[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) is a thick filament-associated protein involved in the regulation of contraction and relaxation and thus in vivo cardiac performance. Phosphorylation of cMyBP-C within the N-terminal M-domain promotes actin-myosin interaction and accelerates cross-bridge cycling kinetics, ultimately required for enhancing rates of relaxation and force generation in diastole and systole, respectively. In myocardial samples from patients with heart failure, a condition where contractility is impaired, phosphorylation of cMyBP-C is decreased. Disease conditions are also associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to alterations in contractile performance by inducing oxidative posttranslational modifications (OPTMs) in target proteins.
Aim: Recently, S-glutathiolation of cMyBP-C was reported as an OPTM in a mouse model of salt-induced hypertension. The aim of our study was therefore to map and functionally characterise S-glutathiolation sites in cMyBP-C.
Methods and Results: We focused our investigations on one particular domain of cMyBP-C, C1-M-C2, which has been described to be of physiological importance as it contains the cardiac-specific phosphorylation-regulated M-motif. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis to exchange each cysteine residue in C1-M-C2 singly to non-S-glutathiolatable serine revealed Cys249 as the S-glutathiolation acceptor site. In order to determine the functional consequences of S-glutathiolation, we pre-S-glutathiolated chemically permeabilised ventricular myocytes from wild type (WT) or Mybpc3-targeted knock out (KO) mice. This showed significantly decelerated cross-bridge cycling kinetics in WT myocytes post-treatment, but not in KO. In vitro kinase assays using the catalytic domain of PKA or CaMKIIα revealed that S-glutathiolation significantly reduced phosphorylation of the recombinant WT C1-M-C2 by both kinases, but had no effect on the phosphorylation of a non-S-glutathiolatable mutant Cys249Ser. Interestingly, in myocardial samples from patients with heart failure, increased S-glutathiolation of cMyBP-C was paralleled by reduced overall phosphorylation.
Conclusion: S-glutathiolation of cMyBP-C counteracts its phosphorylation. This translates functionally into a deceleration of force redevelopment and a decline in maximal force. Furthermore, S-glutathiolation was associated with reduced overall phosphorylation of cMyBP-C in the myocardium of patients with heart failure and may therefore contribute to the impairment of contractile function observed under disease conditions.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Cardiovascular Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the MYBPC3 gene, encoding cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) are frequent causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Previously, we have presented evidence for reduced cMyBP-C expression (haploinsufficiency), in patients with a truncation mutation in MYBPC3. In mice, lacking cMyBP-C cross-bridge kinetics was accelerated. In this study, we investigated whether cross-bridge kinetics was altered in myectomy samples from HCM patients harboring heterozygous MYBPC3 mutations (MYBPC3mut). Isometric force and the rate of force redevelopment (k
tr) at different activating Ca2+ concentrations were measured in mechanically isolated Triton-permeabilized cardiomyocytes from MYBPC3mut (n = 18) and donor (n = 7) tissue. Furthermore, the stretch activation response of cardiomyocytes was measured in tissue from eight MYBPC3mut patients and five donors to assess the rate of initial force relaxation (k
1) and the rate and magnitude of the transient increase in force (k
2 and P
3, respectively) after a rapid stretch. Maximal force development of the cardiomyocytes was reduced in MYBPC3mut (24.5 ± 2.3 kN/m2) compared to donor (34.9 ± 1.6 kN/m2). The rates of force redevelopment in MYBPC3mut and donor over a range of Ca2+ concentrations were similar (k
tr at maximal activation: 0.63 ± 0.03 and 0.75 ± 0.09 s−1, respectively). Moreover, the stretch activation parameters did not differ significantly between MYBPC3mut and donor (k
1: 8.5±0.5 and 8.8 ± 0.4 s−1; k
2: 0.77 ± 0.06 and 0.74 ± 0.09 s−1; P
3: 0.08 ± 0.01 and 0.09 ± 0.01, respectively). Incubation with protein kinase A accelerated k
1 in MYBPC3mut and donor to a similar extent. Our experiments indicate that, at the cMyBP-C expression levels in this patient group (63 ± 6 % relative to donors), cross-bridge kinetics are preserved and that the depressed maximal force development is not explained by perturbation of cross-bridge kinetics.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein kinase Cα (PKCα) is one of the predominant PKC isoforms that phosphorylate cardiac troponin. PKCα is implicated in heart failure and serves as a potential therapeutic target, however, the exact consequences for contractile function in human myocardium are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PKCα phosphorylation of cardiac troponin (cTn) on myofilament function in human failing cardiomyocytes and to resolve the potential targets involved.
Endogenous cTn from permeabilized cardiomyocytes from patients with end-stage idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy was exchanged (∼69%) with PKCα-treated recombinant human cTn (cTn (DD+PKCα)). This complex has Ser23/24 on cTnI mutated into aspartic acids (D) to rule out in vitro cross-phosphorylation of the PKA sites by PKCα. Isometric force was measured at various [Ca(2+)] after exchange. The maximal force (Fmax) in the cTn (DD+PKCα) group (17.1±1.9 kN/m(2)) was significantly reduced compared to the cTn (DD) group (26.1±1.9 kN/m(2)). Exchange of endogenous cTn with cTn (DD+PKCα) increased Ca(2+)-sensitivity of force (pCa50 = 5.59±0.02) compared to cTn (DD) (pCa50 = 5.51±0.02). In contrast, subsequent PKCα treatment of the cells exchanged with cTn (DD+PKCα) reduced pCa50 to 5.45±0.02. Two PKCα-phosphorylated residues were identified with mass spectrometry: Ser198 on cTnI and Ser179 on cTnT, although phosphorylation of Ser198 is very low. Using mass spectrometry based-multiple reaction monitoring, the extent of phosphorylation of the cTnI sites was quantified before and after treatment with PKCα and showed the highest phosphorylation increase on Thr143.
PKCα-mediated phosphorylation of the cTn complex decreases Fmax and increases myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity, while subsequent treatment with PKCα in situ decreased myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity. The known PKC sites as well as two sites which have not been previously linked to PKCα are phosphorylated in human cTn complex treated with PKCα with a high degree of specificity for Thr143.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale:
High-myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity has been proposed as a trigger of disease pathogenesis in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) on the basis of in vitro and transgenic mice studies. However, myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity depends on protein phosphorylation and muscle length, and at present, data in humans are scarce.
To investigate whether high myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity and perturbed length-dependent activation are characteristics for human HCM with mutations in thick and thin filament proteins.
Methods and results:
Cardiac samples from patients with HCM harboring mutations in genes encoding thick (MYH7, MYBPC3) and thin (TNNT2, TNNI3, TPM1) filament proteins were compared with sarcomere mutation-negative HCM and nonfailing donors. Cardiomyocyte force measurements showed higher myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity in all HCM samples and low phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) targets compared with donors. After exogenous PKA treatment, myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity was similar (MYBPC3mut, TPM1mut, sarcomere mutation-negative HCM), higher (MYH7mut, TNNT2mut), or even significantly lower (TNNI3mut) compared with donors. Length-dependent activation was significantly smaller in all HCM than in donor samples. PKA treatment increased phosphorylation of PKA-targets in HCM myocardium and normalized length-dependent activation to donor values in sarcomere mutation-negative HCM and HCM with truncating MYBPC3 mutations but not in HCM with missense mutations. Replacement of mutant by wild-type troponin in TNNT2mut and TNNI3mut corrected length-dependent activation to donor values.
High-myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity is a common characteristic of human HCM and partly reflects hypophosphorylation of PKA targets compared with donors. Length-dependent sarcomere activation is perturbed by missense mutations, possibly via posttranslational modifications other than PKA hypophosphorylation or altered protein-protein interactions, and represents a common pathomechanism in HCM.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Circulation Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (FHC) is frequently caused by mutations in the ß-cardiac myosin heavy chain (ß-MyHC). To identify changes in sarcomeric function triggered by such mutations, distinguishing mutation effects from other functional alterations of the myocardium is essential. We previously identified a direct effect of mutation R723G (MyHC(723)) on myosin function in slow Musculus soleus fibers. Here we investigate contractile features of left ventricular cardiomyocytes of FHC-patients with the same MyHC(723)-mutation and compare to the soleus data. In mechanically isolated, triton-permeabilized MyHC(723)-cardiomyocytes, maximum force was significantly lower but calcium-sensitivity unchanged compared to donor. Conversely, MyHC(723)-soleus fibers showed significantly higher maximum force and reduced calcium-sensitivity compared to controls. Protein phosphorylation, a potential myocardium specific modifying mechanism, might account for differences compared to soleus fibers. Analysis revealed reduced phosphorylation of troponin I and T, myosin-binding-protein C, and myosin-light-chain 2 in MyHC(723)-myocardium compared to donor. Saturation of protein-kinaseA phospho-sites led to comparable, i.e., reduced MyHC(723)-calcium-sensitivity in cardiomyocytes as in M. soleus fibers, while maximum force remained reduced. Myofibrillar disarray and lower density of myofibrils, however, largely account for reduced maximum force in MyHC(723)-cardiomyocytes. The changes seen when phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins in myocardium of affected patients is matched to control tissue suggest that the R723G mutation causes reduced Ca(++)-sensitivity in both cardiomyocytes and M. soleus fibers. In MyHC(723)-myocardium, however, hypophosphorylation can compensate for the reduced calcium-sensitivity, while maximum force generation, lowered by myofibrillar deficiency and disarray, remains impaired, and may only be compensated by hypertrophy.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale:
Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) regulates cross-bridge cycling kinetics and, thereby, fine-tunes the rate of cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation. Its effects on cardiac kinetics are modified by phosphorylation. Three phosphorylation sites (Ser275, Ser284, and Ser304) have been identified in vivo, all located in the cardiac-specific M-domain of cMyBP-C. However, recent work has shown that up to 4 phosphate groups are present in human cMyBP-C.
To identify and characterize additional phosphorylation sites in human cMyBP-C.
Methods and results:
Cardiac MyBP-C was semipurified from human heart tissue. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis identified a novel phosphorylation site on serine 133 in the proline-alanine-rich linker sequence between the C0 and C1 domains of cMyBP-C. Unlike the known sites, Ser133 was not a target of protein kinase A. In silico kinase prediction revealed glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) as the most likely kinase to phosphorylate Ser133. In vitro incubation of the C0C2 fragment of cMyBP-C with GSK3β showed phosphorylation on Ser133. In addition, GSK3β phosphorylated Ser304, although the degree of phosphorylation was less compared with protein kinase A-induced phosphorylation at Ser304. GSK3β treatment of single membrane-permeabilized human cardiomyocytes significantly enhanced the maximal rate of tension redevelopment.
GSK3β phosphorylates cMyBP-C on a novel site, which is positioned in the proline-alanine-rich region and increases kinetics of force development, suggesting a noncanonical role for GSK3β at the sarcomere level. Phosphorylation of Ser133 in the linker domain of cMyBP-C may be a novel mechanism to regulate sarcomere kinetics.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Circulation Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), typically characterized by asymmetrical left ventricular hypertrophy, frequently is caused by mutations in sarcomeric proteins. We studied if changes in sarcomeric properties in HCM depend on the underlying protein mutation.
Comparisons were made between cardiac samples from patients carrying a MYBPC3 mutation (MYBPC3(mut); n=17), mutation negative HCM patients without an identified sarcomere mutation (HCM(mn); n=11), and nonfailing donors (n=12). All patients had normal systolic function, but impaired diastolic function. Protein expression of myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) was significantly lower in MYBPC3(mut) by 33±5%, and similar in HCM(mn) compared with donor. cMyBP-C phosphorylation in MYBPC3(mut) was similar to donor, whereas it was significantly lower in HCM(mn). Troponin I phosphorylation was lower in both patient groups compared with donor. Force measurements in single permeabilized cardiomyocytes demonstrated comparable sarcomeric dysfunction in both patient groups characterized by lower maximal force generating capacity in MYBPC3(mut) and HCM(mn,) compared with donor (26.4±2.9, 28.0±3.7, and 37.2±2.3 kN/m(2), respectively), and higher myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity (EC(50)=2.5±0.2, 2.4±0.2, and 3.0±0.2 μmol/L, respectively). The sarcomere length-dependent increase in Ca(2+)-sensitivity was significantly smaller in both patient groups compared with donor (ΔEC(50): 0.46±0.04, 0.37±0.05, and 0.75±0.07 μmol/L, respectively). Protein kinase A treatment restored myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity and length-dependent activation in both patient groups to donor values.
Changes in sarcomere function reflect the clinical HCM phenotype rather than the specific MYBPC3 mutation. Hypocontractile sarcomeres are a common deficit in human HCM with normal systolic left ventricular function and may contribute to HCM disease progression.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Circulation Heart Failure
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perturbations in sarcomeric function may in part underlie systolic and diastolic dysfunction of the failing heart. Sarcomeric dysfunction has been ascribed to changes in phosphorylation status of sarcomeric proteins caused by an altered balance between intracellular kinases and phosphatases during the development of cardiac disease. In the present review we discuss changes in phosphorylation of the thick filament protein myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) reported in failing myocardium, with emphasis on phosphorylation changes observed in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by mutations in MYBPC3. Moreover, we will discuss assays which allow to distinguish between functional consequences of mutant sarcomeric proteins and (mal)adaptive changes in sarcomeric protein phosphorylation.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transmural differences in sarcomeric protein composition and function across the left ventricular (LV) wall have been reported. We studied sarcomeric function and protein phosphorylation in subepicardial (EPI) and subendocardial (ENDO) layers of remote LV pig myocardium after infarction (MI), induced by left circumflex coronary artery ligation. EPI and ENDO samples were taken 3 weeks after sham surgery (n=12) or induction of MI (n=12) at baseline and after β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) stimulation with dobutamine. Isometric force was measured in single cardiomyocytes at various [Ca2+] and 2.2 μm sarcomere length. In sham hearts, no significant transmural differences were observed in myofilament function or protein phosphorylation. Myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity was significantly higher in both EPI and ENDO of MI compared to sham hearts. Maximal force was significantly reduced in MI compared to sham, but solely in ENDO cells. A higher passive force was observed in MI hearts, but only in EPI cells. The proportion of stiff N2B isoform was higher in EPI than in ENDO in both sham and MI hearts, and a trend towards increased N2B-proportion appeared in MI EPI, but not MI Endo. Analysis of myofilament protein phosphorylation did not reveal significant transmural differences in phosphorylation of myosin binding protein C, desmin, troponin T, troponin I (cTnI) and myosin light chain 2 (MLC-2) both at baseline and after βAR stimulation with dobutamine infusion. A significant increase in MLC-2 phosphorylation was observed during dobutamine only in sham. In addition, the increase in cTnI phosphorylation upon dobutamine was 2-fold lower in MI than in sham. Myofilament dysfunction is present in both EPI and ENDO in post-MI remodelled myocardium, but shows a high degree of qualitative heterogeneity across the LV wall. These heterogeneous transmural changes in sarcomeric properties likely contribute differently to systolic versus diastolic global LV dysfunction after MI.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Frontiers in Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously we showed that left ventricular (LV) responsiveness to exercise-induced increases in noradrenaline was blunted in pigs with a recent myocardial infarction (MI) [van der Velden et al. Circ Res. 2004], consistent with perturbed β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling. Here we tested the hypothesis that abnormalities at the myofilament level underlie impaired LV responsiveness to catecholamines in MI. Myofilament function and protein composition were studied in remote LV biopsies taken at baseline and during dobutamine stimulation 3 weeks after MI or sham. Single permeabilized cardiomyocytes demonstrated reduced maximal force (F(max)) and higher Ca(2+)-sensitivity in MI compared to sham. F(max) did not change during dobutamine infusion in sham, but markedly increased in MI. Moreover, the dobutamine-induced decrease in Ca(2+)-sensitivity was significantly larger in MI than sham. Baseline phosphorylation assessed by phosphostaining of β-AR target proteins myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) and troponin I (cTnI) in MI and sham was the same. However, the dobutamine-induced increase in overall cTnI phosphorylation and cTnI phosphorylation at protein kinase A (PKA)-sites (Ser23/24) was less in MI compared to sham. In contrast, the dobutamine-induced phosphorylation of cMyBP-C at Ser282 was preserved in MI, and coincided with increased autophosphorylation (at Thr282) of the cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII-δC). In conclusion, in post-infarct remodeled myocardium myofilament responsiveness to dobutamine is significantly enhanced despite the lower increase in PKA-mediated phosphorylation of cTnI. The increased myofilament responsiveness in MI may depend on the preserved cMyBP-C phosphorylation possibly resulting from increased CaMKII-δC activity and may help to maintain proper diastolic performance during exercise.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is ample evidence that regular exercise exerts beneficial effects on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, remodeling and dysfunction produced by ischemic heart disease or systemic hypertension. In contrast, the effects of exercise on pathological LV hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by LV outflow obstruction have not been studied to date. Consequently, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running in mice (which mitigates post-infarct LV dysfunction) on LV hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by mild (mTAC) and severe (sTAC) transverse aortic constriction. mTAC produced ~40% LV hypertrophy and increased myocardial expression of hypertrophy marker genes but did not affect LV function, SERCA2a protein levels, apoptosis or capillary density. Exercise had no effect on global LV hypertrophy and function in mTAC but increased interstitial collagen, and ANP expression. sTAC produced ~80% LV hypertrophy and further increased ANP expression and interstitial fibrosis and, in contrast with mTAC, also produced LV dilation, systolic as well as diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, apoptosis and capillary rarefaction and decreased SERCA2a and ryanodine receptor (RyR) protein levels. LV diastolic dysfunction was likely aggravated by elevated passive isometric force and Ca(2+)-sensitivity of myofilaments. Exercise training failed to mitigate the sTAC-induced LV hypertrophy and capillary rarefaction or the decreases in SERCA2a and RyR. Exercise attenuated the sTAC-induced increase in passive isometric force but did not affect myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity and tended to aggravate interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, exercise had no effect on LV function in compensated and decompensated cardiac hypertrophy produced by LV outflow obstruction, suggesting that the effect of exercise on pathologic LV hypertrophy and dysfunction depends critically on the underlying cause.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies indicated that the increase in protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated myofilament protein phosphorylation observed in failing myocardium might be detrimental for contractile function. This study was designed to reveal and compare the effects of PKCalpha- and PKCepsilon-mediated phosphorylation on myofilament function in human myocardium. Isometric force was measured at different [Ca2+] in single permeabilized cardiomyocytes from failing human left ventricular tissue. Activated PKCalpha and PKCepsilon equally reduced Ca2+ sensitivity in failing cardiomyocytes (DeltapCa50 = 0.08 +/- 0.01). Both PKC isoforms increased phosphorylation of troponin I- (cTnI) and myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) in failing cardiomyocytes. Subsequent incubation of failing cardiomyocytes with the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) resulted in a further reduction in Ca2+ sensitivity, indicating that the effects of both PKC isoforms were not caused by cross-phosphorylation of PKA sites. Both isozymes showed no effects on maximal force and only PKCalpha resulted in a modest significant reduction in passive force. Effects of PKCalpha were only minor in donor cardiomyocytes, presumably because of already saturated cTnI and cMyBP-C phosphorylation levels. Donor tissue could therefore be used as a tool to reveal the functional effects of troponin T (cTnT) phosphorylation by PKCalpha. Massive dephosphorylation of cTnT with alkaline phosphatase increased Ca2+ sensitivity. Subsequently, PKCalpha treatment of donor cardiomyocytes reduced Ca2+ sensitivity (DeltapCa50 = 0.08 +/- 0.02) and solely increased phosphorylation of cTnT, but did not affect maximal and passive force. PKCalpha- and PKCepsilon-mediated phosphorylation of cMyBP-C and cTnI as well as cTnT decrease myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and may thereby reduce contractility and enhance relaxation of human myocardium.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Archiv für Kreislaufforschung
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular (LV) myocardial structure and function differ in heart failure (HF) with normal (N) and reduced (R) LV ejection fraction (EF). This difference could underlie an unequal outcome of trials with beta-blockers in heart failure with normal LVEF (HFNEF) and heart failure with reduced LVEF (HFREF) with mixed results observed in HFNEF and positive results in HFREF. To investigate whether beta-blockers have distinct myocardial effects in HFNEF and HFREF, myocardial structure, cardiomyocyte function, and myocardial protein composition were compared in HFNEF and HFREF patients without or with beta-blockers.
Patients, free of coronary artery disease, were divided into beta-(HFNEF) (n = 16), beta+(HFNEF) (n = 16), beta-(HFREF) (n = 17), and beta+(HFREF) (n = 22) groups. Using LV endomyocardial biopsies, we assessed collagen volume fraction (CVF) and cardiomyocyte diameter (MyD) by histomorphometry, phosphorylation of myofilamentary proteins by ProQ-Diamond phosphostained 1D-gels, and expression of beta-adrenergic signalling and calcium handling proteins by western immunoblotting. Cardiomyocytes were also isolated from the biopsies to measure active force (F(active)), resting force (F(passive)), and calcium sensitivity (pCa(50)). Myocardial effects of beta-blocker therapy were either shared by HFNEF and HFREF, unique to HFNEF or unique to HFREF. Higher F(active), higher pCa(50), lower phosphorylation of troponin I and myosin-binding protein C, and lower beta(2) adrenergic receptor expression were shared. Higher F(passive), lower CVF, lower MyD, and lower expression of stimulatory G protein were unique to HFNEF and lower expression of inhibitory G protein was unique to HFREF.
Myocardial effects unique to either HFNEF or HFREF could contribute to the dissimilar outcome of beta-blocker therapy in both HF phenotypes.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · European Heart Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myofilament contractility of individual cardiomyocytes is depressed in remote noninfarcted myocardium and contributes to global left ventricular pump dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). Here, we investigated whether beta-blocker therapy could restore myofilament contractility.
In pigs with a MI induced by ligation of the left circumflex coronary artery, beta-blocker therapy (bisoprolol, MI+beta) was initiated on the first day after MI. Remote left ventricular subendocardial biopsies were taken 3 weeks after sham or MI surgery. Isometric force was measured in single permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Maximal force (F(max)) was lower, whereas Ca(2+) sensitivity was higher in untreated MI compared with sham (both P<0.05). The difference in Ca(2+) sensitivity was abolished by treatment of cells with the beta-adrenergic kinase, protein kinase A. beta-blocker therapy partially reversed F(max) and Ca(2+) sensitivity to sham values and significantly reduced passive force. Despite the lower myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity in MI+beta compared with untreated myocardium, the protein kinase A induced reduction in Ca(2+) sensitivity was largest in cardiomyocytes from myocardium treated with beta-blockers. Phosphorylation of beta-adrenergic target proteins (myosin binding protein C and troponin I) did not differ among groups, whereas myosin light chain 2 phosphorylation was reduced in MI, which coincided with increased expression of protein phosphatase 1. beta-blockade fully restored the latter alterations and significantly reduced expression of protein phosphatase 2a.
beta-blockade reversed myofilament dysfunction and enhanced myofilament responsiveness to protein kinase A in remote myocardium after MI. These effects likely contribute to the beneficial effects of beta-blockade on global left ventricular function after MI.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Circulation Heart Failure
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that exercise after myocardial infarction (MI) attenuates left ventricular (LV) pump dysfunction by normalization of myofilament function. This benefit could be due to an exercise-induced upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and activity. Consequently, we first tested the hypothesis that the effects of exercise after MI can be mimicked by elevated eNOS expression using transgenic mice with overexpression of human eNOS (eNOSTg). Both exercise and eNOSTg attenuated LV remodeling and dysfunction after MI in mice and improved cardiomyocyte maximal force development (F(max)). However, only exercise training restored myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA)2a protein levels and improved the first derivative of LV pressure at 30 mmHg. Conversely, only eNOSTg improved survival. In view of these partly complementary actions, we subsequently tested the hypothesis that combining exercise and eNOSTg would provide additional protection against LV remodeling and dysfunction after MI. Unexpectedly, the combination of exercise and eNOSTg abolished the beneficial effects on LV remodeling and dysfunction of either treatment alone. The latter was likely due to perturbations in Ca(2+) homeostasis, as myofilament F(max) actually increased despite marked reductions in the phosphorylation status of several myofilament proteins, whereas the exercise-induced increases in SERCA2a protein levels were lost in eNOSTg mice. Antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine or supplementation of tetrahydrobiopterin and l-arginine prevented these detrimental effects on LV function while partly restoring the phosphorylation status of myofilament proteins and further enhancing myofilament F(max). In conclusion, the combination of exercise and elevated eNOS expression abolished the cardioprotective effects of either treatment alone after MI, which appeared to be, at least in part, the result of increased oxidative stress secondary to eNOS "uncoupling."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro data suggest that changes in myocardial substrate metabolism may contribute to impaired myocardial function in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). The purpose of the present study was to study in a rat model of early DCM, in vivo changes in myocardial substrate metabolism and their association with myocardial function.
Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean (ZL) rats underwent echocardiography followed by [11C]palmitate positron emission tomography (PET) under fasting, and [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET under hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp conditions. Isolated cardiomyocytes were used to determine isometric force development.
PET data showed a 66% decrease in insulin-mediated myocardial glucose utilisation and a 41% increase in fatty acid (FA) oxidation in ZDF vs. ZL rats (both p < 0.05). Echocardiography showed diastolic and systolic dysfunction in ZDF vs. ZL rats, which was paralleled by a significantly decreased maximal force (68%) and maximal rate of force redevelopment (69%) of single cardiomyocytes. Myocardial functional changes were significantly associated with whole-body insulin sensitivity and decreased myocardial glucose utilisation. ZDF hearts showed a 68% decrease in glucose transporter-4 mRNA expression (p < 0.05), a 22% decrease in glucose transporter-4 protein expression (p = 0.10), unchanged levels of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 protein expression, a 57% decreased phosphorylation of AMP activated protein kinase alpha1/2 (p < 0.05) and a 2.4-fold increased abundance of the FA transporter CD36 to the sarcolemma (p < 0.01) vs. ZL hearts, which are compatible with changes in substrate metabolism. In ZDF vs. ZL hearts a 2.4-fold reduced insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt was found (p < 0.05).
Using PET and echocardiography, we found increases in myocardial FA oxidation with a concomitant decrease of insulin-mediated myocardial glucose utilisation in early DCM. In addition, the latter was associated with impaired myocardial function. These in vivo data expand previous in vitro findings showing that early alterations in myocardial substrate metabolism contribute to myocardial dysfunction.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Cardiovascular Diabetology