced tumor necrosis. Materials and Methods . TACE interventions were retrospectively reviewed. Tumor response was quantified via dichotomized (responders and nonresponders) and the four defined mRECIST categories. Results . Median survival following TACE was significantly greater in responders compared to nonresponders (20.8 months versus 14.9 months, p = 0.011 ). Survival outcomes also significantly varied among the four mRECIST categories ( p = 0.0003 ): complete, 21.4 months; partial, 20.8; stable, 16.8; and progressive, 7.73. Only progressive disease demonstrated significantly worse survival when compared to complete response. Multivariable analysis showed that progressive disease, increasing total tumor diameter, and non-Child-Pugh class A were independent predictors of post-TACE mortality. Conclusions . Both dichotomized (responders and nonresponders) and the four defined mRECIST responses to TACE in patients with HCC were predictive of survival. The main driver of the survival analysis was poor survival in the progressive disease group. Surprisingly, there was small nonsignificant survival benefit between complete, partial, and stable disease groups. These findings may inform HCC treatment decisions following first TACE.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To evaluate the psychometric properties of an online versus paper US-English version of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Bowel (ICIQ-B). Methods: The ICIQ-B includes 17 items under 3 domains: bowel pattern (5 items), bowel control (7 items), and quality of life (5 items). We recruited community-dwelling adults seeking treatment for ≥monthly bowel leakage from specialty clinics within a VA medical center and university affiliate. An online versus paper version was evaluated at baseline, 2 weeks later, and 3 months after nonsurgical treatments per usual care. We assessed test-retest reliability (Pearson correlations) at 2 weeks, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), and convergent validity (Pearson correlations). Sensitivity to change was the difference between the baseline and post-treatment (3-month) scores. Results: Mean age was 58.0 ± 11.9; 36% Veterans, 52% women. At baseline, 2 weeks, and 3 months, we found no differences in the online vs paper scores for the bowel control and quality of life domains. The ICIQ-B demonstrated fair internal consistency for the bowel pattern domain (Cronbach's α = 0.36-0.54). Internal consistency on the bowel pattern domain was better with the paper version than the online version at 2 weeks (P < 0.05) and 3 months (P < 0.01) with no difference at baseline. All other domains had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α > 0.80), good retest reliability (r ≥ 0.70, P < 0.001), domain-specific convergent validity for stool consistency (P < 0.05), incontinence severity (P ≤ 0.002), and quality of life impact (P < 0.05). After nonsurgical treatments, we found a reasonable response to change (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: Online and paper versions had robust psychometric data for use among U.S. men and women, including Veterans. Neurourol. Urodynam. 9999:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Neurourology and Urodynamics
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a condition commonly associated with increased pain, disability, and functional limitations. Given the poor correspondence between radiographic evidence and clinical pain, central sensitization has been implicated as a potential mechanism underlying pain facilitation in knee OA. Sex may be a moderator of centrally-mediated changes in knee OA pain; however, few studies have systematically assessed this. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine differences in peripheral and central sensitization in men and women with symptomatic knee OA, as well as to determine whether these differences vary across age (middle-age vs. older-age). Methods: Participants (N=288) between the ages of 45 and 85 completed a battery of quantitative sensory pain procedures assessing sensitivity to contact heat, cold pressor, mechanical pressure, and punctate stimuli. Differences in temporal summation (TS) were examined, as well as measures of clinical pain and functional performance. Results: When compared to men, women exhibited greater sensitivity to multiple pain modalities (i.e., lower heat, cold, pressure thresholds/tolerances, greater TS of pain); however, there were no sex differences in clinical pain with the exception of greater widespread pain observed in women. Although there were select age-related differences in pain sensitivity, sex differences in pain varied minimally across age cohort. Conclusion: Overall, these findings provide evidence for greater overall sensitivity to experimental pain in women with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA), compared to men, suggesting that enhanced central sensitivity may be an important contributor to pain in this group. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Fecal incontinence is a devastating condition with few US Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacologic treatment options. Loperamide and psyllium, both first-line treatments, have different mechanisms of action without any comparative data. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and tolerability of loperamide compared with psyllium for reducing fecal incontinence. We hypothesized that psyllium fiber supplementation would be more effective than loperamide for reducing fecal incontinence episodes and have fewer adverse effects. Design: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial comparing loperamide (followed by psyllium) with psyllium (followed by loperamide). Settings: Our sites included outpatient clinics within a Veterans Affairs medical center and university affiliate. Patients: Participants included community-dwelling adults (n = 80) with at least 1 fecal incontinent episode on a 7-day bowel diary. Intervention: Participants received either daily loperamide (plus placebo psyllium powder) or psyllium powder (plus loperamide placebo) for 4 weeks. After a 2-week washout, participants crossed over to 4 weeks of alternate treatment. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was the number of fecal incontinence episodes from 7-day bowel diaries. Secondary outcomes included symptom severity, quality of life, and tolerability. Results: Mean age was 60.7 ± 10.1 years; 68% were men. After determining nonsignificant carryover effects, combined analyses showed no differences between the loperamide and psyllium groups for reducing fecal incontinent episodes, symptom severity, or quality of life. Within each group, both loperamide and psyllium reduced fecal incontinent episodes and improved symptom severity and quality of life. Constipation occurred in 29% of participants for loperamide vs 10% for psyllium. Limitations: Limitations include the washout period length and dropout rate after crossing over to the second intervention. Conclusions: Both loperamide and psyllium improve fecal incontinence. Loperamide was associated with more adverse effects, especially constipation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Diseases of the Colon & Rectum
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    ABSTRACT: To address the low prevention and treatment rates for those at risk of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP), we evaluated the influence of a direct-to-patient, Internet-based educational video intervention using "storytelling" on rates of antiosteoporosis medication use among chronic glucocorticoid users who were members of an online pharmacy refill service. We identified members who refilled ≥ 5 mg/day of prednisone (or equivalent) for 90 contiguous days and had no GIOP therapy for ≥ 12 months. Using patient stories, we developed an online video addressing risk factors and treatment options, and delivered it to members refilling a glucocorticoid prescription. The intervention consisted of two 45-day "Video ON" periods, during which the video automatically appeared at the time of refill, and two 45-day "Video OFF" periods, during which there was no video. Members could also "self-initiate" watching the video by going to the video link. We used an interrupted time series design to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention on GIOP prescription therapies over 6 months. Among 3017 members (64.8%) exposed to the intervention, 59% had measurable video viewing time, of which 3% "self-initiated" the video. The GIOP prescription rate in the "Video ON" group was 2.9% versus 2.7% for the "Video OFF" group. There was a nonsignificant trend toward greater GIOP prescription in members who self-initiated the video versus automated viewing (5.7% vs 2.9%, p = 0.1). Among adults at high risk of GIOP, prescription rates were not significantly affected by an online educational video presented at the time of glucocorticoid refill. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01378689.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Journal of Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The use of physical restraints in dying patients may be a source of suffering and loss of dignity. Little is known about the prevalence or predictors for restraint use at end of life in the hospital setting. Objective: The objective was to determine the prevalence and predictors of physical restraint use at the time of death in hospitalized adults. Methods: Secondary analysis was performed on data from the "Best Practices for End-of-Life Care for Our Nation's Veterans" (BEACON) trial conducted between 2005 and 2011. Medical record data were abstracted from six Veterans Administration Medical Centers (VAMCs). Data on processes of care in the last seven days of life were abstracted from the medical records of 5476 who died in the six VAMCs. We prospectively identified potential risk factors for restraint use at the time of death from among the variables measured in the parent trial, including location of death, medications administered, nasogastric tube, intravenous (IV) fluids, family presence, and receipt of a palliative care consultation. Results: Physical restraint use at time of death was documented in 890 decedents (16.3%). Restraint use varied by location of death, with patients in intensive settings being at higher risk. Restraint use was significantly more likely in patients with a nasogastric tube and those receiving IV fluids, benzodiazepines, or antipsychotics. Conclusions: This is the first study to document that one in six hospitalized veterans were restrained at the time of death and to identify predictors of restraint use. Further research is needed to identify intervention opportunities.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Palliative Medicine
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    Peng Li · David T Redden
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    ABSTRACT: Small number of clusters and large variation of cluster sizes commonly exist cluster-randomized trials (CRTs) and are often the critical factors affecting the validity and efficiency of statistical analyses. F tests are commonly used in the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to test intervention effects in CRTs. The most challenging issue for the approximate Wald F test is the estimation of the denominator degrees of freedom (DDF). Some DDF approximation methods have been proposed, but their small sample performances in analysing binary outcomes in CRTs with few heterogeneous clusters are not well studied. The small sample performances of five DDF approximations for the F test are compared and contrasted under CRT frameworks with simulations. Specifically, we illustrate how the intraclass correlation (ICC), sample size, and the variation of cluster sizes affect the type I error and statistical power when different DDF approximation methods in GLMM are used to test intervention effect in CRTs with binary outcomes. The results are also illustrated using a real CRT dataset. Our simulation results suggest that the Between-Within method maintains the nominal type I error rates even when the total number of clusters is as low as 10 and is robust to the variation of the cluster sizes. The Residual and Containment methods have inflated type I error rates when the cluster number is small (<30) and the inflation becomes more severe with increased variation in cluster sizes. In contrast, the Satterthwaite and Kenward-Roger methods can provide tests with very conservative Type I error rates when the total cluster number is small (<30) and the conservativeness becomes more severe as variation in cluster sizes increases. Our simulations also suggest that the Between-Within method is statistically more powerful than the Satterthwaite or Kenward-Roger method in analysing CRTs with heterogeneous cluster sizes, especially when the cluster number is small. We conclude that the Between-Within denominator degree of freedom approximation method for F tests should be recommended when the GLMM is used in analysing CRTs with binary outcomes and few heterogeneous clusters, due to its type I error properties and relatively higher power.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · BMC Medical Research Methodology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Studies indicate that improving sleep decreases reported pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), but it is unclear if this association extends to experimentally-induced pain responses. A community-based sample of 88 African-American and 52 non-Hispanic white adults (45-76y) with knee OA completed the Insomnia Severity Index and the arousal subscale of the Sleep Hygiene and Practices Scale. Participants underwent quantitative sensory testing including measures of pain sensitivity and facilitation at the knee, and pain inhibition. Outcomes were analyzed with multiple Tobit, hierarchical regression models, with adjustment for relevant covariates. Ethnicity and sex by sleep interactions were also entered into the models. After covariate adjustment, main associations were not observed. However, sex interacted with insomnia severity to predict greater temporal summation of heat and punctate pressure pain among women and lower heat temporal summation among men. Men and women who engaged in frequent arousal-associated sleep behaviors demonstrated higher and lower heat temporal summation, respectively. Non-Hispanic whites with greater insomnia severity displayed lower pressure pain thresholds and pain inhibition. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that disrupted sleep is associated with altered pain processing differentially by sex and ethnicity/race among people with knee OA. This article presents the association between insomnia severity, maladaptive sleep behaviors, and experimentally-induced pain responses among people with knee osteoarthritis. Disrupted sleep was associated with altered pain processing by sex and ethnicity/race. Offering sleep interventions may help ameliorate pain, but treatment may need to be tailored by sex and ethnicity/race. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Pain
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    ABSTRACT: Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is considered the gold standard for quantifying relative gene expression. Normalization of RT-qPCR data is commonly achieved by subtracting the Ct values of the internal reference genes from the Ct values of the target genes to obtain ΔCt. ΔCt values are then used to derive ΔΔCt when compared to a control group or to conduct further statistical analysis. We examined two rheumatoid arthritis RT-qPCR low density array datasets and found that this normalization method introduces substantial bias due to differences in PCR amplification efficiency among genes. This bias results in undesirable correlations between target genes and reference genes, which affect the estimation of fold changes and the tests for differentially expressed genes. Similar biases were also found in multiple public mRNA and miRNA RT-qPCR array datasets we analysed. We propose to regress the Ct values of the target genes onto those of the reference genes to obtain regression coefficients, which are then used to adjust the reference gene Ct values before calculating ΔCt. The per-gene regression method effectively removes the ΔCt bias. This method can be applied to both low density RT-qPCR arrays and individual RT-qPCR assays.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · BMC Genomics
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    ABSTRACT: Factors responsible for radiographic severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in African-Americans are poorly understood. We sought to identify genes whose expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is associated with radiographic severity of RA. We initially performed quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR for 182 genes based on plausible immune pathways in 40 African-American RA patients with extremes of radiographic damage (low versus high radiographic scores) and disease duration (early versus late) and 20 healthy African-American controls. In the second phase, we analyzed the expression of significantly associated candidate genes (IFNGR2 and its biological partner IFNGR1) with radiographic scores in 576 African-American RA patients and 51 controls not previously analyzed, accounting for autoantibody status and disease duration. We found significant differences in IFNGR1 expression between RA and controls (P=6 x 10(-14) ) and in IFNGR2 expression between those with erosions vs no erosions (P=0.01) (Wilcoxon sum test). We also found A significant correlations between IFNGR2 expression and radiographic scores (P=0.03 for erosions, P=0.04 for joint space narrowing, and P=0.03 for total radiographic score, zero-inflated negative binomial model) and annualized progression rate (P=0.0024, Spearman correlation). These findings have important implications with respect to IFNγ for the pathogenesis of RA and may lead to identification of a biomarker for radiographic damage. Additional studies are needed to define cell subsets responsible for the association of IFNγ receptor gene expression with radiographic finding, which downstream mechanisms are involved, and generalizability to other RA populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2015 American College of Rheumatology.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Arthritis and Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: The use of physical restraints in dying patients may be a source of suffering and loss of dignity. Little is known about the prevalence or predictors for restraint use at end of life in the hospital setting. The objective was to determine the prevalence and predictors of physical restraint use at the time of death in hospitalized adults. Secondary analysis was performed on data from the "Best Practices for End-of-Life Care for Our Nation's Veterans" (BEACON) trial conducted between 2005 and 2011. Medical record data were abstracted from six Veterans Administration Medical Centers (VAMCs). Data on processes of care in the last seven days of life were abstracted from the medical records of 5476 who died in the six VAMCs. We prospectively identified potential risk factors for restraint use at the time of death from among the variables measured in the parent trial, including location of death, medications administered, nasogastric tube, intravenous (IV) fluids, family presence, and receipt of a palliative care consultation. Physical restraint use at time of death was documented in 890 decedents (16.3%). Restraint use varied by location of death, with patients in intensive settings being at higher risk. Restraint use was significantly more likely in patients with a nasogastric tube and those receiving IV fluids, benzodiazepines, or antipsychotics. This is the first study to document that one in six hospitalized veterans were restrained at the time of death and to identify predictors of restraint use. Further research is needed to identify intervention opportunities.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
  • Peng Li · David T. Redden
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    ABSTRACT: The sandwich estimator in generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach underestimates the true variance in small samples and consequently results in inflated type I error rates in hypothesis testing. This fact limits the application of the GEE in cluster-randomized trials (CRTs) with few clusters. Under various CRT scenarios with correlated binary outcomes, we evaluate the small sample properties of the GEE Wald tests using bias-corrected sandwich estimators. Our results suggest that the GEE Wald z-test should be avoided in the analyses of CRTs with few clusters even when bias-corrected sandwich estimators are used. With t-distribution approximation, the Kauermann and Carroll (KC)-correction can keep the test size to nominal levels even when the number of clusters is as low as 10 and is robust to the moderate variation of the cluster sizes. However, in cases with large variations in cluster sizes, the Fay and Graubard (FG)-correction should be used instead. Furthermore, we derive a formula to calculate the power and minimum total number of clusters one needs using the t-test and KC-correction for the CRTs with binary outcomes. The power levels as predicted by the proposed formula agree well with the empirical powers from the simulations. The proposed methods are illustrated using real CRT data. We conclude that with appropriate control of type I error rates under small sample sizes, we recommend the use of GEE approach in CRTs with binary outcomes because of fewer assumptions and robustness to the misspecification of the covariance structure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Statistics in Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis is increasing with the aging population and is exacerbated by the growing numbers of obese older adults. Low levels of vitamin D, measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), in older adults and obese individuals are correlated with several negative health conditions, including chronic pain. This cross-sectional study sought to examine the interactive influence of 25(OH)D levels and obesity on knee osteoarthritis pain and functional performance measures. The sample consisted of 256 (63% female) racially-diverse (55% Black/African Americans) middle-aged and older adults (mean age 56.8 y). Blood was collected for analysis of 25(OH)D by high performance liquid chromatography. Participants provided self-report regarding knee osteoarthritis pain and underwent a lower extremity functional performance test. Results demonstrated that obesity was associated with lower levels of 25(OH)D. Participants with adequate 25(OH)D levels reported significantly less knee osteoarthritis pain compared to participants with deficient or insufficient levels, regardless of obesity status. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between obesity and 25(OH)D levels for lower extremity functional performance, such that obese individuals with adequate 25(OH)D levels demonstrated better performance than those obese participants with deficient or insufficient 25(OH)D levels. The mechanisms by which adequate 25(OH)D levels are associated with pain severity and improved function have not been completely elucidated. It may be that the pleiotropic role of biologically active 25(OH)D influences pain and pain processing via peripheral and central mechanisms. Alternatively, higher levels of pain may lead to reduced outdoor activity, which may contribute to both obesity and decreased vitamin D. Thus, investigating vitamin D status in obese and non-obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis warrants further study.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Clinical Journal of Pain
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. This study’s objective was to identify risk factors associated with reoperation for bleeding following liver transplantation (LTx). Methods. A retrospective study was performed at a single institution between 2001 and 2012. Operative reports were used to identify patients who underwent reoperation for bleeding within 2 weeks following LTx (operations for nonbleeding etiologies were excluded). Results. Reoperation for bleeding was observed in 101/928 (10.8%) of LTx patients. The following characteristics were associated with reoperation on multivariable analysis: recipient MELD score (OR 1.06/MELD unit, 95% CI 1.03, 1.09), number of platelets transfused (OR 0.73/platelet unit, 95% CI 0.58, 0.91), and aminocaproic acid utilization (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.27, 0.80). LTx patients who underwent reoperation for bleeding had a longer ICU stay (5 days ± 7 versus 2 days ± 3, P < 0.001 ) and hospitalization (18 days ± 9 versus 10 days ± 18, P < 0.001 ). The risk of death increased in patients who underwent reoperation for bleeding (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.26, 2.85). Conclusion. Reoperation for bleeding following LTx was associated with increased resource utilization and recipient mortality. A lower threshold for intraoperative platelet transfusion and antifibrinolytics, especially in patients with high lab-MELD score, may decrease the incidence of reoperation for bleeding following LTx.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · HPB Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Subsets of myeloid-derived regulatory cells (MDRCs), which are phenotypically similar to the myeloid-derived suppressor cells found in patients with cancer, have recently been appreciated as critical regulators of airway inflammation in mouse models of asthma. We test the hypothesis that subsets of airway MDRCs contribute differentially to the inflammatory milieu in human asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used bronchoalveolar lavage to identify and characterize human airway MDRCs from 10 healthy subjects, 9 patients with mild asthma, and 8 patients with COPD, none of whom were treated with inhaled or systemic corticosteroids. We defined subsets of airway MDRCs using flow cytometry, the molecular mediators they produce, and their abilities to regulate proliferation of polyclonally activated autologous T lymphocytes. We found substantial differences in the functional potential of MDRC subsets in healthy subjects, patients with asthma, and patients with COPD, with these differences regulated by the nitrosative and oxidative free radicals and cytokines they produced. Nitric oxide-producing MDRCs suppressed and superoxide-producing MDRCs enhanced proliferation of polyclonally activated autologous CD4 T cells. HLA-DR(+)CD11(+)CD11c(+)CD163(-) superoxide-producing MDRCs, which stimulated proliferation of autologous T cells, comprised a high fraction of MDRCs in the airways of patients with mild asthma or COPD but not those of healthy control subjects. CD11b(+)CD14(+)CD16(-)HLA-DR(-) nitric oxide-producing MDRCs, which suppressed T-cell proliferation, were present in high numbers in airways of patients with mild asthma but not patients with COPD or healthy control subjects. Subsets of airway MDRCs conclusively discriminate patients with mild asthma, patients with COPD, and healthy subjects from each other. The distinctive activities of these MDRCs in patients with asthma or COPD might provide novel targets for new therapeutics for these common disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The optimal locoregional treatment for non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of ≥3 cm in diameter is unclear. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the initial intervention most commonly performed, but it rarely eradicates HCC. The purpose of this study was to measure survival in HCC patients treated with adjuvant stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) following TACE.MethodsA retrospective study of patients with HCC of ≥3 cm was conducted. Outcomes in patients treated with TACE alone (n = 124) were compared with outcomes in those treated with TACE + SBRT (n = 37).ResultsThere were no significant baseline differences between the two groups. The pre-TACE mean number of tumours (P = 0.57), largest tumour size (P = 0.09) and total tumour diameter (P = 0.21) did not differ significantly between the groups. Necrosis of the HCC tumour, measured after the first TACE, did not differ between the groups (P = 0.69). Local recurrence was significantly decreased in the TACE + SBRT group (10.8%) in comparison with the TACE-only group (25.8%) (P = 0.04). After censoring for liver transplantation, overall survival was found to be significantly increased in the TACE + SBRT group compared with the TACE-only group (33 months and 20 months, respectively; P = 0.02).Conclusions This retrospective study suggests that in patients with HCC tumours of ≥3 cm, treatment with TACE + SBRT provides a survival advantage over treatment with only TACE. Confirmation of this observation requires that the concept be tested in a prospective, randomized clinical trial.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · HPB
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    ABSTRACT: Context-A large racial disparity exists in organ donation.Objective-To identify factors associated with becoming a registered organ donor among African Americans in Alabama.Methods-Concurrent mixed methods design guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior to analyze African Americans' decisions to become a registered organ donor by using both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (survey) methods.Results-The sample consisted of 22 registered organ donors and 65 nonregistered participants from 6 focus groups completed in urban (n = 3) and rural (n = 3) areas. Participants emphasized the importance of the autonomy to make one's own organ donation decision and have this decision honored posthumously. One novel barrier to becoming a registered organ donor was the perception that organs from African Americans were often unusable because of the high prevalence of chronic medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. Another novel theme discussed as an advantage to becoming a donor was the subsequent motivation to take responsibility for one's health. Family and friends were the most common groups of persons identified as approving and disapproving of the decision to become a donor. The most common facilitator to becoming a donor was information, whereas fear and the lack of information were the most common barriers. In contrast, religious beliefs, mistrust, and social justice themes were infrequently referenced as barriers to becoming a donor.Conclusion-Findings from this study may be useful for prioritizing organ donation community-based educational interventions in campaigns to increase donor registration.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Progress in transplantation (Aliso Viejo, Calif.)
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Repeat transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a common intervention performed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to identify predictors of the need for repeat TACE. Methods: Between 2008 and 2012, data on patient and tumour variables were collected for 262 patients treated with a first TACE procedure for HCC. The decision to perform repeat TACE procedures was made at the completion of the first TACE or after follow-up imaging demonstrated the subtotal treatment of HCC tumours. Results: Repeat TACE was performed in 67 of 262 (25.6%) patients. Necrosis of HCC, measured after the first TACE, was lower in patients who subsequently received repeat TACE (P = 0.042). On multivariable analysis, total tumour diameter of >5 cm [odds ratio (OR) 2.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-5.25; P = 0.002] and increasing age (OR 1.04/year, 95% CI 1.00-1.07; P = 0.030) were predictive of the need for repeat TACE. Measures of liver function and TACE approach (selective versus non-selective) were not predictive of repeat TACE. Median survival did not differ significantly between patients who did (median survival: 21.1 months) and did not (median survival: 26.1 months) receive a repeat TACE procedure (P = 0.574). Conclusions: The requirement for repeat TACE is associated with older age, increased HCC tumour burden and subtotal TACE-induced HCC necrosis. Importantly, repeat TACE was not associated with reduced survival.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · HPB

Publication Stats

6k Citations
836.63 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996-2015
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • • Department of Biostatistics
      • • Division of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology
      • • School of Public Health
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Division of Nephrology
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 2013-2014
    • University of Florida
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 2006
    • Texas A&M University
      • Department of Veterinary Pathobiology
      College Station, Texas, United States
  • 2005
    • Alabama Department of Health
      Montgomery, Alabama, United States
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Verona
      Verona, Veneto, Italy
    • University of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2003
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Division of Rheumatology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2002
    • Brandeis University
      • Heller School for Social Policy and Management
      Волтам, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2000
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      Рочестер, Minnesota, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Alabama
      • Department of Information Systems, Statistics and Management Science
      Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States