[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Contact sensitivity (CS) responses, induced by skin painting with reactive haptens like picryl chloride or oxazolone, are classical examples of in vivo immunity mediated by αβ T cells. Our previous studies showed that γδ T cells were required to assist the αβ CS-effector T cells in the successful adoptive cell transfer of CS responses. These spleen and lymph node-derived γδ+ CS-assisting regulatory cells were CD3+, CD4-CD8+, non-antigen-specific, and non-MHC-restricted, and preferentially expressed Vγ5 and Vδ4 variable regions. In the current study we show that systemic treatment of mice in vivo with anti-γδ mAb, produced a similar positive influence on CS responses in two different systems: i.e. active sensitization, or adoptive cell transfer. In addition to augmented CS responses produced by treatment with pan anti-γδ TCR mAb, anti-γδ-V region mAb were examined, and augmentation of CS also was produced by anti-Vγ5 and anti-Vδ4 mAb, the V regions determined previously to be preferentially expressed on γδ CS-assisting cells. We speculate that the positive influence of anti-γδ mAb was not caused by quantitative changes in γδ T cells, because FACS studies demonstrated a lack of in vivo depletion of peripheral blood and lymphoid γδ T cells, and also no depletion of epidermal dendritic γδ T cells (DETC), in mice treated with anti-γδ TCR mAb. Instead, our data favor the hypothesis that CS-assisting γδ T cells can be activated in vivo by anti-γδ TCR mAb interacting with their γδ TCR, at least with the short term protocols we employed, resulting in augmentation of CS responses perhaps by releasing positively-acting factors, such as certain cytokines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Rofecoxib and nabumetone were developed to provide gastrointestinal benefits over traditional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, there is limited comparative information relating to these 2 drugs.
The objective of this study was to compare rofecoxib and nabumetone, at their lower, recommended doses, in patients with osteoarthritis (OA).
Nine hundred seventy-eight patients with knee OA and a positive history of NSAID response were randomized to 12.5 mg rofecoxib per day (N=390), nabumetone 500 mg twice a day (N=392), or placebo (N=196) for 6 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was percent of patients with a "good" or "excellent" Patient Global Assessment of Response to Therapy (PGART) at week 6; PGART was also evaluated over days 1 to 6. Additional end points included investigator assessment of response, pain walking over 6 days and 6 weeks, joint tenderness, discontinuation as a result of lack of efficacy, and quality of life. Adverse experiences (AEs) were collected.
Significantly more rofecoxib (50.4%) than nabumetone (43.3%, P=0.043) or placebo (29.5%, P<0.001) patients had a good or excellent PGART at week 6. Median time to a good or excellent PGART was significantly shorter with rofecoxib (52 hours) than nabumetone (100 hours, P=0.001) or placebo (>124 hours, P<0.001). Results for rofecoxib and nabumetone were similar in all additional end points except pain in walking over 6 days and 6 weeks, in both of which the rofecoxib treatment group demonstrated better results. There were significantly (P<0.050) more overall and serious AEs and discontinuations resulting from AEs with rofecoxib than nabumetone. Five rofecoxib and one nabumetone patients had confirmed thrombotic cardiovascular events (P=0.123). Information on thrombotic cardiovascular events from this study was included in a published, prespecified pooled analysis and is included here for completeness.
At their recommended starting doses for OA, both agents were more effective than placebo. Rofecoxib at a dosage of 12.5 mg demonstrated significantly better efficacy in PGART than 1000 mg nabumetone in these patients known to be NSAID responders. Significantly more AEs occurred with rofecoxib than nabumetone. Considering these data and other recent safety information regarding cyclooxygenase-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDS, physicians must make risk/benefit assessments for each individual patient when considering the use of these agents, as recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · JCR Journal of Clinical Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To compare efficacy among 1578 patients with osteoarthritis randomized to take acetaminophen 4000 mg (n=269), celecoxib 200 mg (n=523), rofecoxib 12.5 mg (n=259), or rofecoxib 25 mg (n=527) in a double blind trial [Vioxx, Acetaminophen, Celecoxib Trial (VACT2)]. Results were also pooled with the similarly designed VACT1 trial.
Patients evaluated over Days 1 to 6 and 6 weeks with Patient Global Assessment of Response to Therapy (PGART) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index.
For VACT2, median time to good or excellent PGART response was 6, 5, 4, and 3 days for acetaminophen, celecoxib, rofecoxib 12.5 mg, and rofecoxib 25 mg (COX-2 inhibitors vs acetaminophen, p<or=0.035; rofecoxib 25 mg vs celecoxib, p=0.01). WOMAC response over the first 6 days was greater (p < 0.05) with both rofecoxib doses than acetaminophen and celecoxib. At Week 6, all COX-2 inhibitors provided significantly greater efficacy than acetaminophen. Good or excellent PGART was numerically, but not significantly, greater with rofecoxib 25 mg (55.4%) than celecoxib (50.6%) at Week 6; a significant difference was seen at Weeks 2 (6.9, p=0.022) and 4 (6.7, p=0.027) and over 6 weeks with analysis of all 5 PGART categories of response (p=0.035). Rofecoxib 25 mg provided greater response (p<0.05) than celecoxib on WOMAC subscales. Pooled analysis of VACT1/VACT2 demonstrated greater PGART (p=0.023) with rofecoxib 25 mg (56.1%) than celecoxib (49.8%) at 6 weeks and greater response to all other PGART and WOMAC endpoints, and confirmed superiority of COX-2 inhibitors to acetaminophen. Overall, tolerability of the study medications was generally good and similar. There was no significant difference between treatment groups in the percentage of patients who experienced a clinical adverse experience (AE). The incidence of discontinuations due to an AE was significantly lower with celecoxib (2.5%) compared to rofecoxib 25 mg (6.3%, p=0.004) or acetaminophen (7.8%, p< 0.001), and did not differ significantly from rofecoxib 12.5 mg (4.6%). Discontinuation rates due to edema and hypertension related AE were similar among all COX-2 inhibitors.
Rofecoxib and celecoxib provided superior efficacy to acetaminophen. There was a more rapid and greater response with rofecoxib 25 mg than celecoxib 200 mg. Rofecoxib 12.5 mg demonstrated greater efficacy than celecoxib 200 mg over the first 6 days, and was similar over 6 weeks. All study medications were generally well tolerated.
No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · The Journal of Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To determine the time to onset of analgesia of rofecoxib based on a patient-level meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled, postoperative oral surgery pain studies.
A search on MEDLINE and of Merck data on file was conducted to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis inclusion criteria required that patients were treated with a single oral dose of rofecoxib 50 mg when they experienced moderate or severe pain after surgical extraction of > or = 2 third molars; study design involved patient randomization, double-blinding, and matching placebo, and onset data from individual patients were available. The meta-analysis of time to onset also required that studies used the two-stopwatch method. Eleven studies fulfilled the onset criteria and included patients who received a single dose of rofecoxib 50 mg (N = 1220) or placebo (N = 483). These studies were analyzed to determine time to onset of analgesia, time to perceptible pain relief, percentage of patients achieving onset of analgesia, and duration of analgesia. Six of the 11 studies included a nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (N = 303) and were included in the onset meta-analysis for comparison. The meta-analysis of overall efficacy also required that data on total pain relief scores over 8 hours were available. Over-all effectiveness of analgesia was based on analysis of 13 studies involving 1330 rofecoxib patients and 570 placebo patients on the endpoints of total pain relief scores over 8 hours and patient global assessment of response to therapy at 24 hours. Eight of the 13 studies with a nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug comparator (N = 391) were included for the efficacy meta-analysis.
Patient demographics and baseline characteristics were similar across treatment groups in each study. Median time to onset of analgesia for rofecoxib was 34 minutes (95% CI, 31-38 minutes), significantly faster than placebo, which did not achieve onset within the 4 hours the assessment was conducted (P < 0.001). Duration of analgesia for rofecoxib 50 mg was > 24 hours. Rofecoxib achieved a greater mean total pain relief score over 8 hours than placebo (17.4 versus 4.4; P < 0.001) and a greater patient response rate on patient global assessment of response to therapy at 24 hours than placebo (73% versus 16%; P < 0.001). Outcomes were similar between the rofecoxib group and the nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug group.
In this meta-analysis of over 1200 rofecoxib-treated patients, a single dose of rofecoxib 50 mg demonstrated a rapid onset of analgesia in approximately half an hour combined with sustained effectiveness, supporting its use as a treatment of acute pain.
No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Clinical Journal of Pain
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Both oral bisphosphonates and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have the potential to irritate the upper gastrointestinal mucosa, and are frequently used by the same patient population.
To determine the rate of upper gastrointestinal adverse events with once weekly alendronate 70 mg and concomitant non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use.
A post hoc analysis was performed on 222 patients who received both medications concomitantly during a 3-month placebo-controlled study. A total of 450 (224 alendronate; 226 placebo) postmenopausal women and men with osteoporosis were randomized. Concomitant non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users were defined as patients who received > or =7 continuous days of any dose of a dual cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibiting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor, or aspirin. A survival analysis was performed, and significance assessed. Logistic regression was used to assess consistency of treatment effect on rate of upper gastrointestinal adverse events across non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug subgroups.
Similar percentages of alendronate (52.7%) and placebo (46.0%) patients used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs regularly. Among concomitant non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users, 11 alendronate and 11 placebo patients experienced upper gastrointestinal adverse events (9.3% and 10.8%, respectively, P = 0.744). Logistic regression revealed no significant interaction (P = 0.722) between alendronate and concomitant non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use.
Based on this subgroup analysis, once weekly alendronate 70 mg used concomitantly with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, did not increase upper gastrointestinal adverse events relative to placebo over 3-months.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
We compared onset of efficacy (during days 1 to 6) of 2 coxibs (rofecoxib, celecoxib) with acetaminophen and nabumetone by using a prespecified approach to data from 4 similarly designed 6-week randomized osteoarthritis trials. In 2 trials, rofecoxib (12.5 mg and 25 mg once daily) was compared with celecoxib (200 mg once daily) and acetaminophen (4000 mg daily). In the other 2 trials, rofecoxib (12.5 mg) was compared with nabumetone (1000 mg once daily) and placebo. Efficacy end points included Patient Global Response to Therapy and Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index scores. Rofecoxib (12.5- and 25-mg doses) consistently demonstrated a faster onset of osteoarthritis (OA) efficacy than the comparator drugs during the first 6 days of therapy of OA patients experiencing "flare." Acetaminophen resulted in the slowest onset of efficacy. There was a strong correlation (0.7) between efficacy response during days 1 to 6 and that averaged over 6 weeks. Rates of discontinuation as a result of lack of efficacy were significantly lower (P < .02) for each of the coxib-treated groups compared with acetaminophen and for rofecoxib 12.5 mg (P = .01) compared with nabumetone. Rofecoxib treatment, with its faster onset of OA efficacy and lower rates of related discontinuations, might provide efficacy advantages in the treatment of OA pain.
The efficacy of rofecoxib, celecoxib, nabumetone, and acetaminophen is established for the majority of OA patients within the first 6 days of therapy, and this predicts efficacy during the longer term. Rofecoxib provides significantly faster time to onset of efficacy and better improvement on multiple measures versus the comparators.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Contact skin immunization of mice with reactive hapten antigen and subsequent airway challenge with the same hapten induces immediate airflow obstruction and subsequent airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) to methacholine challenge, which is dependent on B cells but not on T cells. This responsiveness to airway challenge with antigen is elicited as early as 1 day postimmunization and can be adoptively transferred to naïve recipients via 1-day immune cells. Responses are absent in 1-day immune B-cell-deficient JH(-/-) mice and B-1 B-cell-deficient xid male mice, as well as in recipients of 1-day immune cells depleted of cells with the B-1 cell phenotype (CD19(+) B220(+) CD5(+)). As B-1 cells produce immunoglobulin M (IgM), we sought and found significantly increased numbers of anti-hapten IgM-producing cells in the spleen and lymph nodes of 1-day immune wild-type mice, but not in xid mice. Then, we passively immunized naive mice with anti-hapten IgM monoclonal antibody and, following airway hapten challenge of the recipients, we showed both immediate airflow obstruction and AHR. In addition, AHR was absent in complement C5 and C5a receptor-deficient mice. In summary, this study of the very early elicited phase of a hapten asthma model suggests, for the first time, a role of B-1 cells in producing IgM to activate complement to rapidly mediate asthma airway reactivity only 1 day after immunization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Our objective in this study was to compare the analgesic effects of etoricoxib and oxycodone/acetaminophen in a postoperative dental pain model. Patients experiencing moderate to severe pain after extraction of two or more third molars were randomized to single doses of etoricoxib 120 mg (n = 100), oxycodone/acetaminophen 10/650 mg (n = 100), or placebo (n = 25). The primary end-point was total pain relief over 6 h. Other end-points included patient global assessment of response to therapy; onset, peak, and duration of effect; and rescue opioid analgesic use. Active treatments were statistically significantly superior to placebo for all efficacy measures. Total pain relief over 6 h for etoricoxib was significantly more than for oxycodone/acetaminophen (P < 0.001). Patient global assessment of response to therapy at 6 and 24 h was superior for etoricoxib. Both drugs achieved rapid onset, although the time was faster for oxycodone/acetaminophen by 5 min. The peak effect was similar for both drugs. Compared with oxycodone/acetaminophen patients, etoricoxib patients experienced a longer analgesic duration, had a smaller percentage requiring rescue opioids during 6 and 24 h, and required less rescue analgesia during 6 and 24 h. Oxycodone/acetaminophen treatment resulted in more frequent adverse events (AEs), drug-related AEs, nausea, and vomiting compared with etoricoxib treatment. In conclusion, etoricoxib 120 mg provided superior overall efficacy compared with oxycodone/acetaminophen 10/650 mg and was associated with significantly fewer AEs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Chronic low back pain (LBP) is a growing health problem. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to treat this condition, but have not demonstrated efficacy beyond 2 weeks, and no studies have shown that NSAIDs produce durable improvements in disability.
To evaluate the efficacy and durability of effect of etoricoxib for chronic LBP, a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at 46 centres. Three hundred and twenty-five patients with chronic LBP requiring treatment with an NSAID or paracetamol were randomized 1:1:1 to etoricoxib 60 mg (n=109), 90 mg (n=106), or placebo (n=110), daily for 3 months. Pre-specified endpoints over 3 months included LBP intensity scale (visual analog scale 0-100 mm) time-weighted average change from baseline, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), the LBP bothersomeness scale, patient and investigator global assessments, and measures of quality of life.
Both etoricoxib groups experienced significant reductions in LBP intensity at 4 weeks versus placebo [-15.15 mm and -13.03 mm for 60 and 90 mg, respectively, probability (p)<0.001 for each], which was maintained over 3 months. Treatment resulted in significant improvement from baseline compared to placebo in RMDQ scores (etoricoxib 60 mg, -2.82 and 90 mg, -2.38, p<0.001 for each) over 12 weeks and most other efficacy endpoints. There were no significant differences between treatments in incidence of adverse events (AEs) or discontinuations due to AEs.
Etoricoxib provided significant relief of symptoms and disability associated with chronic LBP detected at 1 week, confirmed at 4 weeks, and maintained over 3 months. Reductions in chronic LBP severity corresponded to improvements in physical functioning and quality of life. All treatments were generally well tolerated.
No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy of a single dose of rofecoxib 50 mg with a single dose of oxycodone/acetaminophen 10/650 mg over 6 h as well as with a multidose regimen of oxycodone/acetaminophen 10/650 mg followed by oxycodone/acetaminophen 5/325 mg over 24 h. Research design and methods: In this double-blind, randomized, two-phase study, patients with moderate to severe pain after surgical extraction of >or= 2 third molars, including one mandibular impaction, were treated with rofecoxib 50 mg, oxycodone/acetaminophen 10/650 mg (singledose phase) followed by 5/325 mg every 6h as needed (multidose phase), or placebo. Patients rated their pain relief and intensity at 18 time points over 24 h. Efficacy was measured over 6 and 24 h by total pain relief (TOPAR), sum of pain intensity difference (SPID), and patient global assessment of response to therapy (PGART). Primary endpoint for the single dose comparison was TOPAR over 6 h; SPID was the key 24-h endpoint. Onset of analgesic effect, peak analgesic single dose of oxycodone/acetaminophen. effect, and duration of analgesic effect were also evaluated. Adverse experiences were recorded.
271 patients were randomized to treatment with rofecoxib (n = 121), oxycodone/acetaminophen (n = 120), or placebo (n = 30). For the single dose comparison, rofecoxib-treated patients achieved pain relief at least as effective as oxycodone/acetaminophentreated patients as assessed by TOPAR6 (12.9 vs 11.3, 95% CI on difference = [-0.1, 3.2], p = 0.059). Patients also rated a single dose of rofecoxib as at least as effective as multidose oxycodone/acetaminophen over 24 h on SPID24 (21.9 vs 18.1, 95% CI on difference = [-1.0, 8.8], p = 0.122). Patients treated with oxycodone/ acetaminophen had a shorter time to onset of analgesia than patients treated with rofecoxib (24 vs 35 min, p < 0.05). Patients in the active treatment groups achieved similar peak effects during the single-dose phase. Individuals treated with rofecoxib demonstrated a longer duration of analgesic effect than those treated with a Patients on active treatment demonstrated better efficacy than patients on placebo on these prespecified endpoints (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). Fewer rofecoxib than oxycodone/acetaminophen patients experienced adverse events (47.9 vs 75.8%, p < 0.001), including nausea (19.0 vs 42.5%, p < 0.001), vomiting (9.9 vs 24.2%, p < 0.01), and dizziness (7.4 vs 31.7%, p < 0.001).
Patients treated with a single dose of rofecoxib 50 mg achieved an overall analgesic effect at least as effective as patients treated with a single-dose of oxycodone/acetaminophen 10/650 mg over 6 h and multidose oxycodone/acetaminophen over 24 h, with fewer adverse experiences of nausea (p < 0.001), vomiting (p < 0.01), and dizziness (p < 0.001).
No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Current Medical Research and Opinion
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To evaluate the use of starting doses of rofecoxib and nabumetone in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee.
A 6-week, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
One hundred thirteen outpatient sites in the United States.
A total of 1,042 male and female patients aged 40 and older with OA of the knee (>6 months).
Rofecoxib 12.5 mg once a day (n=424), nabumetone 1,000 mg once a day (n=410), or placebo (n=208) for 6 weeks.
The primary efficacy endpoint was patient global assessment of response to therapy (PGART) over 6 weeks, which was also specifically evaluated over the first 6 days. The main safety measure was adverse events during the 6 weeks of treatment.
The percentage of patients with a good or excellent response to therapy as assessed using PGART at Week 6 was significantly higher with rofecoxib (55.4%) than nabumetone (47.5%; P=.018) or placebo (26.7%; P<.001 vs rofecoxib or nabumetone). Median time to first report of a good or excellent PGART response was significantly shorter in patients treated with rofecoxib (2 days) than with nabumetone (4 days, P=.002) and placebo (>5 days, P<.001) (nabumetone vs placebo; P=.007). The safety profiles of rofecoxib and nabumetone were generally similar, including gastrointestinal, hypertensive, and renal adverse events.
Rofecoxib 12.5 mg daily demonstrated better efficacy over 6 weeks of treatment and quicker onset of OA efficacy over the first 6 days than nabumetone 1,000 mg daily. Both therapies were generally well tolerated.
No preview · Article · May 2004 · Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of etoricoxib and indomethacin in the treatment of patients with acute gout.
A randomized, double-blind, active-comparator study was conducted at 42 sites. A total of 189 men and women (> or =18 years of age) who were experiencing an acute attack (< or =48 hours) of clinically diagnosed gout were treated for 8 days with etoricoxib, 120 mg/day (n = 103), or indomethacin, 50 mg 3 times a day (n = 86). The primary efficacy end point was the patient's assessment of pain in the study joint (0-4-point Likert scale) over days 2-5. Safety was assessed by adverse experiences (AEs) occurring during the trial.
Etoricoxib demonstrated clinical efficacy comparable to that of indomethacin in terms of the patient's assessment of pain in the study joint. The difference in the mean change from baseline over days 2-5 was -0.08 (95% confidence interval -0.29, 0.13) (P = 0.46), which fell within the prespecified comparability bounds of -0.5 to 0.5. Secondary end points over the 8-day study, including the onset of efficacy, reduction in signs of inflammation, and patient's and investigator's global assessments of response to therapy, confirmed the comparable efficacy of the two treatments. The etoricoxib-treated patients had a numerically lower incidence of AEs (43.7%) than did the indomethacin-treated patients (57.0%) and a significantly lower incidence of drug-related AEs (16.5% versus 37.2%; P < 0.05).
Etoricoxib at a dosage of 120 mg once daily was confirmed to be an effective treatment for acute gout. Etoricoxib was comparable in efficacy to indomethacin at a dosage of 50 mg 3 times daily, and it was generally safe and well tolerated.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2004 · Arthritis & Rheumatology