[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The fibrinolytic system in newborns is immature and probably impaired. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate functional fibrinolytic capacity of newborn's cord blood using a new thromboelastometry (rotational thromboelastogram, ROTEM(®) ) test.
Infants born at Sheba Medical Center were studied prospectively. Cord blood was obtained immediately after clumping, and ROTEM parameters were assessed applying non-activated TEM (NATEM) assay with increasing concentration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, 0-200 U/ml). Baseline clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT), alpha angle, and maximum clot firmness (MCF) were compared among infants versus adults. Each infant's demographic information was prospectively followed up until discharge.
One hundred one newborns were tested. CT and CFT values were lower and alpha angles were higher among neonate's cord blood compared to adults (n = 23; P = 0.001, 0.03, and 0.02, respectively). The addition of tPA significantly shortened CT and CFT, and reduced alpha angles and MCF in both groups. The lysis index at 30 min (LI30) and lysis onset time (LOT) decreased significantly, and fibrinolysis was more rapid in the newborns. Hematocrit and platelet counts in neonates correlated with LI30 (P = 0.035 and 0.037, respectively) and LOT (P = 0.02) when higher tPA concentrations were used. ROTEM values were unrelated to the occurrence of postnatal complications.
This first report of functional fibrinolysis in cord blood demonstrated that neonatal fibrinolysis may be augmented as compared to adult values. Further studies are required to validate this test and assess its predictive value and clinical relevance.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Pediatric Blood & Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IntroductionrIX-FP is a coagulation factor IX (recombinant), albumin fusion protein with more than fivefold half-life prolongation over other standard factor IX (FIX) products available on the market.AimThis prospective phase II, open-label study evaluated the safety and efficacy of rIX-FP for the prevention of bleeding episodes during weekly prophylaxis and assessed the haemostatic efficacy for on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes in previously treated patients with haemophilia B.Methods
The study consisted of a 10–14 day evaluation of rIX-FP pharmacokinetics (PK), and an 11 month safety and efficacy evaluation period with subjects receiving weekly prophylaxis treatment. Safety was evaluated by the occurrence of related adverse events, and immunogenic events, including development of inhibitors. Efficacy was evaluated by annualized spontaneous bleeding rate (AsBR), and the number of injections to achieve haemostasis.ResultsSeventeen subjects participated in the study, 13 received weekly prophylaxis and 4 received episodic treatment only. No inhibitors were detected in any subject. The mean and median AsBR were 1.25, and 1.13 respectively in the weekly prophylaxis arm. All bleeding episodes were treated with 1 or 2 injections of rIX-FP. Three prophylaxis subjects who were treated on demand prior to study entry had >85% reduction in AsBR compared to the bleeding rate prior to study entry.Conclusion
This study demonstrated the efficacy for weekly routine prophylaxis of rIX-FP to prevent spontaneous bleeding episodes and for the treatment of bleeding episodes. In addition no safety issues were detected during the study and an improved PK profile was demonstrated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of haemophilia A patients with inhibitors is challenging, and may require individually tailored regimens. Whereas low titre inhibitor patients may respond to high doses of factor VIII (FVIII), high-responding inhibitor patients render replacement therapy ineffective and often require application of bypassing agents. Thrombin generation (TG) assays may be used to monitor haemostasis and/or predict patients' response to bypass agents. In this study we defined by TG, the potential contribution of FVIII to recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa)-induced haemostasis in inhibitor plasma. Based upon results, prospectively designed individual regimens of coadministration of rFVIIa and FVIII were applied. Plasma samples from 14 haemophilia patients with inhibitors (including high titre inhibitors) were tested. The response to increasing concentrations of FVIII, rFVIIa or both was assayed by TG. Eight patients, chosen following consent and at physician's discretion, comprised the combined FVIII-rFVIIa therapy clinical study cohort. Combined spiking with FVIII/rFVIIa improved TG induced by rFVIIa alone in all inhibitor plasmas. Combined rFVIIa and FVIII therapy was applied during bleeding or immune tolerance to eight patients, for a total of 393 episodes. Following a single combined dose, 90% haemostasis was documented and neither thrombosis nor any complications evolved. During study period decline of inhibitor levels and bleeding frequency were noted. Pre-analytical studies enabled us to prospectively tailor individual therapy regimens. We confirmed for the first time that the in vitro advantage of combining FVIII and rFVIIa, indeed accounts for improved haemostasis and may safely be applied to inhibitor patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms help predict warfarin maintenance doses, but their predictive performance differs in different populations, possibly due to unsuspected population-specific genetic variants. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of the VKORC1 D36Y variant (a marker of warfarin resistance previously described in 4% of Ashkenazi Jews) on warfarin maintenance doses and to examine how this variant affects the performance of the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetic Consortium (IWPC) dose prediction model. In 210 Israeli patients on chronic warfarin therapy recruited at a tertiary care centre, we applied the IWPC model and then added D36Y genotype as covariate to the model (IWPC+D36Y) and compared predicted with actual doses. Median weekly warfarin dose was 35 mg (interquartile range [IQR], 24.5 to 52.5 mg). Among 16 heterozygous D36Y carriers (minor allele frequency = 3.8%), warfarin weekly dose was increased by a median of 43.7 mg (IQR, 40.5 to 47.2 mg) compared to non-carriers after adjustment for all IWPC parameters, a greater than two-fold dose increase. The IWPC model performed suboptimally (coefficient of determination R²=27.0%; mean absolute error (MAE), 14.4 ± 16.2 mg/week). Accounting for D36Y genotype using the IWPC+D36Y model resulted in a significantly better model performance (R²=47.2%, MAE=12.6 ± 12.4 mg/week). In conclusion, even at low frequencies, variants with a strong impact on warfarin dose may greatly decrease the performance of a commonly used dose prediction model. Unexpected discrepancies of the performance of universal prediction models in subpopulations should prompt searching for unsuspected confounders, including rare genetic variants.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Thrombosis and Haemostasis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients suffering major traumatic or surgical bleeding are often exposed to hemodilution resulting in dilutional coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effects of fibrinogen, factor XIII and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) on clot formation and resistance to fibrinolysis in hemodilution conditions. Citrated whole blood from 36 healthy volunteers was diluted to 30 and 60% with lactated Ringer's solution. Blood samples were subsequently supplemented with fibrinogen, FXIII, TAFI or their combinations. Rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in whole blood and thrombin generation in plasma were performed in the presence of CaCl₂ and tissue factor/EXTEM reagent, and fibrinolysis was induced by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Hemodilution was expressed by decrease of peak height in thrombin generation and α-angle and maximum clot firmness (MCF) in ROTEM. Fibrinogen, FXIII or TAFI did not correct the decrease in thrombin generation peak height. In ROTEM, spiking of diluted blood with fibrinogen stimulated clot propagation. In tPA-treated blood fibrinogen, FXIII and TAFI increased clot firmness and inhibited fibrinolysis. Stronger protection against fibrinolysis was achieved combining FXIII with TAFI. Hemodilution was associated with inhibition of thrombin generation; however, this effect was not sensitive to blood spiking with fibrinogen, FXIII and TAFI. In ROTEM, these hemostasis agents improved clot strength and decreased clot susceptibility to tPA in nondiluted and to more extent in diluted blood. The maximal protection against fibrinolysis was caused by TAFI. Combining FXIII with TAFI exerted synergistic inhibitory effect on fibrinolysis.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis: an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenteric vein thrombosis (MVT) is a rare and frequently underdiagnosed complication of Crohn's disease (CD). This study describes the clinical and radiological characteristics of CD /patients with superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (MVT) diagnosed by CT/MRI.
The database of Crohn's disease patients treated in Sheba Medical Center between 2005-2010 was searched for MVT diagnosis. Imaging studies of identified patients were retrieved and reviewed by an experienced abdominal radiologist. MVT was defined by superior mesenteric vein obliteration and/or thrombus in the vessel lumen on abdominal imaging. The clinical and radiologic data of these patients were collected from the medical records.
MVT was demonstrated in 6/460 CD patients. Five patients had stricturing disease, and one patient had a combined fistulizing and stricturing disease phenotype. All patients had small bowel disease, but 3/6 also had colonic involvement. No patient had a prior thromboembolic history or demonstrable hypercoagulability. One patient had an acute SMV thrombus demonstrable on CT scanning, the remaining patients showed an obliteration of superior mesenteric vein. Two patients received anticoagulation upon diagnosis of thrombosis. No subsequent thromboembolic events were recorded.
The incidence of mesenteric vein thrombosis is likely to be underestimated in patients with Crohn's disease. Both CT and MRI imaging demonstrate the extent of enteric disease and coincident SMV thrombosis. In our cohort, thrombosis was associated with stricturing disease of the small bowel. The clinical impact of SMV thrombosis and whether anticoagulation is mandatory for all of these patients remains to be determined.
No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of Crohn s and Colitis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent reports have raised concerns regarding potential risk factors for inhibitor development. In Israel, all haemophilia patients (n = 479) are followed by the National Hemophilia Center. Most children are neonatally exposed to factor concentrate (due to circumcision performed at the age of 8 days). The impact of early exposure and recombinant FVIII products (rFVIII) administration (approved in Israel since 1996) upon inhibitor occurrence in our cohort of haemophilia A (HA) patients was analysed. Two hundred ninety-two consecutive paediatric cases with a first symptomatic onset of HA were enrolled and followed over a median time of 7 years [min-max: 9 months to 17 years]. Study endpoint was inhibitor development against factor VIII. In addition, the treatment regimens applied, i.e. bolus administration or 'continuous infusion' and the family history of inhibitor development were investigated. During the follow-up period 31/292 children (10.6%) developed high titre inhibitors. Inhibitors occurred in 14/43 (32.5%) HA patients neonatally exposed to rFVIII, as compared to 22/249 previously treated with Plasma Derived (PD) products (8.8%). The odds ratio for inhibitor formation in rFVIII treated HA patients was 3.43 (95% CI: 1.36-8.65). Transient inhibitor evolved among 2/43 paediatric HA patients, only among those treated with rFVIII. The risk of inhibitor detection significantly increased among HA children treated by continuous infusion (P = 0.025). Our experience shows that the risk of inhibitor formation may be increased by early exposure to recombinant concentrates. The multiple variables affecting inhibitor incidence deserve further attention by larger prospective studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have suggested that thrombophilic risk factors are more prevalent in individuals with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), and that a prothrombic state may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of this disease. We examine thrombophilic factors in a group of patients with IIH in relation to obesity. In addition, we reviewed the relevant literature and performed a meta-analysis. Thrombophilia work-up was performed on 51 patients with IIH at least 1 month following their first episode. Samples for the analysis of factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin gene variant (PGV) G20210A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) were available in an additional 30 patients, that is 81 patients in all. Meta-analysis was performed. Of the 51 patients 40 were obese. Increased concentrations of fibrinogen, D-Dimer, factor VIII, factor IX and factor XI were found in 15, 7, 7, 6 and 2 patients, respectively, all obese. The circulating anticoagulant, measured by dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT assay), found mainly in obese. All 51 patients were negative for the anticardiolipin antibody (IgG immunoglobulin G) and IgG anti-beta2 glycoprotein I. In the meta-analysis antiphospholipid antibodies were significantly associated with IIH [odds ratio (OR) of 4.25 (1.68-12.60)], similar to the association with high factor VIII [OR = 16.17 (2.87-91.01)], higher plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels [OR = 6.91 (2.28-20.91)], and high lipoprotein (a) [LP(a)] [OR = 3.54 (1.54-8.70)]. Obesity often observed in IIH patients is frequently linked with thrombophilic factors. Thus, we believe that dysmetabolism could be the thrombophilic target for treatment in patients with IIH.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis: an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe FXI deficiency is a rare injury-related bleeding disorder. In patients with FXI inhibitors, surgeries may be treated using recombinant activated factor VII; however, treatment safety is a major concern and the best dosing regimen as well as mode of administration is still to be defined. We describe four patients with severe factor XI deficiency and inhibitors to FXI, undergoing eight (four major) surgical procedures treated with continuous infusion of rFVIIa. Following acute MI that evolved after surgery of our first patient, all other patients were treated with low-dose bolus rFVIIa followed by low-dose continuous infusion of rFVIIa. Haemostasis was successfully achieved and no further thrombotic complications occurred. To support our clinical results ex-vivo thromboelastography studies were performed, demonstrating the differences of clot formation and lysis between patients with FXI deficiency and healthy controls and suggesting that low-dose rFVIIa corrects coagulation similarly to high-dose rFVIIa in FXI deficiency. Recombinant FVIIa at low doses may effectively induce haemostasis and seems to be a safe treatment mode in patients with FXI deficiency and inhibitors undergoing surgeries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bolus injection (BI) of sucrose-formulated recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII-FS) is an approved treatment for haemophilia patients undergoing major surgery. Continuous infusion (CI) during surgery has potential benefits by providing steady administration of replacement factor to the patient, avoiding high peaks and low troughs. We tested the stability of rFVIII-FS under CI conditions and conducted a single-centre, open-label, phase III study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CI using rFVIII-FS in haemophilia A patients undergoing surgery. Patients received bolus rFVIII-FS to achieve >or=80% FVIII levels 30-60 min presurgery, followed by CI of rFVIII-FS at a rate calculated to maintain haemostatic factor levels until days 8-10 post surgery. The rate of infusion was adjusted according to daily calculations derived from the actual clearance. The stability of rFVIII-FS was found to be appropriate for CI for 7 days under the same conditions as clinical settings. Fourteen patients (mean age 37.8 years) receiving on-demand FVIII treatment without a history of inhibitors underwent 15 surgical procedures including joint replacements, synovectomies, multiple tooth extractions, and cholecystectomy. Bleeding was similar to that observed in non-haemophilia patients undergoing similar operations in the same department. Haemostasis during surgery was considered by the attending surgeons as 'excellent' or 'good' in all cases; study investigators rated all 15 cases as 'excellent' overall. There were no adverse events, including inhibitor formation, related to rFVIII-FS. rFVIII-FS was found to be suitable for use in CI in haemophilia A patients undergoing major surgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelets play a critical role in the pathogenesis of acute brain ischaemia. We studied the association between the degree of inhibition of platelet function by aspirin (ASA) and the severity and outcome of acute brain ischaemia.
Platelet responsiveness to ASA was assessed in patients with acute brain ischaemia, treated with ASA since hospital admission. The degree of ASA responsiveness was assessed by optical aggregometry and categorized into patients with good response, partial response and complete unresponsiveness to ASA (good responders, partial responders and non-responders, respectively). An additional evaluation of responsiveness to ASA was performed by Impact-R (cone and platelet analyzer). Patients underwent serial clinical assessment during hospitalization, at discharge and during follow-up.
Among 105 patients (mean age 63 +/- 12 years; 66% men), impaired ASA responsiveness at baseline as assessed by aggregometry was associated with increased stroke severity at baseline, unfavourable clinical course, and poor functional outcome during follow-up (p < 0.05 for all). Age-adjusted odds ratios in non-responders compared to good responders were 9.8 for severe stroke on admission (95% CI 2.8-34.9), 3.1 for lack of early clinical improvement (95% CI 1.1-8.8) and 8.6 for poor functional outcome during follow-up (95% CI 2.4-30.4). Less robust trends were observed with the Impact-R.
Impaired responsiveness to ASA in acute brain ischaemia is common and is associated with worse neurological deficits at stroke onset, early clinical deterioration and poorer functional outcome. The clinical significance of these findings requires further evaluation in larger longitudinal studies.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Cerebrovascular Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unresponsiveness to clopidogrel or aspirin has been reported in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Platelet aggregometry (PA) and the Impact-R [Cone and Plate(let) Analyzer (CPA) technology, measuring whole blood platelet adhesion under flow conditions] were compared in detecting laboratory unresponsiveness to clopidogrel and aspirin among ACS patients. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) samples were evaluated in 404 patients by PA using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA) and whole blood samples by the Impact-R ADP- and AA-response tests. The first cohort (n=114) was assayed by PA on days 1 and 4 of the onset of ACS. A patient with relative decrease of </=10% in ADP-induced maximal platelet aggregation after clopidogrel treatment was defined as laboratory non-responding (NR) patient to clopidogrel. This relative value correlated well with an absolute value of ADP-induced aggregation >/=70%. A patient with an absolute value of AA-induced maximal aggregation >/=60% was defined as laboratory NR patient to aspirin. The second cohort (n=290) was tested on day 4 by both systems and results analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve. The following cut-off values of the Impact-R surface coverage were obtained: </=2.8% and </=3.4% for clopidogrel and aspirin NR patients, respectively. The incidence of NR patients to clopidogrel and aspirin, according to the two methods was 27% and 22%, respectively. Impact-R compared to PA in detecting clopidogrel and aspirin NR patients revealed: 79% and 82% agreement, 71% and 73% sensitivity, 83% and 86% specificity, respectively. In conclusion, the Impact-R and PA results demonstrated high degree of similarity.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Thrombosis Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-invasive biomarkers have gained popularity for estimating fibrosis stage. In our hepatitis C-infected haemophilia patients, Fibrotest (FT) correctly identified clinically advanced or minimal liver disease. More accurate tests, like the FibroMeters, have recently been validated. The aim of the study was to improve the estimation of liver fibrosis in hepatitis C-infected haemophiliacs using a combination of biomarkers and FibroMeters. One hundred and thirty-two hepatitis C-infected haemophilia patients (124 male, mean age: 39+/-14 years) were evaluated. The following biomarkers were used: FT, AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), Forns index, hyaluronic acid and FibroMeter. We applied a published algorithm suggesting that if FT is in concordance with APRI and/or Forns score, then the FT concurs with liver biopsy for estimation of fibrosis. Concordance of three or more biomarkers was present in 43.2% (57/132) of the patients. This high discordance rate was mainly because of indeterminate scores. Significant fibrosis (F2-F4) was estimated at 34.8% (46/132) and 37.9% (50/132) by the FT and FibroMeter respectively. The discordance rate between the FT and FibroMeter was 16.7% (22/132), (P<0.01 vs. other biomarkers). Using the algorithm, liver histology could be confidently estimated in 69.7% (92/132) of the patients. Concordance between the FT and FibroMeter in those patients who met the terms of the algorithm was 90.2% (83/92). Discordance between biomarkers is significant, and is mainly because of biomarkers with indeterminate results. The concordance rate between FT and FibroMeter is higher compared with the other biomarkers. Practical combination of tests may potentially limit the need of liver biopsy in the majority of haemophilia patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic variants are associated with low and intermediate warfarin dose requirements, but markers of high doses are less well characterized. We analyzed the VKORC1 coding sequence and known CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms in 15 selected warfarin-resistant (dose, 80 to 185 mg/wk) and 8 warfarin-sensitive patients (7 to 13 mg/wk) and 99 unselected controls (8 to 105 mg/wk). We identified a coding VKORC1 Asp36Tyr polymorphism in 7 of 15 resistant compared with 0 of 8 sensitive patients (P = .026) Carriers of Asp36Tyr in the control group (8 of 99) required significantly higher warfarin doses of 80.9 +/- 10.1 mg/wk compared with 42.7 +/- 7.5 mg/wk in noncarriers (F = 9.79, P = .002). Asp36Tyr was significantly associated with doses of more than 70 mg/wk (odds ratio, 13.0; 95% confidence limit, 1.3 to 124.2), while doses of 20 to 70 mg/wk were associated with Asp36Tyr (partial r(2) = .11; P = .004), CYP2C9*2 and *3 (r(2) = .08; P = .01), and VKORC1*2 and *3 markers (r(2) = .05; P = .05). All Asp36Tyr carriers also had VKORC1*1 tag-single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) indicating a new haplotype. Asp36Tyr was common in Jewish ethnic groups of Ethiopian (15%) and Ashkenazi (4%) origin. We suggest that Asp36Tyr is a new marker of the high end of the warfarin dosing range.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acquired PRL deficiency occurs when the anterior pituitary is functionally destroyed, and it usually accompanies other pituitary hormone deficiencies. We retrospectively investigated in an outpatient endocrine clinic of a major tertiary medical center the prevalence and clinical characteristics of acquired PRL deficiency in patients with diseases of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The study included 100 consecutive patients, 61 men and 39 women, aged 4-79 yr at diagnosis. Patients were divided by PRL level to normal (>5 ng/ml), mild (3-5 ng/ml), and severe deficiency (<3 ng/ml). Twenty-seven patients (27%) had PRL deficiency, 13 mild deficiency and 14 severe deficiency. Patients with severe PRL deficiency tend to be younger at diagnosis (mean age, 37.5+/-21.8 yr) than patients with normal PRL (46+/-18.5 yr; ns). Underlying diseases including pituitary apoplexy, non-functioning pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma, and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were associated with PRL deficiency. The incidence of severe PRL deficiency rose with an increase in the number of other pituitary hormone deficits (ACTH, TSH, gonadotropin, vasopressin), from 0 in patients with no other deficits to 38% in patients with 4 deficits (p=0.006). Patients with severe deficiency had a mean of 3 hormone deficits compared to 1.8 in the other groups (p=0.006). PRL deficiency was significantly associated with TSH, ACTH and GH deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: PRL deficiency is common in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders, especially pituitary apoplexy and craniopharyngioma. Acquired severe PRL deficiency can be considered a marker for extensive pituitary damage and a more severe degree of hypopituitarism.
No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Journal of endocrinological investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To summarize, travel-associated thrombosis occurs mainly in travelers with risk factors for thrombosis. Prophylactic treatment, however, should not be administered routinely since travelers present with a wide range of VTE risks and therefore treatment should be tailored specifically for each traveler after consideration of risks, benefit and the traveler's preferences.
Preview · Article · Jan 2007 · The Israel Medical Association journal: IMAJ