H. Beuther

Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Are you H. Beuther?

Claim your profile

Publications (257)686.32 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We carried out a large program with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA): "THOR: The HI, OH, Recombination line survey of the Milky Way". We observed a significant portion of the Galactic plane in the first quadrant of the Milky Way in the 21cm HI line, 4 OH transitions, 19 radio recombination lines, and continuum from 1 to 2 GHz. In this paper we present a catalog of the continuum sources in the first half of the survey (l=14.0-37.9deg and l=47.1-51.2deg, |b|<1.1deg) at a spatial resolution of 10-25", with a spatially varying noise level of ~0.3-1 mJy/beam. The catalog contains ~4400 sources. Around 1200 of these are spatially resolved, and ~1000 are possible artifacts, given their low signal-to-noise ratios. Since the spatial distribution of the unresolved objects is evenly distributed and not confined to the Galactic plane, most of them are extragalactic. Thanks to the broad bandwidth of the observations from 1 to 2 GHz, we are able to determine a reliable spectral index for ~1800 sources. The spectral index distribution reveals a double-peaked profile with maxima at spectral indices of alpha = -1 and alpha = 0 , corresponding to steep declining and flat spectra, respectively. This allows us to distinguish between thermal and non-thermal emission, which can be used to determine the nature of each source. We examine the spectral index of ~300 known HII regions, for which we find thermal emission with spectral indices around alpha = 0. In contrast, supernova remnants (SNR) show non-thermal emission with alpha = -0.5 and extragalactic objects generally have a steeper spectral index of alpha = -1. Using the spectral index information of the THOR survey, we investigate potential SNR candidates. We classify the radiation of four SNR candidates as non-thermal, and for the first time, we provide strong evidence for the SNR origin of these candidates.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The origin of massive stars is a fundamental open issue in modern astrophysics. Pre-ALMA interferometric studies reveal precursors to early B to late O type stars with collapsing envelopes of 15-20 M$_\odot$ on 1000-3000 AU size-scales. To search for more massive envelopes we selected the most massive nearby young clumps from the ATLASGAL survey to study their protostellar content with ALMA. Our first results using the intermediate scales revealed by the ALMA ACA array providing 3-5" angular resolution, corresponding to $\sim$0.05-0.1 pc size-scales, reveals a sample of compact objects. These massive dense cores are on average two-times more massive than previous studies of similar types of objects. We expect that once the full survey is completed, it will provide a comprehensive view on the origin of the most massive stars.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sensitive ground-based submillimeter surveys, such as ATLASGAL, provide a global view on the distribution of cold dense gas in the Galactic plane. Here we use the 353 GHz maps from the Planck/HFI instrument to complement the ground-based APEX/LABOCA observations with information on larger angular scales. The resulting maps reveal the distribution of cold dust in the inner Galaxy with a larger spatial dynamic range. We find examples of elongated structures extending over angular scales of 0.5 degree. Corresponding to >30 pc structures in projection at a distance of 3 kpc, these dust lanes are very extended and show large aspect ratios. Furthermore, we assess the fraction of dense gas ($f_{\rm DG}$), and estimate 2-5% (above A$_{\rm{v}}>$7 mag) on average in the Galactic plane. PDFs of the column density reveal the typically observed log-normal distribution for low- and exhibit an excess at high column densities. As a reference for extragalactic studies, we show the line-of-sight integrated N-PDF of the inner Galaxy, and derive a contribution of this excess to the total column density of $\sim2.2$%, above $N_{\rm H_2} = 2.92\times10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$. Taking the total flux density, we provide an independent estimate of the mass of molecular gas in the inner Galaxy of $\sim1\times10^9\,M_{\odot}$, which is consistent with previous estimates using CO emission. From the mass and $f_{\rm DG}$ we estimate a Galactic SFR of $\dot M = 1.3\,M_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$. While the distribution of diffuse gas is homogenous in the inner Galaxy, the CMZ stands out with a higher dense gas fraction. The low star formation efficiency of the Milky Way is well explained by the low $f_{\rm DG}$ in the Galactic ISM, while the high $f_{\rm DG}$ towards the CMZ, despite its low star formation activity, suggests that, in that particular region of our Galaxy, high-density gas is not the bottleneck for star formation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Source
    A. Hacar · J. Kainulainen · M. Tafalla · H. Beuther · J. Alves
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Filaments play a key role in the molecular clouds' evolution, but their internal dynamical properties remain poorly characterized. To further explore the physical state of these structures, we have investigated the kinematic properties of the Musca cloud. We have sampled the main axis of this filamentary cloud in $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O (2--1) lines using APEX observations. The different line profiles in Musca shows that this cloud presents a continuous and quiescent velocity field along its $\sim$6.5 pc of length. With an internal gas kinematics dominated by thermal motions (i.e. $\sigma_{NT}/c_s\lesssim1$) and large-scale velocity gradients, these results reveal Musca as the longest velocity-coherent, sonic-like object identified so far in the ISM. The (tran-)sonic properties of Musca present a clear departure from the predicted supersonic velocity dispersions expected in the Larson's velocity dispersion-size relationship, and constitute the first observational evidence of a filament fully decoupled from the turbulent regime over multi-parsec scales.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The processes leading to the birth of high-mass stars are poorly understood. We characterise here a sample of 430 massive clumps from the ATLASGAL survey, which are representative of different evolutionary stages. To establish a census of molecular tracers of their evolution we performed an unbiased spectral line survey covering the 3-mm atmospheric window between 84-117 GHz with the IRAM 30m. A smaller sample of 128 clumps has been observed in the SiO (5-4) transition with the APEX telescope to complement the SiO (2-1) line and probe the excitation conditions of the emitting gas, which is the main focus of the current study. We report a high detection rate of >75% of the SiO (2-1) line and a >90% detection rate from the dedicated follow-ups in the (5-4) transition. The SiO (2-1) line with broad line profiles and high detection rates, is a powerful probe of star formation activity, while the ubiquitous detection of SiO in all evolutionary stages suggests a continuous star formation process in massive clumps. We find a large fraction of infrared-quiet clumps to exhibit SiO emission, the majority of them only showing a low-velocity component (FWHM~5-6 km/s) centred at the rest velocity of the clump. In the current picture, where this is attributed to low-velocity shocks from cloud-cloud collisions, this can be used to pinpoint the youngest, thus, likely prestellar massive structures. Based on the line ratio of the (5-4) to the (2-1) line, our study reveals a trend of changing excitation conditions that lead to brighter emission in the (5-4) line towards more evolved sources. Our analysis delivers a more robust estimate of SiO column density and abundance than previous studies and questions the decrease of jet activity in massive clumps as a function of age.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses compelling science cases for a future long-baseline interferometer operating at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths, like the proposed Next Generation Vary Large Array (ngVLA). We report on the activities of the Cradle of Life science working group, which focused on the formation of low- and high-mass stars, the formation of planets and evolution of protoplanetary disks, the physical and compositional study of Solar System bodies, and the possible detection of radio signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. We propose 19 scientific projects based on the current specification of the ngVLA. Five of them are highlighted as possible Key Science Projects: (1) Resolving the density structure and dynamics of the youngest HII regions and high-mass protostellar jets, (2) Unveiling binary/multiple protostars at higher resolution, (3) Mapping planet formation regions in nearby disks on scales down to 1 AU, (4) Studying the formation of complex molecules, and (5) Deep atmospheric mapping of giant planets in the Solar System. For each of these projects, we discuss the scientific importance and feasibility. The results presented here should be considered as the beginning of a more in-depth analysis of the science enabled by such a facility, and are by no means complete or exhaustive.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report on observations of the hydroxyl radical (OH) within The H i, OH, Recombination line survey (THOR) pilot region. The region is bounded approximately between Galactic coordinates l = 29$_{.}^{\circ}$2 to 31$_{.}^{\circ}$5 and b = −1$_{.}^{\circ}$0 to +1$_{.}^{\circ}$0 and includes the high-mass star-forming region W43. We identify 103 maser sites, including 72 with 1612 MHz masers, 42 showing masers in either of the main-line transitions at 1665 and 1667 MHz and four showing 1720 MHz masers. Most maser sites with either main-line or 1720 MHz emission are associated with star formation, whereas most of the 1612 MHz masers are associated with evolved stars. We find that nearly all of the main-line maser sites are co-spatial with an infrared source, detected by GLIMPSE. We also find diffuse OH emission, as well as OH in absorption towards selected unresolved or partially resolved sites. Extended OH absorption is found towards the well-known star-forming complex W43 Main.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims: We resolve the length-scales for filament formation and fragmentation (res. <=0.1pc), in particular the Jeans length and cylinder fragmentation scale. Methods: We observed the prototypical high-mass star-forming filament IRDC18223 with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) in the 3.2mm continuum and N2H+(1-0) line emission in a ten field mosaic at a spatial resolution of ~4'' (~14000AU). Results: The dust continuum emission resolves the filament into a chain of at least 12 relatively regularly spaced cores. The mean separation between cores is ~0.40(+-0.18)pc. While this is approximately consistent with the fragmentation of an infinite, isothermal, gravitationally bound gas cylinder, a high mass-to-length ratio of M/l~1000M_sun/pc requires additional turbulent and/or magnetic support against radial collapse of the filament. The N2H+(1-0) data reveal a velocity gradient perpendicular to the main filament. Although rotation of the filament cannot be excluded, the data are also consistent with the main filament being comprised of several velocity-coherent sub-filaments. Furthermore, this velocity gradient perpendicular to the filament resembles recent results toward Serpens south that are interpreted as signatures of filament formation within magnetized and turbulent sheet-like structures. Lower-density gas tracers ([CI] and C18O) reveal a similar red/blueshifted velocity structure on scales around 60'' east and west of the IRDC18223 filament. This may tentatively be interpreted as a signature of the large-scale cloud and the smaller-scale filament being kinematically coupled. We do not identify a velocity gradient along the axis of the filament. This may either be due to no significant gas flows along the filamentary axis, but it may partly also be caused by a low inclination angle of the filament with respect to the plane of the sky that could minimize such signature.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IRAS 22134+5834 was observed in the centimeter with (E)VLA, 3~mm with CARMA, 2~mm with PdBI, and 1.3~mm with SMA, to study the continuum emission as well as the molecular lines, that trace different physical conditions of the gas to study the influence of massive YSOs on nearby starless cores, and the possible implications in the clustered star formation process. The multi-wavelength centimeter continuum observations revealed two radio sources within the cluster, VLA1 and VLA2. VLA1 is considered to be an optically thin UCHII region with a size of 0.01~pc and sits at the edge of the near-infrared (NIR) cluster. The flux of ionizing photons of the VLA1 corresponds to a B1 ZAMS star. VLA2 is associated with an infrared point source and has a negative spectral index. We resolved six millimeter continuum cores at 2~mm, MM2 is associated with the UCHII region VLA1, and other dense cores are distributed around the UCH{\sc ii} region. Two high-mass starless clumps (HMSC), HMSC-E (east) and HMSC-W (west), are detected around the NIR cluster with N$_2$H$^+$(1--0) and NH$_3$ emission, and show different physical and chemical properties. Two N$_2$D$^+$ cores are detected on an NH$_3$ filament close to the UCHII region, with a projected separation of $\sim$8000~AU at the assumed distance of 2.6~kpc. The kinematic properties of the molecular line emission confirm the expansion of the UCHII region and that the molecular cloud around the near infrared (NIR) cluster is also expanding. Our multi-wavelength study has revealed different generations of star formation in IRAS 22134+5834. The formed intermediate- to massive stars show strong impact on nearby starless clumps. We propose that while the stellar wind from the UCHII region and the NIR cluster drives the large scale bubble, the starless clumps and HMPOs formed at the edge of the cluster.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) line and continuum observations at 1.2mm with ~0.3" resolution that uncover a Keplerian-like disk around the forming O-type star AFGL 4176. The continuum emission from the disk at 1.21 mm (source mm1) has a deconvolved size of 870+/-110 AU x 330+/-300 AU and arises from a structure ~8 M_sun in mass, calculated assuming a dust temperature of 190 K. The first-moment maps, pixel-to-pixel line modeling, assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), and position-velocity diagrams of the CH3CN J=13-12 K-line emission all show a velocity gradient along the major axis of the source, coupled with an increase in velocity at small radii, consistent with Keplerian-like rotation. The LTE line modeling shows that where CH3CN J=13-12 is excited, the temperatures in the disk range from ~70 to at least 300 K and that the H2 column density peaks at 2.8x10^24 cm^-2. In addition, we present Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) 12CO observations which show a large-scale outflow from AFGL 4176 perpendicular to the major axis of mm1, supporting the disk interpretation. Finally, we present a radiative transfer model of a Keplerian disk surrounding an O7 star, with a disk mass and radius of 12 M_sun and 2000 AU, that reproduces the line and continuum data, further supporting our conclusion that our observations have uncovered a Keplerian disk around an O-type star.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims: Understanding the fragmentation and collapse properties of the dense gas during the onset of high-mass star formation. Methods: We observed the massive (~800M_sun) starless gas clump IRDC18310-4 with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) at sub-arcsecond resolution in the 1.07mm continuum andN2H+(3-2) line emission. Results: Zooming from a single-dish low-resolution map to previous 3mm PdBI data, and now the new 1.07mm continuum observations, the sub-structures hierarchically fragment on the increasingly smaller spatial scales. While the fragment separations may still be roughly consistent with pure thermal Jeans fragmentation, the derived core masses are almost two orders of magnitude larger than the typical Jeans mass at the given densities and temperatures. However, the data can be reconciled with models using non-homogeneous initial density structures, turbulence and/or magnetic fields. While most sub-cores remain (far-)infrared dark even at 70mum, we identify weak 70mum emission toward one core with a comparably low luminosity of ~16L_sun, re-enforcing the general youth of the region. The spectral line data always exhibit multiple spectral components toward each core with comparably small line widths for the individual components (in the 0.3 to 1.0km/s regime). Based on single-dish C18O(2-1) data we estimate a low virial-to-gas-mass ratio <=0.25. We discuss that the likely origin of these spectral properties may be the global collapse of the original gas clump that results in multiple spectral components along each line of sight. Even within this dynamic picture the individual collapsing gas cores appear to have very low levels of internal turbulence.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the results of our observations of the S255IR area with the SMA at 1.3 mm in the very extended configuration and at 0.8 mm in the compact configuration as well as with the IRAM-30m at 0.8 mm. The best achieved angular resolution is about 0.4 arcsec. The dust continuum emission and several tens of molecular spectral lines are observed. The majority of the lines is detected only towards the S255IR-SMA1 clump, which represents a rotating structure (probably disk) around the young massive star. The achieved angular resolution is still insufficient for conclusions about Keplerian or non-Keplerian character of the rotation. The temperature of the molecular gas reaches 130-180 K. The size of the clump is about 500 AU. The clump is strongly fragmented as follows from the low beam filling factor. The mass of the hot gas is significantly lower than the mass of the central star. A strong DCN emission near the center of the hot core most probably indicates a presence of a relatively cold ($\lesssim 80$ K) and rather massive clump there. High velocity emission is observed in the CO line as well as in lines of high density tracers HCN, HCO+, CS and other molecules. The outflow morphology obtained from combination of the SMA and IRAM-30m data is significantly different from that derived from the SMA data alone. The CO emission detected with the SMA traces only one boundary of the outflow. The outflow is most probably driven by jet bow shocks created by episodic ejections from the center. We detected a dense high velocity clump associated apparently with one of the bow shocks. The outflow strongly affects the chemical composition of the surrounding medium.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Filamentary structures are common in molecular clouds. Explaining how they fragment to dense cores is a missing step in understanding their role in star formation. We perform a case study of whether low-mass filaments are close-to hydrostatic prior to their fragmentation, and whether their fragmentation agrees with gravitational fragmentation models. For this, we study the 6.5 pc long Musca molecular cloud that is an ideal candidate for a filament at an early stage of fragmentation. We employ dust extinction mapping in conjunction with near-infrared data from the NEWFIRM instrument, and 870 um dust continuum emission data from the LABOCA instrument, to estimate column densities. We use the data to identify fragments from the cloud and to determine the radial density distribution of its filamentary part. We compare the cloud's morphology with 13CO and C18O line emission observed with the APEX/SHeFI instrument. The Musca cloud is pronouncedly fragmented at its ends, but harbours a remarkably well-defined, 1.6 pc long filament in its Center region. The line mass of the filament is 21-31 Ms pc^-1 and FWHM 0.07 pc. Its radial profile can be fitted with a Plummer profile that has the power-index of 2.6 \pm 11%, flatter than that of an infinite hydrostatic filament. The profile can also be fitted with a hydrostatic cylinder truncated by external pressure. These models imply a central density of 5-10 x 10^4 cm^-3. The fragments in the cloud have a mean separation of 0.4 pc, in agreement with gravitational fragmentation. These properties, together with the subsonic and velocity-coherent nature of the cloud, suggest a scenario in which an initially hydrostatic cloud is currently gravitationally fragmenting. The fragmentation has started a few tenths of a Myr ago from the cloud ends, leaving its center yet relatively non-fragmented, possibly because of gravitational focusing in a finite geometry.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the first study of the relationship between the column density distribution of molecular clouds within nearby Galactic spiral arms and their evolutionary status as measured from their stellar content. We analyze a sample of 195 molecular clouds located at distances below 5.5 kpc, identified from the ATLASGAL 870 micron data. We define three evolutionary classes within this sample: starless clumps, star-forming clouds with associated young stellar objects, and clouds associated with HII regions. We find that the N(H2) probability density functions (N-PDFs) of these three classes of objects are clearly different: the N-PDFs of starless clumps are narrowest and close to log-normal in shape, while star-forming clouds and HII regions exhibit a power-law shape over a wide range of column densities and log-normal-like components only at low column densities. We use the N-PDFs to estimate the evolutionary time-scales of the three classes of objects based on a simple analytic model from literature. Finally, we show that the integral of the N-PDFs, the dense gas mass fraction, depends on the total mass of the regions as measured by ATLASGAL: more massive clouds contain greater relative amounts of dense gas across all evolutionary classes.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To study the atomic, molecular and ionized emission of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs), we have initiated a Large Program with the VLA: 'THOR - The HI, OH, Recombination Line survey of the Milky Way'. We map the 21cm HI line, 4 OH lines, 19 H_alpha recombination lines and the continuum from 1 to 2 GHz of a significant fraction of the Milky Way (l=15-67deg, |b|<1deg) at ~20" resolution. In this paper, we focus on the HI emission from the W43 star-formation complex. Classically, the HI 21cm line is treated as optically thin with column densities calculated under this assumption. This might give reasonable results for regions of low-mass star-formation, however, it is not sufficient to describe GMCs. We analyzed strong continuum sources to measure the optical depth, and thus correct the HI 21cm emission for optical depth effects and weak diffuse continuum emission. Hence, we are able to measure the HI mass of W43 more accurately and our analysis reveals a lower limit of M=6.6x10^6 M_sun, which is a factor of 2.4 larger than the mass estimated with the assumption of optically thin emission. The HI column densities are as high as N(HI)~150 M_sun/pc^2 ~ 1.9x10^22 cm^-2, which is an order of magnitude higher than for low mass star formation regions. This result challenges theoretical models that predict a threshold for the HI column density of ~10 M_sun/pc^2, at which the formation of molecular hydrogen should set in. By assuming an elliptical layered structure for W43, we estimate the particle density profiles. While at the cloud edge atomic and molecular hydrogen are well mixed, the center of the cloud is strongly dominated by molecular hydrogen. We do not identify a sharp transition between hydrogen in atomic and molecular form. Our results are an important characterization of the atomic to molecular hydrogen transition in an extreme environment and challenges current theoretical models.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We want to understand the kinematic and thermal properties of young massive gas clumps prior to and at the earliest evolutionary stages of high-mass star formation. Do we find signatures of gravitational collapse? Do we find temperature gradients in the vicinity or absence of infrared emission sources? Do we find coherent velocity structures toward the center of the dense and cold gas clumps? To determine kinematics and gas temperatures, we used ammonia, because it is known to be a good tracer and thermometer of dense gas. We observed the NH$_3$(1,1) and (2,2) lines within seven very young high-mass star-forming regions with the VLA and the Effelsberg 100m telescope. This allows us to study velocity structures, linewidths, and gas temperatures at high spatial resolution of 3-5$"$, corresponding to $\sim$0.05 pc. We find on average cold gas clumps with temperatures in the range between 10 K and 30 K. The observations do not reveal a clear correlation between infrared emission peaks and ammonia temperature peaks. We report an upper limit for the linewidth of $\sim$1.3 km s$^{-1}$, at the spectral resolution limit of our VLA observation. This indicates a relatively low level of turbulence on the scale of the observations. Velocity gradients are present in almost all regions with typical velocity differences of 1 to 2 km s$^{-1}$ and gradients of 5 to 10 km s$^{-1}$ pc$^{-1}$. These velocity gradients are smooth in most cases, but there is one exceptional source (ISOSS23053), for which we find several velocity components with a steep velocity gradient toward the clump centers that is larger than 30 km s$^{-1}$ pc$^{-1}$. This steep velocity gradient is consistent with recent models of cloud collapse. Furthermore, we report a spatial correlation of ammonia and cold dust, but we also find decreasing ammonia emission close to infrared emission sources.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The bandwith, sensitivity and sheer survey speed of the SKA offers unique potential for deep spectroscopic surveys of the Milky Way. Within the frequency bands available to the SKA lie many transitions that trace the ionised, radical and molecular components of the interstellar medium and which will revolutionise our understanding of many physical processes. In this chapter we describe the impact on our understanding of the Milky Way that can be achieved by spectroscopic SKA surveys, including "out of the box" early science with radio recombination lines, Phase 1 surveys of the molecular ISM using anomalous formaldehyde absorption, and full SKA surveys of ammonia inversion lines.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present new Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations of a region in the filamentary infrared-dark cloud (IRDC) G011.11-0.12 containing young, star-forming cores. In addition to the 3.2mm continuum emission from cold dust, we map this region in the N$_2$H$^+$(1-0) line to trace the core kinematics with an angular resolution of 2" and velocity resolution of 0.2km s$^{-1}$. These data are presented in concert with recent {\em Herschel} results, single-dish N$_2$H$^+$(1-0) data, SABOCA 350$\mu$m continuum data, and maps of the C$^{18}$O (2-1) transition obtained with the IRAM 30m telescope. We recover the star-forming cores at 3.2mm continuum, while in N$_2$H$^+$ they appear at the peaks of extended structures. The mean projected spacing between N$_2$H$^+$ emission peaks is 0.18pc, consistent with simple isothermal Jeans fragmentation. The 0.1pc-sized cores have low virial parameters on the criticality borderline, while on the scale of the whole region, we infer that it is undergoing large-scale collapse. The N$_2$H$^+$ linewidth increases with evolutionary stage, while CO isotopologues show no linewidth variation with core evolution. Centroid velocities of all tracers are in excellent agreement, except in the starless region where two N$_2$H$^+$ velocity components are detected, one of which has no counterpart in C$^{18}$O. We suggest that gas along this line of sight may be falling into the quiescent core, giving rise to the second velocity component, possibly connected to the global collapse of the region.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • J.A. Rodón · H. Beuther · P. Schilke · Q. Zhang
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fragmentation is one of the main parameters in star-formation, and apparently there is no correlation between the fragmentation of a region and its physical properties (Palau et al. 2013). But what about its chemistry? Here we characterize the fragmentation and calculate the deuteration fractions for a group of high-mass star-forming regions, and discuss what the relationship between them tells us.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014

Publication Stats

4k Citations
686.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006-2015
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      • Department of Planet and Star Formation
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2003-2012
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • National Research Council Canada
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2010
    • University of Cologne
      • II. Institute of Physics
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2009
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Toledo
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Toledo, Ohio, United States
    • Nanjing University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2002-2006
    • Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany