[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uptake of radiolabeled peptides in the kidneys may obscure abdominal tumors in radiopeptide scintigraphy. This problem is much more pronounced in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (i.e., radiopeptide therapy), possibly leading to renal damage or even failure. Cationic peptide uptake in the kidneys can be reduced by the application of cationic amino acids, such as lysine or arginine. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable method to reduce anionic peptide uptake in the kidneys. (111)In-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid dGlu(1)-minigastrin ((111)In-DTPA-dGlu-Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu-Glu-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH(2)) was chosen as a model compound with a sequence of 6 negatively charged glutamic acids in a chain and an additional aspartic acid.
TT (human medullary carcinoma cells)-bearing nu/nu mice of the Institute of Cancer Research genotype received intraperitoneal injections of different chain lengths and weights of glutamic acids, aspartic acids, and derivatives of glutamic acids. Uptake in tumors and organs was determined and compared with the values for untreated control mice.
Accretion of (111)In-DTPA-dGlu(1)-minigastrin in the kidneys could be reduced by up to 90%. The uptake values for all other organs and the tumors were not affected. These results were obtained with a chain of 5 or more glutamic acids, whereas uptake in kidneys was affected not at all or only slightly with poly-d-glutamic or polyaspartic acids and with Glu(x) (x = 1-4).
These studies indicated a specific blocking of uptake by Glu(5) sequences in the kidneys. Application of polyglutamic acids is a new, successful method of reducing uptake of negatively charged peptides in the kidneys during radiopeptide therapy.
Preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of monofunctional DTPA derivatives has been a major breakthrough in the labelling of proteins or peptides with a variety of radiometals. Although this methodology is simple and useful for indium-111 labelling, the stability of these conjugates is too low for most therapeutic nuclides. Cyclic chelators, such as DOTA, have shown excellent kinetic stability with a variety of radiometals, but the labelling procedure is more difficult, requiring ultra-pure reagents and a heating step that sometimes endangers the biomolecule's integrity. The aim of this work was twofold: (a) to develop a novel, open chain chelator which can be easily labelled with various radiometals, displaying higher kinetic stability than monofunctional DTPA, and (b) to evaluate this chelator in vitro and in vivo when conjugated to a CCK-B receptor ligand as a detection modality for receptor-(over-)expressing tumours. DTPA derivatives of Leu1- and dGlu1-minigastrin were synthesised. All conjugates could be labelled with 111In or 88/90Y at high specific activities (8.5–44.4 GBq/μmol) and with high radiochemical purity. Serum stability testing was performed, and the labelled conjugates were compared concerning their stability against DTPA challenge. The biodistribution of the radiolabelled Leu1- and dGlu1-minigastrin derivatives was studied in tumour-bearing nude mice, in one healthy human volunteer and in three patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. The transchelation of all tested radiometals to serum proteins was significantly slower with the DTPA-Glu conjugates as compared with their Leu analogues (e.g. transchelation t
1/2 of DTPA-dGlu1-minigastrin vs its Leu1 analogue at 37°C in human serum for 111In: 239 h vs 91 h; for 90Y: 130 h vs 53 h). In animals, all labelled CCK-B receptor ligands showed fast and specific uptake in CCK-B-receptor-positive tissues, such as the stomach and tumour, as well as a fast renal clearance pattern. However, DTPA-Leu1-minigastrin showed higher background activity in the whole body and those organs known to accumulate the respective free radiometal (e.g. 88Y-DTPA-Leu1-minigastrin had bone uptake of 22%ID/g as compared to only 1.2%ID/g with its dGlu1 analogue). In humans, fast tumour and stomach uptake was observed for both 111In-labelled compounds, but DTPA-dGlu1-minigastrin lacked the liver, spleen and bone marrow uptake observed with its Leu1 analogue. In conclusion, anionic amino acid derivatives of DTPA may display improved metabolic stability as compared with monofunctional DTPA conjugates. DTPA-dGlu1-minigastrin is preferred to "monofunctional" DTPA-Leu1-minigastrin for diagnostic application with 111In for the in vivo detection of CCK-B receptor-expressing tissues.
No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear medicine (scintigraphy) studies that are performed in patients being prepared for regular dialysis treatment include the measurement of renal clearance and dynamic studies of renal perfusion and function. Static scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA may be used in the evaluation of children at risk of renal damage and further functional deterioration. In patients on peritoneal dialysis, nuclear medicine procedures enable the diagnosis of structural complications such as intra-abdominal herniations and leaks. Diagnosis of infections of the vascular access sites in patients on hemodialysis and of the catheter tunnel in patients on peritoneal dialysis can be made with high diagnostic accuracy using radiolabeled, autologous leukocytes. Scintigraphy is valuable in delineating the extent of deposits of amyloid and parenchymal microcalcifications, and may be helpful in the functional evaluation of organs and tissues involved in the pathophysiology of renal impairment and dialysis. If radioiodine therapy with 131I is performed in patients on hemodialysis with benign or malignant thyroid disease, then pretherapeutic dosimetry is necessary to avoid over- and undertreatment. Radioiodine therapy in the dialysis patient leads to only insignificant contamination of dialysis equipment and marginal exposure to the medical staff.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2002 · Seminars in Dialysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD20 has been used successfully as a target molecule for conventional low-dose, as well as high-dose, myeloablative radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an especially aggressive, prognostically unfavorable subtype of B-cell NHL, associated with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 20%. Recent evidence has failed to show convincing therapeutic efficacy of conventional, nonmyeloablative RIT in patients with MCL. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether high-dose, myeloablative RIT with the iodine-131 ((131)I)-labeled chimeric anti-CD20 antibody C2B8 (rituximab, obtained as Mabthera from Roche Pharma, Reinach, Switzerland) is therapeutically effective in MCL patients.
A total of seven patients with chemorefractory or relapsed MCL were studied in this pilot trial. All had relapsed after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (four of them combined with 12 grays (Gy) total-body irradiation). A diagnostic-dosimetric study was performed with approximately 10 mCi of (131)I-labeled C2B8 at a protein dose of 2.5 mg per kg body weight, in order to assess its biodistribution and dosimetry. If splenic pooling was observed, as is typically the case in patients with splenomegaly, the protein dose was doubled in additional studies until a "favorable" biodistribution was obtained. Therapy was performed with myeloablative doses of 261-495 mCi of (131)I-labeled C2B8 at the previously optimized protein dose, aiming at lung doses less-than-or-equal 27 Gy. Homologous stem cell support was provided. Clinical follow-up was obtained at 3-month intervals for up to 38 months (median observation time, 25 months). Overall, in six patients the 2.5 mg/kg protein dose was used, whereas in one patient with splenomegaly, 10 mg/kg was necessary to overcome the splenic antigenic sink.
Blood cell nadirs were reached at 2-3 weeks after therapy infusion, but all patients reengrafted at 7-10 days after stem cell reinfusion. Nonhematologic toxicity was restricted to mild-to-moderate nausea, fever, transient bilirubin, or liver enzyme elevations. One patient with preexisting alcoholic cirrhosis experienced a deterioration of liver function. Despite thyroid blocking, 5 of 7 patients developed hypothyroidism, requiring thyroxine substitution at 6-18 months after RIT. Six patients experienced a complete and one a good partial remission. Five patients were still in CR at the time this article was written, and six are still alive for more than 3 years; one patient relapsed locally at 3 months and one systemically at 26 months after RIT.
High-dose myeloablative radioimmunotherapy with (131)I-labeled anti-CD20 antibodies seems to be associated with a high response rate and moderate toxicity in patients with MCL. Further follow-up to monitor the long-term outcome as well as systematic prospective clinical studies are indicated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since 1942, therapy with radioiodine (RIT) has gained a major role in the treatment of benign thyroid disorders, notably hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease or toxic multinodular goitre (thyroid autonomy). In iodine deficient areas thyroid autonomy accounts for 40-50% of all cases with hyperthyroidism. RIT has become a cost-effective first-line procedure in autonomy-patients with latent or overt hyperthyroidism, especially in the absence of a large goitre, after thyroid surgery and in elderly patients with associated conditions who carry a high intra- or perioperative risk. Decisions concerning the definitive treatment of thyroid autonomy should take into account previous episodes of hyperthyroidism, objective parameters of risk stratification in euthyroid patients as well as concomitant diseases and the probability of iodine exposure in the future. In Central Europe the majority of investigators prefer to estimate the therapeutic activity individually by a radioiodine test. TCTUs (global 99m-Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression)-based dose concepts have been proven to be highly effective in the elimination of autonomy and carry a low (< 10%) risk of post-radioiodine-therapeutic hypothyroidism. Radioiodine therapy for autonomy has been found to be both effective and safe and without major early or late side effects. The most frequent complication is hypothyroidism requiring lifelong follow-up.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2002 · Nuclear medicine review. Central & Eastern Europe: journal of Bulgarian, Czech, Macedonian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Yugoslav societies of nuclear medicine and Ukrainian Society of Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 10-year-old girl presented with a cerebral malignant ectomesenchymoma (MEM), a very unusual tumour with undifferentiated mesenchymal as well as ectodermal elements. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) was performed during the diagnostic workup. The recurrent residual tumour mass was exactly visualized with SRS, and was negative after successful treatment of the patient. The potential application of SRS in initial staging, follow-up and therapy planning in MEM is discussed. This is the first application of SRS in MEM.
No preview · Article · Apr 2001 · Pediatric Radiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Derivatives of somatostatin (sms) are attracting increasing interest as part of the treatment of several cancer diseases expressing sms receptors (srs). Radiolabeled sms analogs can additionally be used for systemic radiotherapy and for diagnostic investigations.
Glycosylated sms-14 (sms-dextran70) was characterized regarding in vitro srs binding, biodistribution, and blood half-life in mice. Rat brain cortex membranes (expressing srs 2) were used for the srs binding study. Tyr3-Octreotide was used as positive control. The binding data were analyzed by competition curve analysis.
In the biodistribution study, the Bolton-Hunter reagent was used for the radioiodination of sms-dextran70. Organs and blood were collected at different time-points and the percentage of the injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) was calculated. The conjugate was administered subcutaneously (sc).
The sms-dextran70 showed high srs binding affinity (i.e., in the same nanomolar range as the reference ligand Tyr3-octreotide (IC50 ∼2.5 nM). The blood half-life was approx 27 h after reaching maximum blood concentration 24 h postinjection. Because of the molecular weight of the conjugate (i.e., approx 75,000) being above the kidney threshold for dextran (i.e., 50,000), the digestion and excretion is assumed to be mainly through the hepatobiliary system. Increased uptake was seen in the adrenals, which are receptor-positive organs. Some accumulation was seen in the stomach, indicating certain deiodination of the conjugate label.
The sms-dextran70 showed promising properties and its clinical relevance is currently being evaluated in clinical phase I–II studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the next decade, nuclear medicine physicians in Europe will try to guarantee a more homogeneous level of training and education of their specialty throughout the continent. In routine nuclear medicine, they will focus more on the possibilities and availability of positron-emission tomography (PET) and on nuclear medicine therapy. Nuclear medicine physicians will be more active and interactive with students at the universities and will offer more lectures and more active training in the specialty. Nuclear medicine specialists will try to be even more interactive with clinicians and make their specialty open and better understandable for other disciplines. Nuclear medicine physicians will initiate more cost-benefit studies and more multicenter studies to prove that their procedures are evidence-based. They will communicate more intensively with industry for a better understanding of clinical problems and for development of new useful radiopharmaceuticals. They will promote their specialty in the public more intensively and will reasonably explain the risks and benefits of radionuclide examinations.
No preview · Article · Aug 2000 · Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest a higher anti-tumour efficacy of internalizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) when labelled with Auger
electron emitters, as compared with β-emitters. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-tumour efficacy and toxicity
of the internalizing MAb, CO17-1A, labelled with Auger electron emitters (125I, 111In) versus conventional β–-emitters (131I, 90Y) in a colon cancer model, and to assess whether the residualizing radiometals may have therapeutic advantages over the conventionally
iodinated conjugates. Biodistribution studies of 125I-, 111In- or 88Y-labelled CO17-1A were performed in nude mice bearing subcutaneous human colon cancer xenografts. For therapy, the mice were
injected with either unlabelled or 125I-, 131I-, 111In- or 90Y-labelled CO17-1A IgG2a, whereas control groups were left untreated or were given a radiolabelled isotype-matched irrelevant antibody. The influence
of internalization was assessed by comparing the results with those obtained with an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody
which does not internalize to a relevant extent. The maximum tolerated activities (MTA) and doses (MTD) of each agent were
determined. Myelotoxicity and potential second-organ toxicities, as well as tumour growth, were monitored. Bone marrow transplantation
(BMT) was performed in order to enable dose intensification. Radiometals showed significantly better tumour-to-blood ratios
than the respective iodinated conjugates. The MTAs of 131I- and 125I-CO17-1A without artificial support were 11.1 MBq (300 µCi) and 111 MBq (3 mCi), respectively; the MTA of the metals was
reached at 4 MBq (100 µCi) for 90Y-, and at 85 MBq (2.3 mCi) for 111In-CO17-1A. Myelotoxicity was dose limiting in all cases. BMT enabled an increase in the MTA to 15 MBq (400 µCi) of 131I-labelled CO17-1A, to 4.4 MBq (120 µCi) of 90Y-labelled CO17-1A, and to 118 MBq (3.2 mCi) of 111In-labelled CO17-1A, while the MTA of 125I-CO17-1A had not been reached at 185 MBq (5 mCi) with BMT. Whereas no significant therapeutic effects were seen with unlabelled
CO17-1A, tumour growth was retarded significantly with its radiolabelled forms. The therapeutic results were significantly
(P<0.01) better with both Auger electron emitters (125I and 111In) than with the β-emitters, and, in accordance with the biodistribution data, a trend towards better therapeutic results
was found with radiometals (more complete remissions) as compared with radioiodine. In contrast, at equitoxic doses, no significant
difference was observed in the therapeutic efficacy of 131I- versus 125I-labelled non-internalizing anti-CEA antibody, F023C5. These data suggest that, at equitoxic doses, the therapeutic efficacy
of internalizing MAbs labelled with Auger electron emitters, such as 125I or 111In, is superior to that of internalizing MAbs labelled with conventional β-emitters. The lower toxicity of Auger electron
emitters may be due to the short path length of their low-energy electrons, which can reach the nuclear DNA only if the antibody
is internalized (as is the case in antigen-expressing tumour tissue, but not in the stem cells of the red marrow).
No preview · Article · May 2000 · European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the involvement of the contralateral knee joint in monarticular antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) by scintigraphy with the cationic (pI >10), 123I-labeled, serine proteinase inhibitor antileukoproteinase (123I-ALP) and to compare the scintigraphic findings with those of radiography and high-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Lewis rats with chronic AIA were examined 2.5 months following arthritis induction (injection of 500 microg of methylated bovine serum albumin/saline into the ipsilateral [arthritic] knee joint and injection of phosphate buffered saline into the contralateral knee joint following systemic immunization). 123I-ALP was injected intravenously into normal rats (n = 4) or rats with AIA (n = 6). The ipsilateral and contralateral knee joints and both ankles were examined by scintigraphy and radiography. Joint cartilage was examined by high-resolution ex vivo MRI, histopathology, and measurement of tissue radioactivity.
ALP accumulation (typically observed in normal articular cartilage) was lost in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral knee joints, but not in the clinically unaffected ankles of rats with AIA. In both knee joints, 123I-ALP target:background ratios and cartilage radioactivity correlated negatively with the loss of toluidine blue staining in cartilage, which documents the depletion of charged matrix molecules. Findings of histopathology confirmed mild alterations in the ipsilateral knee joint and even milder alterations in the contralateral knee joint, while the ankles were normal. Radiography and high-resolution ex vivo MRI failed to detect abnormalities in the contralateral knee joint.
Loss of ALP accumulation appears to document proteoglycan depletion, even in the microscopically altered cartilage of the contralateral knee joint in AIA. These findings underscore the high sensitivity of 123I-ALP for in vivo detection of biochemical cartilage alterations in arthritis, and furthermore, question the use of the contralateral knee joint as a normal control in AIA.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2000 · Arthritis & Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Usually, the red marrow (RM) is the first dose-limiting organ in radioimmunotherapy. However, several studies have obtained only poor correlations between the marrow doses and the resulting toxicities. Furthermore, RM doses are mostly not determined directly but are derived from blood doses by assuming a ratio that is, over time for the respective conjugates, more or less constant between blood and marrow activities. The aim of this study was to determine, in a mouse model, this RM:blood activity ratio for various immunoconjugates, to investigate whether there may be differences between complete IgG and its fragments with various labels ((125/131)I versus (111)In, (88/90)Y, or 213Bi), and to analyze, in more detail, factors other than just total dose, such as dose rate or relative biological effectiveness factors, that may influence the resulting myelotoxicity. The maximum tolerated activities (MTAs) and doses (MTDs) of several murine, chimeric, and humanized immunoconjugates as complete IgG or fragments (F(ab)2 and Fab), labeled with beta(-)-emitters (such as 131I or 90Y), Auger electron-emitters (such as 125I or (111)In), or alpha-emitters (such as 213Bi) were determined in nude mice. Blood counts were monitored at weekly intervals; bone marrow transplantation was performed to support the assumption of the RM as dose-limiting. The radiation dosimetry was derived from biodistribution data of the various conjugates, accounting for cross-organ radiation; besides the major organs, the activities in the blood and bone marrow (and bone) were determined over time. Whereas no significant differences were found for the RM:blood ratios between various IgG subtypes, different radiolabels or various time points, differences were found between IgG and bi- or monovalent fragments: typically, the RM:blood ratios were approximately 0.4 for IgG, 0.8 for F(ab')2, and 1.0 for Fab'. Nevertheless, at the respective MTAs, the RM doses differed significantly between the three conjugates: e.g., with 131I-labeled conjugates, the maximum tolerated activities were 260 microCi for IgG, 1200 microCi for F(ab)2, and 3 mCi for Fab, corresponding to blood doses of 17, 9, and 4 Gy, respectively. However, initial dose rates were 10 times higher with Fab as compared to IgG, and still 3 times higher as compared to F(ab)2; interestingly, all three deliver approximately 4 Gy within the first 24 h. The MTDs of all three conjugates were increased by BMT by approximately 30%. Similar observations were made for 90Y-conjugates. Higher RM doses were tolerated with Auger-emitters than with conventional beta(-)-emitters, whereas the MTDs were similar between alpha- and beta(-)-emitters. In accordance to dose rates never exceeding those occurring at the single injection MTA, two subsequent injections of two doses of 80% of the single shot MTA of 131I- or 90Y-labeled Fab' and two doses of 100% of the single shot MTA of 213Bi-labeled Fab' were tolerated without increased lethality, if administered 24-48 h apart. In contrast, reinjection of bivalent conjugates was not possible within 6 weeks. These data suggest that the RM:blood activity ratios differ between IgG and fragments, although there is no anatomical or physiological explanation for this phenomenon at this point. In contrast to the current opinion, indication for a strong influence of the dose rate (or dose per unit time), not only total dose, on the resulting toxicity is provided, whereas the influence of high-linear energy transfer (alpha and Auger/conversion electrons) versus low-linear energy transfer (beta and gamma) type radiation seems to be much lower than expected from previous in vitro data. The lower myelotoxicity of Auger-emitters is probably due to the short path length of their low-energy electrons, which cannot reach the nuclear DNA if the antibody is not internalized into the stem cells of the RM.
Preview · Article · Nov 1999 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation may have therapeutic advantages over conventional low-LET (e.g., beta-) emissions. Furthermore, fragments may be more effective in controlling tumor growth than complete IgG. However, to the best of our knowledge, no investigators have attempted a direct comparison of the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of a systemic targeted therapeutic strategy, using high-LET alpha versus low-LET beta emitters in vivo. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the toxicity and antitumor efficacy of RIT with the alpha emitter 213Bi/213Po, as compared to the beta emitter 90Y, linked to a monovalent Fab' fragment in a human colonic cancer xenograft model in nude mice. Biodistribution studies of 213Bi- or 88Y-labeled benzyl-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate-conjugated Fab' fragments of the murine monoclonal antibody CO17-1A were performed in nude mice bearing s.c. human colon cancer xenografts. 213Bi was readily obtained from an "in-house" 225Ac/213Bi generator. It decays by beta- and 440-keV gamma emission, with a t(1/2) of 45.6 min, as compared to the ultra-short-lived alpha emitter, 213Po (t(1/2) = 4.2 micros). For therapy, the mice were injected either with 213Bi- or 90Y-labeled CO17-1A Fab', whereas control groups were left untreated or were given a radiolabeled irrelevant control antibody. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of each agent was determined. The mice were treated with or without inhibition of the renal accretion of antibody fragments by D-lysine (T. M. Behr et al., Cancer Res., 55: 3825-3834, 1995), bone marrow transplantation, or combinations thereof. Myelotoxicity and potential second-organ toxicities, as well as tumor growth, were monitored at weekly intervals. Additionally, the therapeutic efficacy of both 213Bi- and 90Y-labeled CO17-1A Fab' was compared in a GW-39 model metastatic to the liver of nude mice. In accordance with kidney uptake values of as high as > or = 80% of the injected dose per gram, the kidney was the first dose-limiting organ using both 90Y- and 213Bi-labeled Fab' fragments. Application of D-lysine decreased the renal dose by >3-fold. Accordingly, myelotoxicity became dose limiting with both conjugates. By using lysine protection, the MTD of 90Y-Fab' was 250 microCi and the MTD of 213Bi-Fab' was 700 microCi, corresponding to blood doses of 5-8 Gy. Additional bone marrow transplantation allowed for an increase of the MTD of 90Y-Fab' to 400 microCi and for 213Bi-Fab' to 1100 microCi, respectively. At these very dose levels, no biochemical or histological evidence of renal damage was observed (kidney doses of <35 Gy). At equitoxic dosing, 213Bi-labeled Fab' fragments were significantly more effective than the respective 90Y-labeled conjugates. In the metastatic model, all untreated controls died from rapidly progressing hepatic metastases at 6-8 weeks after tumor inoculation, whereas a histologically confirmed cure was observed in 95% of those animals treated with 700 microCi of 213Bi-Fab' 10 days after model induction, which is in contrast to an only 20% cure rate in mice treated with 250 microCi of 90Y-Fab'. These data show that RIT with alpha emitters may be therapeutically more effective than conventional beta emitters. Surprisingly, maximum tolerated blood doses were, at 5-8 Gy, very similar between high-LET alpha and low-LET beta emitters. Due to its short physical half-life, 213Bi appears to be especially suitable for use in conjunction with fast-clearing fragments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imaging of cartilage alterations was attempted in joints of rats with chronic antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) using the cationic 123I-labeled serine proteinase inhibitor antileukoproteinase (123I-ALP; pI > 10), which selectively accumulates in normal cartilage, presumably through interaction with negatively charged proteoglycans.
Iodine-123-ALP or 123I-myoglobin, a control protein of comparable size but with different isoelectric point (pI=7.3) was injected intravenously into normal or AIA rats. Joint accumulation was followed by scintigraphy for 14 hr. Tissue radioactivity was assessed by well-counter measurements after dissection. The content of charged molecules in articular cartilage was determined by toluidine blue staining; the degree of joint destruction was assessed in parallel by x-ray, ex vivo MRI and histopathology.
In intact articular cartilage, ALP accumulated to a significantly higher degree than myoglobin. This preferential accumulation was lost in rats with chronic AIA. The target-to-background ratio for 123I-ALP negatively correlated with the loss of toluidine blue staining in cartilage, which documents depletion of charged matrix molecules (r=-0.92, p < 0.01 at 4 hr; r=-0.97, p < 0.01 at 13 hr). ALP scintigraphy was sensitive in detecting cartilage alterations, even though the degree of joint destruction and inflammatory infiltration was mild, as demonstrated by x-ray, MRI and histopathology.
In rat AIA, loss of ALP accumulation appears to document proteoglycan depletion in mildly altered arthritic cartilage. ALP scintigraphy may represent a functional assay for early, premorphological cartilage alterations in human arthritis as well.
Full-text · Article · Oct 1998 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical value of immunoscintigraphy with the monoclonal antibody 99mTc-BW 250/183 in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). The antibody BW 250/183 is an immunoglobulin G1 subtype that binds to the antigen NCA-95, which is expressed on the cell membrane surface of granulocytes.
We studied 51 patients who were referred with the diagnosis of FUO. Thirty-five percent of the patients suffered from infection, 17% had autoimmune diseases, 14% had neoplasms and 8% had other diseases. The remaining 28% of the patients did not have a diagnosis. Planar imaging was performed in all patients, and 19 patients underwent SPECT. In our analysis, both cold and hot spots were considered diagnostic.
Pyogenic infections were visualized correctly in 13 foci. The diagnosis of endocarditis (n = 4) could be determined only by SPECT. False-negative results were found in 4 patients and false-positive uptake was seen in 2 patients. No false-positive uptake or cold spots in the central bone marrow were found in patients with viral, granulomatous and autoimmune diseases or in those patients in whom no FUO cause was found in a 6-mo follow-up. In these patients, a negative scan did not change their diagnostic work-up. Cold spots in the central bone marrow were correctly interpreted in 5 of 6 patients. Sensitivity in detecting pyogenic foci was 73% and specificity was 97%. Positive and negative predictive values were 93% and 87%, respectively. Including areas of decreased uptake in the analysis, sensitivity for detecting an underlying inflammatory or malignant process for FUO was 81 % and specificity was 87%. Positive and negative predictive values were 81% and 87%, respectively.
Immunoscintigraphy with 99mTc-BW 250/183 in patients with FUO has clinical potential for the diagnosis and exclusion of pyogenic causes of FUO. Metastatic malignant disease and high-grade spondylodiskitis could be diagnosed early in a diagnostic work-up by a characteristic cold spot pattern in the bone marrow. SPECT is indispensible for scintigraphic imaging of endocarditis.
Full-text · Article · Aug 1998 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine