Karen Onel

Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (60)137.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Noninvasive estimation of the degree of inflammation seen on kidney biopsy with lupus nephritis (LN) remains difficult. The objective of this study was to develop a Renal Activity Index for Lupus (RAIL) that, based solely on laboratory measures, accurately reflects histological LN activity. Methods: We assayed traditional LN laboratory tests and 16 urine biomarkers (UBMs) in children (n=47) at the time of kidney biopsy. Histological LN activity was measured by the NIH Activity Index (NIH-AI) and the Tubulointerstitial Activity Index (TIAI). High LN-activity status (vs. moderate/low) was defined as NIH-AI scores > 10 (vs. ≤ 10) or TIAI scores >5 (vs. ≤ 5). RAIL algorithms that predicted LN-activityNIH-AI and LN-activityTIAI status were derived by stepwise multivariate logistical regression, considering traditional biomarkers and UBMs as candidate components. The accuracy of the RAIL for discriminating by LN-activity status was determined. Results: The differential excretion of six UBMs (NGAL, MCP-1, ceruloplasmin, adiponectin, hemopexin, KIM-1) standardized by urine creatinine was considered in the RAIL. These UBMs predicted LN-activityNIH-AI status with >92% accuracy and LN-activityTIAI status with >80% accuracy. RAIL accuracy was minimally influenced by concomitant LN damage. Accuracies between 71 and 85% were achieved without standardization of the UBMs. The strength of these UBMs to reflect LN-activity status was confirmed by principal component and linear discriminant analyses. Conclusion: The RAIL is a robust and highly accurate noninvasive measure of LN-activity. The measurement properties of the RAIL, which reflect the degree of inflammatory changes as seen on kidney biopsy, will require independent validation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To validate clinical indices of lupus nephritis (LN) activity and damage when used in children against the criterion standard of kidney biopsy findings. In 83 children requiring kidney biopsy the SLE Disease Activity Index Renal Domain (SLEDAI-R); British Isles Lupus Assessment Group index Renal Domain (BILAG-R), Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Renal Activity (SLICC-RAS) and Damage Index Renal Domain (SDI-R) were measured. Fixed effect and logistic models were done to predict International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) class; low/moderate vs. high LN-activity [NIH Activity Index (NIH-AI) score: ≤ 10 vs. > 10; Tubulointerstitial Activity Index (TIAI) score: ≤ 5 vs. > 5) or the absence vs. presence of LN chronicity [NIH Chronicity Index (NIH-CI) score: 0 vs. ≥ 1]. There were 10, 50 and 23 patients with class I/II, III/IV and V, respectively. Scores of the clinical indices did not differentiate among patients by ISN/RPS class. The SLEDAI-R and SLICC-RAS but not the BILAG-R differed with LN-activity status defined by NIH-AI scores, while only the SLEDAI-R scores differed between LN-activity status based on TIAI scores. The sensitivity and specificity of the SDI-R to capture LN chronicity was 23.5% and 91.7%, respectively. Despite designed to measure LN-activity, SLICC-RAS and SLEDAI-R scores significantly differed with LN chronicity status. Current clinical indices of LN fail to discriminate ISN/RPS Class in children. Despite its shortcomings, the SLEDAI-R appears to best for measuring LN activity in a clinical setting. The SDI-R is a poor correlate of LN chronicity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor tocilizumab for the treatment of patients with polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis ( pcJIA). Methods This three-part, randomised, placebocontrolled, double-blind withdrawal study (NCT00988221) included patients who had active pcJIA for ≥6 months and inadequate responses to methotrexate. During part 1, patients received open-label tocilizumab every 4 weeks (8 or 10 mg/kg for body weight (BW) <30 kg; 8 mg/kg for BW ≥30 kg). At week 16, patients with ≥JIA-American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 30 improvement entered the 24- week, double-blind part 2 after randomisation 1:1 to placebo or tocilizumab (stratified by methotrexate and steroid background therapy) for evaluation of the primary end point: JIA flare, compared with week 16. Patients flaring or completing part 2 received open-label tocilizumab. Results In part 1, 188 patients received tocilizumab (<30 kg: 10 mg/kg (n=35) or 8 mg/kg (n=34); ≥30 kg: n=119). In part 2, 163 patients received tocilizumab (n=82) or placebo (n=81). JIA flare occurred in 48.1% of patients on placebo versus 25.6% continuing tocilizumab (difference in means adjusted for stratification: -0.21; 95% CI -0.35 to -0.08; p=0.0024). At the end of part 2, 64.6% and 45.1% of patients receiving tocilizumab had JIA-ACR70 and JIAACR90 responses, respectively. Rates/100 patient-years (PY) of adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) were 480 and 12.5, respectively; infections were the most common SAE (4.9/100 PY). Conclusions Tocilizumab treatment results in significant improvement, maintained over time, of pcJIA signs and symptoms and has a safety profile consistent with that for adults with rheumatoid arthritis.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study evaluated the effects of obesity on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (jSLE). Methods: Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95 th percentile according to the Sex-specific Center for Disease Control BMI-For-Age Charts and determined in a multicenter cohort of jSLE patients. In this secondary analysis, the domain and summary scores of the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) Inventory and the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) of obese jSLE patients were compared to those of non-obese jSLE patients as well as historical obese and non-obese healthy controls. Mixed-effects modeling was performed to evaluate the relationship between obesity and HRQOL measures. Results: Among the 202 jSLE patients, 25% (n = 51) were obese. Obesity had a significant negative impact on HRQOL in jSLE, even after adjusting for differences in current corticosteroid use, disease activity, disease damage, gender and race between groups. Obese jSLE patients had lower physical functioning compared to non-obese jSLE patients, and to non-obese and obese healthy controls. Compared to their non-obese counterparts, obese jSLE patients also had worse school functioning, more pain, worse social functioning and emotional functioning. Parents of obese jSLE patients worry more. The CHQ scores for obese jSLE patients were also worse compared to non-obese jSLE patients in several other domains. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the detrimental effects of obesity on patient-reported outcomes in jSLE. This supports the importance of weight management for the therapeutic plan of jSLE.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Lupus
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Few data are available regarding the rates of serious adverse events (SAEs) and important medical events (IMEs) outside of product-based registries and clinical trials for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The Enhanced Drug Safety Surveillance Project (EDSSP) was developed to pilot a novel system to collect SAEs/IMEs in children with JIA. This analysis reports the results from this 4-year (2008-2012) EDSSP. Methods: Participating physicians were surveyed monthly to ascertain whether their JIA patients experienced an SAE or IME. Sites were surveyed every 6 months to determine the number of unique JIA patients seen at each site during that 6-month period. Reporting rates were calculated per 100 person-years and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated based on a Poisson distribution. Results: Thirty-seven Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance sites with 115 physicians participated. The mean response rate to the monthly surveys was 65%. There were 147 total SAEs and 145 total IMEs. The largest proportion of SAEs and IMEs occurred in children with polyarticular JIA (39% and 37%, respectively). The majority of SAEs and IMEs were reported for patients receiving therapy with biologic agents (76% and 69%, respectively). The total event rate for SAEs and IMEs combined was 1.07 events per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.95-1.19). The rates for SAEs and IMEs were 0.54 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.45-0.63) and 0.53 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.49-0.62), respectively. Conclusion: The EDSSP provided a simple tool for SAE/IME reporting within an established research network and resulted in a similar range of reported events as captured by a traditional product-based registry.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess long-term safety and developmental data on juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients treated in routine clinical practice with celecoxib or nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs). Children aged ≥2 to <18 years with rheumatoid-factor–positive or –negative polyarthritis, persistent or extended oligoarthritis, or systemic arthritis were enrolled into this prospective, observational, multicenter standard-of-care registry. Eligible patients were newly or recently prescribed (≤6 months) an nsNSAID or celecoxib. Enrolled patients were followed to the end of the study, whether they remained on the original NSAID, switched, or discontinued therapy altogether. All adverse events (AEs) regardless of severity were captured in the database. A total of 274 patients (nsNSAID, n = 219; celecoxib, n = 55) were observed for 410 patient-years of observation. Naproxen, meloxicam, and nabumetone were the most frequently used nsNSAIDs. At baseline, the celecoxib group was older, had a numerically longer median time since diagnosis, and a numerically higher proportion of patients with a history of gastrointestinal-related NSAID intolerance. AEs reported were those frequently observed with NSAID treatment and were similar across groups (nsNSAIDs: 52.0%; celecoxib: 52.9%). Twelve unique patients experienced a total of 18 serious AEs; the most frequent were infections, and none was attributed to NSAID use. The safety profile of celecoxib and nsNSAIDs appears similar overall. The results from this registry, ongoing pharmacovigilance, and the phase 3 trial that led to the approval of celecoxib for children with JIA provide evidence that the benefit-risk for celecoxib treatment in JIA remains positive. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00688545.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Pediatric Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The purpose of our study is to assess practices of North American pediatric rheumatologists regarding monitoring, prevention, and treatment of low bone mineral density (BMD) in children on long-term glucocorticoid treatment. Long-term glucocorticoid therapy is associated with accelerated bone loss. Children with JIA and lupus have low baseline BMD and incident vertebral fractures commonly occur in these groups of patients even after a relatively short period of time being on systemic glucocorticoids. There are no established guidelines for identification, prevention, and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced bone loss in children. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted with 199 physicians who were listed in the ACR database as practicing pediatric rheumatology in North America. Results: 86 physicians (43%) responded; 87% were board-certified in pediatric rheumatology. 95% used dual energy X-ray absorptiometry as their primary modality for assessing BMD. 79% "rarely" or "never" obtained a baseline BMD measurement prior to initiation of glucocorticoid therapy. 42% of respondents followed BMD annually. 93% "frequently" or "always" prescribed calcium for patients on long-term corticosteroid therapy; 81% "frequently" or "always" prescribed vitamin D. In patients diagnosed with osteoporosis, 35%-50 % of the practitioners "sometimes", "frequently" or "always" prescribed bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates are prescribed at similar rates for male and female patients, and slightly more frequently for pubertal than for pre-pubertal patients. 96% of respondents "rarely" or "never" prescribed calcitonin for patients on long-term glucocorticoid therapy; 92% "rarely" or "never" prescribe this medication for patients with known osteopenia or osteoporosis. Conclusions: Utilization of DXA in children on long-term corticosteroid therapy varies greatly among North American pediatric rheumatologists. Most respondents do not screen for low BMD on a regular basis despite acknowledging the risks of bone loss in this population. Broad consensus appears to be present among practitioners favoring the prescription of calcium and vitamin D for patients receiving long-term corticosteroid therapy. Relatively few respondents consistently recommend bisphosphonate therapy, even for patients with known low bone density; calcitonin is rarely used. These data underscore the need for studies to acquire specific data on bone loss, and its prevention and treatment in young patients on long-term glucocorticoid therapy.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Pediatric Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: There is no standardized approach to the initial treatment of polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) among pediatric rheumatologists. Understanding the comparative effectiveness of the diverse therapeutic options available will result in better health outcomes for polyarticular JIA. The Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) developed consensus treatment plans (CTPs) for use in clinical practice to facilitate such studies. Methods: A case-based survey was administered to CARRA members to identify the common treatment approaches for new-onset polyarticular JIA. Two face-to-face consensus conferences employed modified nominal group technique to identify treatment strategies, operational case definition, end points, and data elements to be collected. A core workgroup reviewed the relevant literature, refined plans, and developed medication dosing and monitoring recommendations. Results: The initial case-based survey identified significant variability among treatment approaches for new-onset polyarticular JIA. We developed 3 CTPs based on treatment strategies for the first 12 months of therapy, as well as case definitions and clinical and laboratory monitoring schedules. The CTPs include a step-up plan (nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug [DMARD] followed by a biologic DMARD), an early combination plan (nonbiologic and biologic DMARD combined within a month of treatment initiation), and a biologic only plan. This approach was approved by 96% of the CARRA JIA Research Committee members attending the 2013 CARRA face-to-face meeting. Conclusion: Three standardized CTPs were developed for new-onset polyarticular JIA. Coupled with data collection at defined intervals, use of these CTPs will enable the study of their comparative effectiveness in an observational setting to optimize initial management of polyarticular JIA.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose:Treatment with anti-TNF therapies (anti-TNF) for polyarticular forms (extended oligo, Poly RF +/−) of JIA (PF-JIA) results in >50% demonstrating clinically inactive disease (CID). The aims of this study were to determine the frequency, timing and predictors of flare upon withdrawal of anti-TNF in PF-JIA in CID.Methods:In 16 centers 137 children with PF-JIA in CID on anti-TNF were enrolled and followed for ≥14 mos. If CID was maintained for the first 6 study mos, then anti-TNF was stopped. The primary outcome variable was a validated definition of disease flare within 8 months after stopping anti-TNF. Background meds were stable. Blood for S100, DEK, DNA and RNA was drawn for current and future biomarker and genetic studies.Results:The study population included 18 (13%) extended oligarticular, 17 (12%) RF+ Poly and 102 (74%) RF- Poly JIA patients. At enrollment, age (mean/median/range) was 11.3/11.6/3.4–20.1 yrs; disease duration was 5.0/4.1/0.6–18.6 years; 103 (75%) were females and 64 (47%) were ANA+. Duration of CID at baseline was 1.2/0.5/1 day–12.1 yrs. Anti-TNF was etanercept in 106 (77%), 25 (18%) adalimumab and 6 (5%) infliximab. 40% were on MTX at baseline (mean/median dose 0.4/0.4 mg/kg/week). Other meds: 1 leflunomide, 2 hydroxychloroquine, and 1 prednisolone.31 (23%) subjects were discontinued from the study in the first 6 mos: 23 (17%) due to loss of CID, 5 (4%) med noncompliance, 2 (1%) moved/LTF, 1 (1%) ILAR subtype changed (oligo to psoriatic). For the extended oligo, Poly RF− and Poly RF+ categories 94%, 82% and 60%, respectively, maintained CID for the first 6 months (c2 6.7, p 0.03). ANA status, MTX use, and type of anti-TNF were not associated with the ability to maintain CID (c2 p values 0.48, 0.14, and 0.75, respectively).106 (77%) subjects maintained CID for the first 6 months and stopped anti-TNF as per protocol. 67/106 (63%) maintained CID for ≥8 mos off anti-TNF while 39 (37%) flared. Time without flaring after stopping anti-TNF therapy was duration from the month 6 visit to the last study visit (mean/median/range for duration of followup was 249/250/126–322 days). The mean/median/range for time to flare was 108/105/7–271 days. Time to flare (days) for etanercept was 105/105/7–271, adalimumab 119/120/28–238 and infliximab 28/28/28. Flare was seen in 47% (8/17) extended oligo, 37% (30/80) poly RF– and 11% (1/9) poly RF+ ((c2 p-value 0.19). In those on background MTX, 33% (13/40) flared at a mean of 90 days, while those not on background MTX, 39% (26/66) flared at a mean of 113 days ((c2 p-value 0.48). Using univariate analysis of variance, only weak correlations of MTX dose, disease duration, and CID duration with flare/no flare were seen (Spearman correlations −0.03, −0.17, −0.19, respectively).Conclusion:In this prospective multicenter study, 77% of the PF-JIA patients were able to maintain CID for the first 6 months on anti-TNF. Discontinuation of anti-TNF in PR-JIA (who have demonstrated on average 1.8 years of CID) resulted in a flare rate of 37% within 8 mos. Clinical parameters had only minimal predictive ability. Ongoing work includes biomarker identification and continued follow-up of the cohort.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Arthritis and Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose:Treatment with anti-TNF therapies for polyarticular forms (extended oligoarthritis, rheumatoid factor [RF] +/− polyarthritis) of JIA (PF-JIA) results in up to 50% of patients (pts) demonstrating clinically inactive disease (CID). Serum S100A12 protein levels have been demonstrated to predict failure to maintain CID after withdrawal of methotrexate (MTX). This study determined the pattern of baseline serum S100A12 levels during CID on anti-TNF therapy.Methods:In 16 centers, 137 pts with PF-JIA in CID on anti-TNF therapy were enrolled. During the first 6 study months patients were maintained on anti-TNF therapy and monitored. If CID was maintained for first 6 study months, then anti-TNF therapy was stopped. Pts were followed for up to 14 mos total or until loss of CID on anti-TNF therapy or until flare off anti-TNF therapy, whichever came first. Background medications were stable throughout the study. Blood for serum S100A12 measurement was drawn at study enrollment. S100A12 measurements were obtained via a validated ELISA. The secondary outcome of this part of the analysis was failure to maintain CID during the first 6 study months.Results:7 pts were discontinued from the study for reasons other than inability to maintain CID and 130 patients were available for analysis. 24 pts failed to maintain CID during the first 6 study months. Demographic and clinical details are reported elsewhere during this conference. Baseline S100A12 levels did not differ significantly according to sex (female 96 +/− 229 ng/ml, male 66 +/− 144 ng/ml), JIA subtype (extended oligo 91 +/− 199 ng/ml, poly RF- 93 +/− 219 ng/ml, poly RF+ 114 +/− 157 ng/ml) presence of ANA (positive 83 +/− 174 ng/ml, negative 96 +/− 240 ng/ml), MTX co-therapy (yes 84 +/− 259 ng/ml, no 95 +/− 167 ng/ml) or type of anti-TNF therapy (adalimumab 114 +/− 140 ng/ml, etanercept 90 +/− 214 ng/ml, infliximab 120 +/− 330 ng/ml) (values given as median +/− standard deviation) and did not correlate with duration of previous duration of inactive disease (r = −0,06). Globally, S100A12 did not differ significantly according to failure to maintain CID (failure to maintain CID 100 +/− 188 ng/ml, maintaining CID 93 +/− 216 ng/ml). Based on a predefined normal level of S100A12 of <120 ng/ml, 87 (66%) of patients demonstrated normal S100A12 levels and 43 (33%) of patients demonstrated elevated S100A12 levels. However, receiveroperating curve analysis computing baseline S100A12 against failure to maintain CID demonstrated an areaunder-the-curve of 0,47 (95% confidence interval 0.33–0.62).Conclusion:In this prospective multicenter study, baseline S100A12 levels in pts with PF-JIA were elevated in a substantial proportion of pts but did not differ among groups according to multiple parameters. Serum S100A12 did not predict failure to maintain CID.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Arthritis and Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose:Tocilizumab (TCZ) treatment has been associated with reduced neutrophil counts in adults with rheumatoid arthritis and in children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The aims of this study were to assess changes in neutrophil counts, determine whether neutropenia was associated with increased risk for infection, and investigate variables associated with the development of neutropenia in patients with polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pcJIA) receiving TCZ for up to 2 years in the CHERISH trial.Methods:One hundred eighty-eight patients (2–17 years) with active pcJIA and inadequate response to methotrexate received open-label (OL) TCZ according to body weight (BW) (BW ≥30 kg, TCZ 8 mg/kg; BW <30 kg, randomly assigned 1:1 to TCZ 8 or 10 mg/kg) every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. Patients who achieved ≥JIA ACR30 response at 16 weeks entered a 24-week, randomized, double-blind withdrawal period and were assigned 1:1 to placebo or continued TCZ. Patients who experienced JIA ACR flare or who completed the withdrawal period entered an OL extension through week 104. Blood cell counts were monitored every 4 weeks. Worst Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) neutrophil grade and lowest observed neutrophil count (109/L) were identified for each patient. Rates of infection and serious infection (per 100 patient-years [PY]) in periods ±30 days around grade 1/2 and around grade 3/4 neutrophil counts were compared with corresponding rates in periods with normal neutrophil counts. Univariate linear regression analysis was used in patients enrolled in part 3 of the study to investigate the association between patient baseline characteristics and lowest observed neutrophil count from baseline to week 104.Results:At baseline, all patients had neutrophil counts within or above the normal range. Median neutrophil count decreased during the first 16 weeks of treatment and stabilized for the remainder of the study. Throughout the 2-year study, 118 patients (62.8%) had normal neutrophil counts, whereas CTC grades 1, 2, 3, and 4 neutrophil counts were reported in 15 (8.0%), 44 (23.4%), 11 (5.9%), and 0 (0.0%) patients, respectively. Infections and serious infections occurred at rates of 151.4/100 PY and 5.2/100 PY, respectively. All serious infection events (n = 16) occurred during periods of normal neutrophil count. Rates of infection during periods of normal, grade 1/2, and grade 3 neutrophil count were 147.8/100 PY (95% CI, 133.9–162.7), 176.6/100 PY (95% CI, 128.8–236.3), and 340/100 PY (95% CI, 136.7–700.5), respectively, with largely overlapping confidence intervals. Low neutrophil count was not associated with any baseline covariates investigated.Conclusion:In the CHERISH trial, there was no evidence of increased rates of serious infection associated with low neutrophil count. The prevalence of neutropenia in the pcJIA population was lower than in other disease groups (eg, systemic JIA) treated with TCZ.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Arthritis and Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose:In the phase 3 TENDER trial of tocilizumab (TCZ) in patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA), decreases in neutrophil count were commonly observed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether neutropenia was associated with increased risk for infection and to investigate variables associated with the development of neutropenia in patients treated with TCZ for up to 2 years in TENDER.Methods:One hundred twelve children with active, persistent sJIA were randomly assigned 2:1 to receive TCZ based on body weight (12 mg/kg <30 kg or 8 mg/kg ≥30 kg) or placebo intravenously every 2 weeks for 12 weeks and continued in an ongoing, TCZ openlabel extension (). Worst Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) neutropenia grade (grade 1, ≥1.5 and <2.0 × 109/L; grade 2, ≥;1.0 and <1.5 × 109/L; grade 3, ≥0.5 and <1.0 × 109/L; grade 4, <0.5 × 109/L) and lowest observed neutrophil count (109/L) were identified for each patient. Univariate linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the association of patient characteristics with lowest observed neutrophil count. Rates of infection and serious infection (per 100 patient-years [PY]) in periods ±15 days around grade 1–2 neutropenia (22.9 PY) and around grade 3–4 neutropenia (5.5 PY) were compared with corresponding rates in periods with normal neutrophil count (173.6 PY).Results:Up to week 104, 64 of 112 patients (57.1%) had at least 1 episode of grade 1–4 neutropenia; worst grade: 1 (n = 2), 2 (n = 34), 3 (n = 26), and 4 (n = 2). Rates of infection and serious infection during periods of normal neutrophil counts (276.5/100 PY [95% CI: 252.3, 302.3] and 11.5/100 PY [95% CI: 7.0, 17.8], respectively) were comparable with those observed ±15 days around grade 1–2 neutropenia (226.7/100 PY [95% CI: 169.3, 297.3]; 8.7/100 PY [95% CI: 1.1, 31.5]) and grade 3–4 neutropenia (292.5/100 PY [95% CI: 167.2, 475.0]; 0/100 PY), with no trend toward increased risk with higher grade neutropenia. Methotrexate use (Yes/No) was significantly associated with lowest observed neutrophil count (difference: −0.575 [95% CI: −1.02, −0.13], p = 0.012), with 62% of 77 patients receiving methotrexate versus 46% of 35 patients not receiving methotrexate having grade 1–4 neutropenia. Younger age was borderline associated with lowest observed neutrophil count (β = 0.04661; p = 0.047). Concurrent use of glucocorticoids and TCZ exposure were not associated with lowest observed neutrophil count (p > 0.3).Conclusion:No trend for association between neutropenia and increased risk for infection was observed in the TENDER trial. Background methotrexate, and somewhat younger age, was associated with increased risk for neutropenia, whereas TCZ exposure and concurrent glucocorticoid use were not.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Arthritis and Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose:Anti-TNF therapy for polyarticular forms (extended oligo-, rheumatoid factor +/− polyarthritis) of JIA (PF-JIA) results in up to 50% of patients (pts) demonstrating clinically inactive disease (CID). This study determined the pattern of serum S100A12 levels at the time of withdrawal of anti-TNF therapy.Methods:In 16 centers, 137 pts with PF-JIA in CID on anti-TNF therapy were enrolled and followed for at least 14 months (mos). During the first 6 study mos pts were maintained on anti-TNF therapy and if CID was maintained, then anti-TNF therapy was stopped. Background medications were stable. S100A12 levels were obtained at the time of anti-TNF withdrawal. The primary outcome was disease “flare” defined by worsening of ≥30% in ≥ 3 of the 6 core set variables, with no more than 1 improving by ≥30%. Parameters had to increase by at least the following amounts: MD and parent globals by 2 units, active and limited joints by 2, CHAQ by 0.125 and ESR from normal to abnormal.Results:24 pts failed to maintain CID in the first 6 study mos and 7 pts were discontinued from the study for other reasons. 106 pts were available for this analysis of whom 39 (37%) experienced flare. The S100A12 levels at time of anti-TNF withdrawal did not differ significantly in regards to JIA type, presence of ANA, MTX co-therapy, or type of anti-TNF therapy and did not correlate with previous duration of CID. Globally, S100A12 at the time of withdrawal did not differ significantly according to disease flare (flare 73 +/− 117 ng/ml, no flare 80 +/− 220 ng/ml) (median ++/− standard deviation). Receiver-operating curve (ROC) analysis computing S100A12 at time of anti-TNF withdrawal against flare for the entire study period demonstrated an area-under-the-curve (AUC) of 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39–0.62, for prediction of flare within 60 days AUC 0.66, 95% CI 0.56–0.75, for prediction of flare within 90 days AUC 0.64, 95% CI 0.54–0.74 and for prediction of flare within 120 days AUC 0.54, 95% CI 0.44–0.64. The S100A12 level at time of withdrawal correlated inversely with the time to flare (Spearman rank correlation = −0.34, p = 0.05). Flares occurred earlier in pts with predefined high (>120 ng/ml) vs. low (≤120 ng/ml). S100A12 levels at time of withdrawal among pts who flared (median time to flare 36 vs. 114 days, p = 0.02). The overall flare rate in patients with high vs. low S100A12 levels at time of withdrawal was 35% vs. 38%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis of disease flare in pts with high vs. low S100A12 levels at time of withdrawal also demonstrated a trend towards earlier disease flare in pts with high S100A12 levels (log rank test significance 0.07).Conclusion:In this prospective study, a substantial proportion of pts with PF-JIA experienced disease flare after anti-TNF withdrawal. Serum S100A12 levels at time of anti-TNF withdrawal did not differ between pts subsequently experiencing disease flare and those not experiencing flare throughout the entire study period. However, pts with high S100A12 levels (>120 ng/ml) experienced earlier disease flare.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Arthritis and Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose:The nuclear oncoprotein DEK is a biochemically distinct protein, modulating heterochromatin integrity, chemoattractant of neutrophils and T-cells and vital for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are important for resolution of inflammation suggesting that DEK contributes to the development of autoimmune diseases. High levels of DEK autoantibodies have been found in several autoimmune diseases including juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) but their role in disease pathogenesis is not clear. Since DEK and DEK autoantibodies can contribute to the development of immune complexes and NET formation we suggest that DEK antibody levels can predict flare with the discontinuation of anti-TNF therapy.Methods:In16 pediatric rheumatology centers, sera samples were collected from 137 children with polyarticular JIA with clinically inactive disease (CID) on anti-TNF therapy. The therapy was stopped and disease activity was monitored for at least 8 months or until disease flare. DEK antibody levels were measured in sera collected at time of enrollment and 6 months (when anti-TNF therapy was stopped) by ELISA. DEK antibody levels relative to healthy controls were calculated by area under the curve (AUC), expressed as unit-free ratios.Results:103 females and 34 males patients were enrolled. Mean age 11.3 years and disease duration 5.0 years. JIA included: 13% extended oligoarthritis, 74% polyarthritis rheumatoid factor (RF) negative and 12 % polyarthritis RF positive and 46% positive ANA. 77% were taking etanercept, 18% adalimumab, 5% infliximab and 40% methotrexate. 31 patients (23%) discontinued the study prior stopping the therapy for various reasons, including loss of CID. Of 106 subjects who stopped the therapy, 39 (37%) flared within 8 months (mean of 104.8 days). 67 subjects (63%) had no flares within 8 months after stopping the therapy. 71 out of 106 patients samples were analyzed thus far for DEK antibody levels. DEK antibody level ratios compared to healthy controls was −0.36 (some patients had lower antibody levels than did healthy controls) to 1.41, median ratio of 0.11 (Q1–Q3 of 0.09–0.24) and 0.13 (SD, 0.3). High levels of DEK antibodies, mean and SD of 0.209 ± 0.36 were detected in the 21 patients that flared within 8 months compared to lower levels of DEK antibodies (0.09 ± 0.27) in 50 patients with CID for at least 8 months (ANOVA P= 0.1832). Negative correlation was observed between the days to flare and DEK antibody levels (spearman rho = −0.31, P = 0.07), suggesting that when therapy stopped, patients with higher levels of DEK antibodies will flare sooner with estimated odds ratio of 3.3 (95% CI, 0.61, 18.0), suggesting that each unit increase in DEK antibodies is associated (P = 0.17) with more than a 2-fold increased risk of flare within 8 months.Conclusion:In children with JIA extended oligoarthritis and polyarthritis on anti-TNF therapy that maintain CID for at least 6 months while on therapy, high DEK antibody levels may be correlated with flare within the first 8 months after stopping the therapy. This study suggests that DEK antibody levels can predict the outcome of discontinuation of anti-TNF therapy, although more patient samples need to be analyzed from this study and future studies.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Arthritis and Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Purpose:Children with JIA experience more pain and disordered sleep than healthy children. JIA and poor sleep are associated with particular cytokine abnormalities, and the correlation between the two and how they relate to a patient's pain perception have not been studied. Elevation in TNF-a, IL-6, IL-17, and IFN-g have been found in the serum of children with JIA during active disease. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines are also increased during sleep loss. Indeed, blocking TNF-a has been shown in adults with RA to improve sleep the night after the first dose. We hypothesize that dysfunctional sleep enhances pain in our patients and may be associated with abnormal cytokine profiles. In this pilot study, we hope to identify a subgroup of children with JIA that could benefit from intervention in improving sleep patterns.Methods:We plan to enroll 60 patients with JIA. Sleep is assessed by the sleep self-report (SSR), the children's sleep habits questionnaire (CSHQ), and actigraphy. Good concordance in measurements of sleep duration has been established between PSG and actigraphy. Patients wear an actigraphy watch and keep a daily sleep and pain diary for 14 days. Disease activity is assessed using ESR, sum of active joints, patient/parent and physician global assessment of disease activity. Serum cytokine testing will be performed by flow cytometry.Results:31 patients are enrolled. We identified 7 children with disordered sleep using CSHQ/ SSR. These patients report having pain on most days, and they trend toward having elevated disease activity (increased physician and patient global assessments as well as number of active joints, ESR was non-contributory). To date, 9 of the 31 patients underwent actigraphy. Preliminary data does not indicate an association between disease activity and objective sleep dysfunction. There is not yet enough data to comment on the association of pain and disordered sleep in the absence of disease activity. Serum from 22 patients has been collected for cytokine studies.Conclusion:There is a trend toward an association of perceived poor sleep (as reported subjectively by SSR/CSHQ) with increased pain and disease activity in our patient population. Increased disease activity does not appear to be objectively related to disordered sleep using actigraphy, however. So far, actigraphy has been conducted on patients without subjective complaints of sleep dysfunction. We plan to collect more objective data (via actigraphy) on patients with subjective sleep complaints (with and without active disease) to better characterize the relationship of pain and sleep. When this has been accomplished, we plan to investigate cytokine profiles in these groups.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Arthritis and Rheumatology
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    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Pediatric Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the long-term safety and efficacy of rilonacept, an anti-interleukin-1 fusion protein, in patients with active systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: In patients with systemic JIA, ages 4-20 years, the efficacy of rilonacept was evaluated using 30%, 50%, and 70% levels of improvement according to the adapted American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Pediatric 30, 50, and 70 response criteria, respectively. Efficacy and safety were evaluated during 23 months of open-label treatment (3 phases) after a 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase. Following double-blind treatment with 2.2 mg/kg or 4.4 mg/kg of rilonacept, patients were eligible to receive open-label treatment at their prior dose, with adjustments. Reductions in the median daily dose of oral prednisone and improvements in laboratory parameters of disease activity (i.e., decreased levels of D-dimer and myeloid-related proteins [MRPs]) were also evaluated. Results: Twenty-four patients entered the double-blind study and 23 entered the open-label period. Patients were predominantly white and female, and had a median age of 14.0 years at baseline. No significant differences in efficacy were observed between the rilonacept- and placebo-treated patients during the double-blind phase, but fever and rash completely resolved by month 3 in all patients during the open-label treatment period and did not recur. Adapted ACR Pediatric 30, 50, and 70 response rates at 3 months from the start of the study were 78.3%, 60.9%, and 34.8%, respectively; these responses were generally maintained over the study duration. Levels of D-dimer and MRP-8/MRP-14 dramatically improved during the study, and in 22 of 23 patients, the prednisone dose was decreased or prednisone therapy was discontinued. No serious treatment-related adverse events were observed. Conclusion: Sustained improvements in clinical and laboratory measures of the articular and systemic manifestations of systemic JIA were achieved in >50% of rilonacept-treated patients over 2 years. Treatment with rilonacept had a substantial steroid-sparing effect and was generally well-tolerated.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Women with SLE have higher rates of persistent human papilloma virus (HPV) infections and precancerous lesions than healthy women. HPV vaccine is safe and effective in healthy females aged 9--26 years. There are limited data on the safety and immunogenicity of HPV vaccine in females with SLE, and none in adolescents with SLE. Our study evaluates the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant quadrivalent HPV vaccine, Gardasil, in adolescents and young women with SLE. This is a prospective, open-label study. Exclusion criteria included disease exacerbation within past 30 days; rituximab or cyclophosphamide within 6 months; pregnancy. Vaccine was administered at months 0, 2, and 6. Physical examination, SLEDAI scores and laboratory studies were performed at months 0, 2, 4, 6 and 7. Each patient's SLEDAI scores and laboratory profile in the year prior to vaccine administration were used as controls for that patient. Primary outcome measures were change in SLEDAI and mean HPV antibody titers. 27 patients, 12 to 26 years, were enrolled; 20 completed the study. Nine had mild/moderate lupus flares. Mean SLEDAI scores decreased from 6.14 pre-vaccination to 4.49 post-vaccination (p = 0.01). Of 12 patients with lupus nephritis, two experienced worsening renal function during/after the study and progressed to renal failure within 18 months of the study. Both had Class IV lupus nephritis with high chronicity scores (>= 8) on renal biopsies performed within one year prior to study entry. Seropositivity post-vaccine was >94% for HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine seems generally safe and well tolerated in this series of adolescents and young women with SLE, with no increase in mean SLEDAI scores. Progression to renal failure in two patients was most likely secondary to pre-existing severe renal chronicity and not secondary to HPV vaccination. Immunogenicity to the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was excellent, with the seropositivity rate >94% in all four HPV types.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Pediatric Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: Background Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA), characterised by chronic arthritis associated with prominent systemic features, has a significant impact on the growing skeleton, resulting in impaired linear growth and systemic osteoporosis. A phase 3 trial (TENDER) demonstrated that the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor inhibitor tocilizumab (TCZ) is effective in the treatment of patients with sJIA. Long-term growth responses for children in the TENDER trial (up to week 104) are presented. Methods The TENDER trial enrolled 112 patients (ages 2-17 years) with active, refractory sJIA (≥6-month duration with inadequate response to previous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and oral corticosteroids). After a 12-week, randomised, placebo-controlled phase, patients received open-label TCZ in the long-term extension. Height parameters, laboratory data and clinical assessments of disease activity were compared at baseline and through year 2 of the study in patients who never received growth hormone. Results At enrolment in the TENDER trial, the height measurements of study patients revealed profound growth failure (mean WHO height standard deviation score [SDS] of –2.0; n = 103). During treatment, the majority of patients had greater than normal height velocities, with 84% of female patients and 72% of male patients demonstrating catch-up growth (Figure). The height SDS increased significantly from baseline to year 2 of the study, with a mean improvement of 0.56 (p < 0.0001, paired t-test). Additional growth analysis was performed for patients with Tanner stage <4 at baseline. Although the mean corticosteroid dose was higher in the first year (0.14 mg/kg/day compared with 0.05 mg/kg/day in the second year), mean height velocities in the first and second years of the study were comparable at 6.7 and 7.1 cm/y, respectively. During TCZ treatment, a significant increase in insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels was observed, suggesting a normalisation of growth hormone axis function (mean baseline IGF-1 SDS of –0.9 [n = 70] compared with year 2 mean IGF-1 SDS of –0.2 [n = 56]; p = 0.0015, paired t-test on n = 56). The osteocalcin/c-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (OC/CTX-1) ratio increased significantly (p = 0.0082, paired t-test), suggesting an increase in osteoblast activity relative to osteoclast activity. At year 1, JADAS-71 score correlated with height velocity during that year (Spearman rank r = –0.36, p = 0.0010; [n = 81]). Conclusions TCZ therapy for sJIA resulted in catch-up growth of study patients. Additionally, TCZ therapy resulted in increased IGF-1 levels and OC/CTX-1 ratios, suggesting beneficial effects on the growth hormone axis and on bone metabolism. Improvement in JADAS scores correlated with increased height velocity. Continued data collection (for a total of 5 years) will allow a comprehensive analysis of growth outcomes in the TENDER study. Disclosure of Interest F. De Benedetti Grant/research support from: Abbott, Pfizer, BMS, Roche, Novimmune, Novartis, SOBI, N. Ruperto Grant/research support from: Abbott, AstraZeneca, BMS, Centocor, Lilly, Francesco Angelini, GSK, Italfarmaco, Merck Serono, Novartis, Pfizer, Regeneron, Roche, Sanofi Aventis, Schwarz Biosciences, Xoma, Wyeth, Consultant for: (to institution) Abbott, AstraZeneca, BMS, Centocor, Lilly, Francesco Angelini, GSK, Italfarmaco, Merck Serono, Novartis, Pfizer, Regeneron, Roche, Sanofi Aventis, Schwarz Biosciences, Xoma, Wyeth, Speakers bureau: Abbott, Boehringer, BMS, Novartis, Astellas, Italfarmaco, MedImmune, Pfizer, Roche, G. Espada: None Declared, V. Gerloni: None Declared, B. Flato: None Declared, G. Horneff Grant/research support from: Abbott, Pfizer, B. Myones: None Declared, K. Onel Grant/research support from: Merck, Roche, J. Frane Consultant for: Genentech, J. Wang Employee of: Roche, T. Lipman Consultant for: Roche, K. Bharucha Employee of: Genentech, a member of the Roche group, A. Martini Grant/research support from: Abbott, AstraZeneca, BMS, Centocor, Lilly, Francesco Angelini, GSK, Italfarmaco, Merck Serono, Novartis, Pfizer, Regeneron, Roche, Sanofi Aventis, Schwarz Biosciences, Xoma, Wyeth, Consultant for: (to institution) Abbott, AstraZeneca, BMS, Centocor, Lilly, Francesco Angelini, GSK, Italfarmaco, Merck Serono, Novartis, Pfizer, Regeneron, Roche, Sanofi Aventis, Schwarz Biosciences, Xoma, Wyeth, Speakers bureau: Abbott, Boehringer, BMS, Novartis, Astellas, Italfarmaco, MedImmune, Pfizer, Roche, D. Lovell Grant/research support from: Natioinal Institutes of Health, Consultant for: AstraZeneca, Centocor, Wyeth, Amgen, BMS, Abbott, Pfizer, Roche, Novartis, UCB, Forest Research
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Publication Stats

875 Citations
137.49 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014-2015
    • Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2012-2014
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2007-2014
    • University of Chicago
      • • Section of Rheumatology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Cincinnati
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2008-2012
    • The University of Chicago Medical Center
      • Section of Rheumatology (Pediatrics)
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2000-2005
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Итак, New York, United States
  • 2004
    • Weill Cornell Medical College
      • Department of Pediatrics
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1995-2003
    • Hospital for Special Surgery
      New York City, New York, United States