- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telavancin is a novel semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide derivative of vancomycin with a dual mode of action. This study sought to understand the mechanisms of decreased telavancin susceptibility in a laboratory-derived Staphlococcus aureus mutant Tlv(DS)MED1952. There were extensive changes in the transcriptome of Tlv(DS)MED1952 compared to the susceptible parent strain MED1951. Genes upregulated included cofactor biosynthesis genes, cell wall-related genes, fatty acid biosynthesis genes, and stress genes. Downregulated genes included lysine operon biosynthesis genes and lrgB, which are induced by telavancin in susceptible strains, agr and kdpDE genes, various cell surface protein genes, phenol-soluble modulin genes, several protease genes, and genes involved in anaerobic metabolism. The decreased susceptibility mutant had somewhat thicker cell walls and a decreased autolytic activity that may be related to decreased proteolytic peptidoglycan hydrolase processing. Membrane fatty acid changes correlated with increased membrane fluidity were observed. It seems likely that there are multiple genetic changes associated with the development of decreased telavancin susceptibility. The Tlv(DS) mutant showed some similar features to vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus and decreased daptomycin susceptibility strains, but also exhibited its own unique features.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite extensive investigation, the precise mechanism controlling the opening of the cytoplasmic proton uptake pathway in bacteriorhodopsin (bR) has remained a mystery. From an analysis of the X-ray structure of the D96G/F171C/F219L triple mutant of bR and 60 independent molecular dynamics simulations of bR photointermediates, we report that the deprotonation of D96, a key residue in proton transfer reactions, serves two roles that occur sequentially. First, D96 donates a proton to the Schiff base. Subsequently, the deprotonation of D96 serves to "unlatch" the cytoplasmic side. The latching function of D96 appears to be remarkably robust, functioning to open hydration channels in all photointermediate structures. These results suggest that the protonation state of D96 may be the critical biophysical cue controlling the opening and closing of the cytoplasmic half-channel in bR. We suspect that this protonation-switch mechanism could also be utilized in other proton pumps to minimize backflow and reinforce directionality.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In phase 3 studies of the efficacy of telavancin for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia, 704 Gram-positive and 627 Gram-negative aerobic bacterial pathogens were obtained at baseline from 1503 patients. The majority of Gram-positive isolates (n = 650 [92%]) were Staphylococcus aureus, of which 410 (63%) were methicillin-resistant (MRSA). Of the MRSA isolates, 9.5% were identified as heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus. All Gram-positive isolates were inhibited by ≤1 μg/mL of telavancin.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telavancin is a novel semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide derivative of vancomycin with a decylaminoethyl side chain that is active against Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to methicillin or vancomycin. A dual mechanism of action has been proposed for telavancin involving inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis and membrane depolarization. Here we report the results of genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the response of S. aureus to telavancin using microarrays. Short (15-min) challenge of S. aureus with telavancin revealed strong expression of the cell wall stress stimulon, a characteristic response to inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis. In the transcriptome obtained after 60-min telavancin challenge, in addition to induction of the cell wall stress stimulon, there was induction of various genes, including lrgA and lrgB, lysine biosynthesis operon (dap) genes, vraD and vraE, and hlgC, that have been reported to be induced by known membrane-depolarizing and active agents, including carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, daptomycin, bacitracin, and other antimicrobial peptides These genes were either not induced or only weakly induced by the parent molecule vancomycin. We suggest that expression of these genes is a response of the cell to mitigate and detoxify such molecules and is diagnostic of a membrane-depolarizing or membrane-active molecule. The results indicate that telavancin causes early and significant induction of the cell wall stress stimulon due to strong inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis, with evidence in support of membrane depolarization and membrane activity that is expressed after a longer duration of drug treatment.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellular binding patterns of fluorescent conjugates of telavancin and vancomycin were evaluated in Staphylococcus aureus by fluorescence microscopy and ratio imaging analysis. Telavancin showed enhanced binding at the division septum compared to vancomycin. This result is consistent with observations that telavancin binds with higher affinity to lipid II than to d-Ala-d-Ala residues in the cell wall, thus demonstrating the preferential binding of telavancin to the site of active cell wall biosynthesis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Telavancin is an investigational lipoglycopeptide antibiotic currently being developed for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. The bactericidal action of telavancin results from a mechanism that combines the inhibition of cell wall synthesis and the disruption of membrane barrier function. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the mechanism by which telavancin interacts with the bacterial membrane. A flow cytometry assay with the diethyloxacarbocyanine dye DiOC(2)(3) was used to probe the membrane potential of actively growing Staphylococcus aureus cultures. Telavancin caused pronounced membrane depolarization that was both time and concentration dependent. Membrane depolarization was demonstrated against a reference S. aureus strain as well as phenotypically diverse isolates expressing clinically important methicillin-resistant (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate (VISA), and heterogeneous VISA (hVISA) phenotypes. The cell wall precursor lipid II was shown to play an essential role in telavancin-induced depolarization. This was demonstrated both in competition binding experiments with exogenous D-Ala-D-Ala-containing ligand and in experiments with cells expressing altered levels of lipid II. Finally, monitoring of the optical density of S. aureus cultures exposed to telavancin showed that cell lysis does not occur during the time course in which membrane depolarization and bactericidal activity are observed. Taken together, these data indicate that telavancin's membrane mechanism requires interaction with lipid II, a high-affinity target that mediates binding to the bacterial membrane. The targeted interaction with lipid II and the consequent disruption of both peptidoglycan synthesis and membrane barrier function provide a mechanistic basis for the improved antibacterial properties of telavancin relative to those of vancomycin.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple and flexible system is described for in situ screening of microcrystals of membrane proteins that are grown within a connected-bilayer matrix formed by hydrated lipids. Using sheets of appropriate polymer materials to create a thin multiwell cassette, crystals can be evaluated by UV microscopy as well as by more conventional forms of light microscopy. Crystallization wells can be individually excised and mounted for diffraction screening on a synchrotron X-ray source. In addition, crystallization hit rates were significantly improved by employing a vapor diffusion approach rather than the batch crystallization method that is normally used with hydrated-lipid gels.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein stability is a crucial factor to consider when attempting to crystallize integral membrane proteins. Cubic phase, or in meso, lipid-bilayer crystallization media are thought to provide native-like environments that should facilitate membrane protein crystallization by helping to stabilize the native protein conformation for the duration of the crystallization process. While excellent crystals of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and other Halobacterial rhodopsins have been obtained in lipid-bilayer gels formed with monoglycerides, success remains elusive in the general application of such media to other membrane proteins. Additionally, we have noted that some mutants of bR are highly unstable in gels formed with monoolein. Phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and derivatives of PE represent another class of lipids that can form connected-bilayer gels. When wildtype bR and a labile bR mutant were reconstituted into this phospholipid gel, spectroscopy showed that the protein is both more stable and has improved conformational homogeneity as compared to gels formed using monoolein. In addition, we demonstrate that well-diffracting crystals of bR can be grown from a PE-based crystallization medium. Since most proteins lack a stability-indicating chromophore and other structure-based analytical techniques are poorly compatible with the lipid gel, we developed a generally-applicable spectroscopic technique based on the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan residues. This fluorescence assay makes possible the rapid evaluation of lipid gels as media for the crystallization of membrane proteins.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the relatively simple modification of a light microscope to operate with ultraviolet-based optics. Using a 280 nm UV illumination source, protein microcrystals are readily visualized in gels made from hydrated bilayers of phospholipids. Non-colored proteins stand out as clearly as colored proteins in this system, the imaging of which is based on UV absorption by tryptophan residues. In addition, protein crystals are easily distinguished from salt crystals. Artifacts from the lipid-based crystallization medium, which are frequently seen in brightfield microscopy, are greatly reduced when viewed in this UV-based microscope.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structure of the D85S mutant of bacteriorhodopsin with a nitrate anion bound in the Schiff base binding site and the structure of the anion-free protein have been obtained in the same crystal form. Together with the previously solved structures of this anion pump, in both the anion-free state and bromide-bound state, these new structures provide insight into how this mutant of bacteriorhodopsin is able to bind a variety of different anions in the same binding pocket. The structural analysis reveals that the main structural change that accommodates different anions is the repositioning of the polar side chain of S85. On the basis of these X-ray crystal structures, the prediction is then made that the D85S/D212N double mutant might bind similar anions and do so over a broader pH range than does the single mutant. Experimental comparison of the dissociation constants, K(d), for a variety of anions confirms this prediction and demonstrates, in addition, that the binding affinity is dramatically improved by the D212N substitution.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of aliphatic (2E)-alkenals from C(5) to C(14) were tested for their antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 7754. (2E)-Undecenal (C(11)) was found to be the most effective with the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 6.25 microgram/mL, followed by (2E)-decenal (C(10)) with an MFC of 12.5 microgram/mL. The time-kill curve study showed that (2E)-undecenal was fungicidal against S. cerevisiae at any growth stage, and this activity was not influenced by pH values. The (2E)-alkenals inhibited glucose-induced acidification by inhibiting the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. The primary antifungal action of medium-chain (C(9)-C(12)) (2E)-alkenals against S. cerevisiae comes from their ability to function as nonionic surface-active agents (surfactants), disrupting the native membrane-associated function nonspecifically. Hence, the antifungal activity of (2E)-alkenals is mediated by biophysical processes, and the maximum activity can be obtained when the balance between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions becomes the most appropriate.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of hydrated-lipid gels in which the bilayer is an infinitely periodic (or at least continuous), three-dimensional structure offers a relatively new approach for the crystallization of membrane proteins. While excellent crystals of the Halobacterial rhodopsins have been obtained with such media, success remains poor in extending their use to other membrane proteins. Experience with crystallization of bacteriorhodopsin has led us to recognize a number of improvements that can be made in the use of such hydrated-gel media, which may now prove to be of general value for the crystallization of other membrane proteins.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fungicidal mechanism of a naturally occurring sesquiterpene dialdehyde, polygodial, was investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an acidification assay, polygodial completely suppressed the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 3.13 μg/ml, the same as the fungicidal concentration. Acidification occurs primarily through the proton-pumping action of the plasma membrane ATPase, Pma1p. Surprisingly, this ATPase was not directly inhibited by polygodial. In contrast, the two other membrane-bound ATPases in yeast were found to be susceptible to the compound. The mitochondrial ATPase was inhibited by polygodial in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations similar to the fungicidal concentration, whereas the vacuolar ATPase was only slightly inhibited. Cytoplasmic petite mutants, which lack mitochondrial DNA and are respiration deficient, were significantly less susceptible to polygodial than the wild type, as was shown in time-kill curves. Apet9 mutant which lacks a functional ADP-ATP translocator and is therefore respiration dependent was rapidly inhibited by polygodial. The results of these susceptibility assays link enzyme inhibition to physiological effect. Previous studies have reported that plasma membrane disruption is the mechanism of polygodial-induced cell death; however, these results support a more complex picture of its effect. A major target of polygodial in yeast is mitochondrial ATP synthase. Reduction of the ATP supply leads to a suppression of Pma1 ATPase activity and impairs adaptive responses to other facets of polygodial's cellular inhibition.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro antifungal activities of polygodial were investigated against several fungal pathogens. Polygodial showed strong antifungal activity, comparable to amphotericin B, against yeast-like fungi Candida albicans, C. utilis, C. krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and also filamentous fungi including Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. ruburum, and Penicillium marneffei. Other strains such as Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, P. chrysogenum, C. lipolytica, and C. tropicalis showed moderate to low susceptibility to polygodial. The anti-fungal activity of polygodial was generally not reduced by several susceptibility-testing conditions such as medium, incubation temperature, inoculum size, and medium pH. However, polygodial's antifungal activity was strongly increased at acidic conditions. Unlike amphotericin B, polygodial did not show any hemolytic activity and also its antifungal activity was not diminished in the presence of ergosterol. Based on killing kinetics against growing and nongrowing C. albicans, polygodial showed strong and rapid fungicidal activity.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combinations of polymyxins and phytochemicals were tested for antimicrobial activity against two gram-negative bacteria. Various degrees of potentiation were found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli with (E)-2-hexenal and indole. Three-compound combinations were found to further increase the activity of polymyxin B sulfate and colistin methanesulfonate against both bacteria. Combinations with colistin against P. aeruginosa resulted in the highest degree of potentiation, with a 512-fold increase in colistin antimicrobial activity. These results indicate the potential efficacy of phytochemical combinations with antibiotics to enhance total biological activity.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of long-chain alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes have been characterized as antimicrobial agents from the olive Olea europaea fruit and its oil flavor. These volatile compounds exhibited a broad antimicrobial spectrum.
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, California, United States
- • Department of Molecular and Cell Biology
- • Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management