[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression has been shown to moderate the effects of physical illness self-management (ISM) programs. We attempted to replicate these findings for a mental ISM intervention. Outpatients with serious mental illness (N = 428) from eight Tennessee communities were randomly assigned to receive a peer-led self-management intervention called Building Recovery of Individual Dreams and Goals Through Education and Support or services as usual. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory; the outcome of personal empowerment was measured by the Empowerment Scale. Intent-to-treat analysis using mixed-effects random regression found significant interaction effects between study condition and three moderating symptom profiles. Empowerment was greater for the intervention participants with high levels of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and general symptom distress than for the experimental participants with low symptom levels and the control subjects with high or low levels of symptoms. These results shed light on how mental ISM programs operate and ways these can be improved.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · The Journal of nervous and mental disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study addressed whether psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatment of depressed HIV+ women met standards defined in the best practice literature, and tested hypothesized predictors of standard-concordant care. 1,352 HIV-positive women in the multi-center Women's Interagency HIV Study were queried about depressive symptoms and mental health service utilization using standards published by the American Psychiatric Association and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to define adequate depression treatment. We identified those who: (1) reported clinically significant depressive symptoms (CSDS) using Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale scores of ≥16; or (2) had lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) assessed by World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interviews plus concurrent elevated depressive symptoms in the past 12 months. Adequate treatment prevalence was 46.2 % (n = 84) for MDD and 37.9 % (n = 211) for CSDS. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that adequate treatment was more likely among women who saw the same primary care provider consistently, who had poorer self-rated role functioning, who paid out-of-pocket for healthcare, and who were not African American or Hispanic/Latina. This suggests that adequate depression treatment may be increased by promoting healthcare provider continuity, outreaching individuals with lower levels of reported role impairment, and addressing the specific needs and concerns of African American and Hispanic/Latina women.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · AIDS and Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a mental illness self-management intervention, called Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP), on the use of and need for mental health services over time compared with nutrition and wellness education.
Participants were recruited from outpatient community mental health settings in Chicago, Illinois. Using a single-blind, randomized controlled trial design, 143 individuals were assigned to WRAP or to a nutrition education course and assessed at baseline and at 2-month and 8-month follow-up. The WRAP intervention was delivered by peers in recovery from serious mental illness who were certified WRAP educators over nine weekly sessions lasting 2.5 hrs. The nutrition education curriculum was taught by trained non-peer educators using the same schedule. Mixed-effects random regression analysis tested for differences between the two interventions in (a) self-reported use of 19 clinical, rehabilitation, peer, emergent, and ancillary services; and (b) self-reported need for these services.
Results of mixed-effects random regression analysis indicated that, compared with controls, WRAP participants reported significantly greater reduction over time in service utilization (total, individual, and group), and service need (total and group services). Participants in both interventions improved significantly over time in symptoms and recovery outcomes.
Training in mental illness self-management reduced the self-reported need for and use of formal mental health services over time. This confirms the importance of WRAP in an era of dwindling behavioral health service availability and access.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supported Employment (SE) can help transition age youth and young adults to obtain employment and develop meaningful careers and financial security.
The purpose of this analysis is to examine the role of SE in achieving employment outcomes for youth (ages 18-24) and young adults (ages 25-30), compared to outcomes for older adults. Given the importance of employment to the quality of life of young people in establishing work histories and starting careers, it is important to have a better understanding of what client and program characteristics result in better employment outcomes.
Data are from the Employment Intervention Demonstration Program (EIDP), a multisite randomized controlled trial of SE among 1,272 individuals with psychiatric disabilities in 7 states.
Among all study participants, youth and young adults had significantly better outcomes in terms of any employment and competitive employment than older (>30 years) adults. However, in multivariable models of participants randomly assigned to SE, young adults had significantly better outcomes than youth or older adults. Other significant predictors of employment and competitive employment were future work expectations, not receiving Supplemental Security Income, and receipt of more hours of SE services. Characteristics of youth, young adults and SE programs that enhance employment are discussed in terms of policy and practice.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The prevalence of depressive disorders (DD) was assessed in a multi-site cohort of Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) HIV+ participants. We hypothesized that: 1) DD prevalence would be higher than among women in the general population; and 2) those with treated DD would be more likely than untreated women to be on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and have better HIV disease outcomes.
Methods: 889 women were assessed using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Prevalence and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymia, and minor depressive disorder (mDD) were calculated and matched to 12-month data regarding HAART utilization, plasma HIV-RNA (>1,000), and CD4 (<200 copies/ml). Logistic regression analysis controlled for age, race/ethnicity, income, and education.
Results: MDD 12-month prevalence was 18%, dysthymia 9% and mDD 2%; all were double the proportions found in the adult female population in the U.S. National Co-morbidity Survey-Replication. DD treatment prevalence was 73%. Those with treated DD were significantly more likely than those with untreated DD to be receiving HAART (O.R.=3.21, C.I.=1.29-8.00); there no relationship with adherence. Those with treated DD were significantly more likely than untreated counterparts to have controlled viral loads (O.R.=0.37, C.I.=0.17-0.82), despite controlling for use of HAART, age, race/ethnicity, education, and income. No relationship between treated DD and CD4 was observed.
Conclusions: Depression is highly prevalent among HIV+ women but many depressed women report receiving treatment. Treated women are more likely to be on HAART and to have controlled viral loads regardless of their use of HAART.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: We assessed prevalence of medical co-morbidities among adults with serious mental illnesses via community health fairs at which peer health educators reviewed results with participants post-assessment. We hypothesized that co-morbidities would be more prevalent than in the general population, and predicted significant post-test improvement in health attitudes and efficacy.
Methods: 349 community mental health program clients in NJ, MD and IL attended health fairs run collaboratively by university researchers and peer wellness staff. Conditions tested were diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, overweight/obesity, nicotine dependence, drug/alcohol abuse, and heart attack risk. Participants completed pre/post assessments of multidimensional health locus of control (MHLOC) and wellness attitudes/behaviors. Random regression examined improvement controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and site.
Results: Proportions of participants screening positive compared to national surveys of U.S. adult populations were: 82% vs. 68% overweight/obese; 14% vs. 8% type 2 diabetes; 5% vs. 16% high cholesterol; 32% vs. 29% hypertensive; 42% smokers with 62% nicotine dependence vs. 21% with 57%; 17% vs. 8% alcohol abuse/dependence risk; 9% vs. 2% drug abuse/dependence risk; and 11% vs. 3% high heart attack risk. Multivariable random regression found significantly increased self-rated abilities for health practices (estimate=0.69, p<.01), perceived competence for health maintenance (estimate=0.91, p<.001), and MHLOC subscales for internal control (estimate=0.61, p<.05) and powerful others (estimate=1.74, p<.001), but not chance.
Conclusions: We found higher prevalence of most but not all medical conditions, and participants' health efficacy improved following fair participation. Health risk screening can help address epidemiologic, education, and prevention goals for this vulnerable population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) self-management intervention in reducing depression and anxiety and in increasing self-perceived recovery among individuals with a serious mental illness.
Participants were recruited from outpatient community mental health settings in six Ohio communities: Canton, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, Lorain, and Toledo. With a single-blind, randomized controlled trial design, 519 individuals were assigned to WRAP or to services as usual and assessed at baseline and at two- and eight-month follow-ups. The intervention consisted of eight weekly 2.5-hour sessions delivered by peers in recovery from serious mental illness who were certified WRAP educators.
The mean number of WRAP sessions attended was five, and fidelity ranged from 90% to 92%. Analysis using mixed-effects random regression revealed interactions of study condition by time in each outcome area. Compared with the control group, intervention participants reported significantly greater reduction over time in Brief Symptom Inventory depression and anxiety subscales and significantly greater improvement in total Recovery Assessment Scale scores as well as the subscales measuring personal confidence and goal orientation.
Training in mental illness self-management reduced depression and anxiety and improved participants' self-perceived recovery over time. Results confirmed the importance of WRAP as part of a group of evidence-based, recovery-oriented interventions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the effectiveness of the Building Recovery of Individual Dreams and Goals (BRIDGES) peer-led education intervention in empowering mental health consumers to become better advocates for their own care. A total of 428 adults with mental illness were randomly assigned to BRIDGES (intervention condition) or a services as usual wait list (control condition). Interviews were conducted at enrollment, at the end of the intervention, and 6-months post-intervention. Random regression results indicate that, compared to controls, BRIDGES participants experienced significant increases in overall empowerment, empowerment-self-esteem, and self-advocacy-assertiveness, and maintained these improved outcomes over time. Peer-led education interventions may provide participants with the information, skills and support they need to become more actively involved in the treatment decision-making process.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Community Mental Health Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fundamental aspect of successful illness self-management for people with serious mental illnesses is the ability to advocate for themselves in health and rehabilitation settings. This study reports findings from a randomized controlled trial comparing propensity for patient self-advocacy among those who received a peer-led mental illness self-management intervention called Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) and those who received usual care. Outcomes were self-reported engagement in self-advocacy with service providers, and the relationship between patient self-advocacy and other key recovery outcomes. In a multivariable analysis, at immediate post-intervention and 6-month follow-up, WRAP participants were significantly more likely than controls to report engaging in self-advocacy with their service providers. Higher self-advocacy also was associated with greater hopefulness, better environmental quality of life, and fewer psychiatric symptoms among the intervention group. These findings provide additional support for the positive impact of peer-led illness self-management on mental health recovery.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Community Mental Health Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a peer-led, mental illness education intervention called Building Recovery of Individual Dreams and Goals through Education and Support (BRIDGES).
Subjects were recruited from outpatient community mental health settings in eight Tennessee communities. Using a single-blind, randomized controlled trial design, 428 individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) were interviewed at baseline and assigned to BRIDGES or to a services as usual wait list control condition. Two-and-one-half hour classes were taught once a week for 8 weeks by peers who were certified BRIDGES instructors. Subjects were followed-up at immediate post-intervention and 6-months later. The primary outcome was self-perceived recovery, measured by the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS). A secondary outcome was hopefulness as assessed by the State Hope Scale (SHS). An exploratory hypothesis examined the impact of depressive symptoms on both recovery outcomes.
Eighty six percent of participants were followed up. On average, participants attended five sessions. Intent-to-treat analysis using mixed-effects random regression found that, compared to controls, intervention participants reported: 1) significantly greater improvement in total RAS scores as well as subscales measuring personal confidence and tolerable symptoms; and 2) significantly greater improvement in hopefulness as assessed by the agency subscale of the SHS. While study subjects with high levels of depressive symptoms had significantly poorer outcomes, outcomes were superior for BRIDGES participants regardless of depressive symptoms.
Peer-led mental illness education improves participants' self-perceived recovery and hopefulness over time, even controlling for severity of depressive symptoms.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Schizophrenia Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression is common among HIV-infected women, predicts treatment nonadherence, and consequently may impact vertical transmission of HIV. We report findings from a study evaluating preconception, pregnancy, and postpartum depressive symptoms in HIV-infected vs. at-risk, HIV-uninfected women.
We examined the prevalence and predictors of elevated perinatal (i.e., pregnancy and/or postpartum) depressive symptoms using a Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale score of ≥16 in 139 HIV-infected and 105 HIV-uninfected women (62% African American) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).
The prevalence of elevated perinatal depressive symptoms did not differ by HIV serostatus (HIV-infected 44%, HIV-uninfected 50%, p=0.44). Among HIV-infected women, the strongest predictor of elevated symptoms was preconception depression (odds ratio [OR] 5.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.67-12.19, p<0.001); crack, cocaine, and/or heroin use during preconception was marginally significant (OR 3.10, 95% CI 0.96-10.01, p=0.06). In the overall sample, additional significant predictors of perinatal depression included having multiple sex partners preconception (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.12-4.32, p=0.02), use of preconception mental health services (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.03-6.13, p=0.04), and not graduating from high school (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.06-3.46, p=0.03).
Elevated perinatal depressive symptoms are common among HIV-infected and at-risk HIV-uninfected women. Depressive symptoms before pregnancy were the strongest predictor of perinatal symptoms. Findings underscore the importance of early and ongoing assessment and treatment to ensure low vertical transmission rates and improving postpregnancy outcomes for mothers and children.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · Journal of Women's Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a peer-led illness self-management intervention called Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) by comparing it with usual care. The primary outcome was reduction of psychiatric symptoms, with secondary outcomes of increased hopefulness, and enhanced quality of life (QOL). A total of 519 adults with severe and persistent mental illness were recruited from outpatient community mental health settings in 6 Ohio communities and randomly assigned to the 8-week intervention or a wait-list control condition. Outcomes were assessed at end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up using an intent-to-treat mixed-effects random regression analysis. Compared to controls, at immediate postintervention and at 6-month follow-up, WRAP participants reported: (1) significantly greater reduction over time in Brief Symptom Inventory Global Symptom Severity and Positive Symptom Total, (2) significantly greater improvement over time in hopefulness as assessed by the Hope Scale total score and subscale for goal directed hopefulness, and (3) enhanced improvement over time in QOL as assessed by the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF environment subscale. These results indicate that peer-delivered mental illness self-management training reduces psychiatric symptoms, enhances participants' hopefulness, and improves their QOL over time. This confirms the importance of peer-led wellness management interventions, such as WRAP, as part of a group of evidence-based recovery-oriented services.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the outcomes of two statewide initiatives in Vermont and Minnesota, in which self-management of mental illness was taught by peers to people in mental health recovery using Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP).
Pre-post comparisons were made of reports from 381 participants (147 in Vermont and 234 in Minnesota) on a survey instrument that assessed three dimensions of self-management: 1) attitudes, such as hope for recovery and responsibility for one's own wellness; 2) knowledge, regarding topics such as early warning signs of decompensation and symptom triggers; and 3) skills, such as identification of a social support network and use of wellness tools.
Significant positive changes in self-management attitudes, skills and behaviors were observed on 76% of items completed by Vermont participants (13 of 17 survey items), and 85% of items completed by Minnesota participants (11 of 13 items). In both states, participants reported significant increases in: 1) their hopefulness for their own recovery; 2) awareness of their own early warning signs of decompensation; 3) use of wellness tools in their daily routine; 4) awareness of their own symptom triggers; 5) having a crisis plan in place; 6) having a plan for dealing with symptoms; 7) having a social support system; and 8) ability to take responsibility for their own wellness.
Given the rapid growth of this intervention in the U.S. and internationally, these results contribute to the evidence base for peer-led services, and suggest that more rigorous investigations are warranted in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study explored perceptions of adults with psychiatric disabilities regarding cultural competency of peer-run mental health support groups and programs. Methods: Web survey respondents were recruited via mental health list-servs, web sites, newsletters, emails, and word of mouth. A total of 527 peers were surveyed about cultural competency barriers facing peer-run programs; common reasons for not using peer services; and strategies to engage diverse communities.
Both multicultural and Caucasian respondents agreed that lack of funding and staff education about diversity were barriers to cultural competency in peer programs. Multicultural respondents were more likely than whites to feel that both the recognition of the need for and interest in attending cultural competency training is lacking in peer programs, as well as information about the diverse composition of peer program memberships. Among those who had never participated in peer support, people of color were more likely than whites to endorse feeling they would not belong and believing their languages would not be spoken in peer programs. Whites, on the other hand, were more likely to cite a preference for professional over peer support, while nearly half of both groups indicated that the main reason for non-attendance is a lack of knowledge about peer programs. Qualitative results highlighted successful outreach and engagement strategies.
Study findings informed development of a cultural competency tool that was pilot-tested among peer-run programs. Given the importance of peer support in recovery, these findings suggest the need for additional research on cultural competency in peer programs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article describes a public-academic collaboration between a university research center and the Texas state mental health authority to design and evaluate a unique "money follows the person" model called self-directed care (SDC). SDC programs give participants control over public funds to purchase services and supports for their own recovery.
Through a participatory action research process, the project combined use of evidence-based practice and community consensus as a tool for system change.
The story of this effort and the program that resulted are described, along with quantitative and qualitative data from the project's start-up phase.
Lessons learned about the importance of community collaboration are discussed in light of the current emphasis on public mental health system transformation through alternative financing mechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the 1990s, US welfare reform legislation imposed a 5-year lifetime limit on financial support for low-income families with young children (younger than 18 years). With increasing numbers of single mothers and their children reaching the end of their welfare eligibility, there is concern about potentially high rates of untreated psychiatric and substance use disorders in this population.
To determine the prevalence, correlates, and likelihood of treatment for mental and substance use disorders in a population of urban single mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).
In-person diagnostic assessments were conducted from November 1, 2003, to October 31, 2004.
Cook County, Illinois.
Female TANF recipients and residents of Cook County (N = 333) who were randomly sampled during the final 24 months of their eligibility for TANF.
Prevalence rates of DSM-IV mental and substance use disorders using the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
Lifetime prevalence of Composite International Diagnostic Interview disorders was 61.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 55.7%-66.3%); 12-month prevalence was 46.8% (41.5%-52.2%). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders was 53.2% (95% CI, 47.8%-58.5%); 12-month prevalence was 44.1% (38.8%-49.5%). Lifetime prevalence of substance use disorders was 29.1% (95% CI, 23.9%-33.8%); 12-month prevalence was 9.0% (6.8%-12.0%). Lifetime prevalence of comorbid mental/substance use disorders was 21.3% (95% CI, 16.9%-25.7%); 12-month prevalence was 6.3% (3.7%-8.9%). Only 21.7% (95% CI, 14.8%-28.5%) of participants with 12-month mental disorders received treatment for mental disorders; 41.4% (22.3%-60.4%) of participants with 12-month substance abuse disorders received treatment for substance use disorders.
Despite the high prevalence of psychiatric and substance use disorders in this population, many remain untreated. The consequences of terminating welfare assistance are worthy of further investigation, given the potential for adverse effects on both mothers and their young children.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Archives of general psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined changes in psychosocial outcomes among participants in an eight-week, peer-led, mental illness self-management intervention called Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP).
Eighty individuals with serious mental illness at five Ohio sites completed telephone interviews at baseline and one month after the intervention.
Paired t tests of pre- and postintervention scores revealed significant improvement in self-reported symptoms, recovery, hopefulness, self-advocacy, and physical health; empowerment decreased significantly and no significant changes were observed in social support. Those attending six or more sessions showed greater improvement than those attending fewer sessions.
These promising early results suggest that further research on this intervention is warranted. Confirmation of the efficacy and effectiveness of peer-led self-management has the potential to enhance self-determination and promote recovery for people with psychiatric disabilities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Longitudinal associations between patterns of crack cocaine use and progression of HIV-1 disease are poorly understood, especially among women. This study explores relationships between crack use and HIV-1 disease outcomes in a multicenter cohort of infected women.
Subjects were 1686 HIV-seropositive women enrolled at six US research centers in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Approximately 80% were non-white and 29% used crack during the study period. Cox survival and random regression analysis examined biannual observations made April 1996 through September 2004. Outcome measures included death due to AIDS-related causes, CD4 cell count, HIV-1 RNA level, and newly acquired AIDS-defining illnesses.
Persistent crack users were over three times as likely as non-users to die from AIDS-related causes, controlling for use of HAART self-reported at 95% or higher adherence, problem drinking, age, race, income, education, illness duration, study site, and baseline virologic and immunologic indicators. Persistent crack users and intermittent users in active and abstinent phases showed greater CD4 cell loss and higher HIV-1 RNA levels controlling for the same covariates. Persistent and intermittent crack users were more likely than non-users to develop new AIDS-defining illnesses controlling for identical confounds. These results persisted when controlling for heroin use, tobacco smoking, depressive symptoms, hepatitis C virus coinfection, and injection drug use.
Use of crack cocaine independently predicts AIDS-related mortality, immunologic and virologic markers of HIV-1 disease progression, and development of AIDS-defining illnesses among women.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · AIDS (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-directed care programs give participants control over public funds to purchase services and supports for their own recovery. Data were examined for 106 individuals and showed that compared with the year before enrollment, in the year after enrollment, participants spent significantly less time in psychiatric inpatient and criminal justice settings and showed significantly better functioning. Of approximately $58,000 in direct expenditures by participants over 19 months of operation, 47% was spent on traditional psychiatric services, 13% on service substitutions for traditional care, 29% on tangible goods, 8% on uncovered medical care, and 3% on transportation. Early positive results of this pilot program support replication and evaluation elsewhere.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment guidelines recommend all HIV/HCV-co-infected persons be considered for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, yet obstacles to testing and accessing treatment for HCV continue for women.
To assess awareness of HCV, and describe diagnostic referrals and HCV treatment among women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).
Prospective epidemiologic cohort.
Of 3,768 HIV-infected and uninfected women in WIHS, 1,166 (31%) were HCV antibody positive.
Awareness of HCV infection and probability of referrals for diagnostic evaluations and treatment using logistic regression. Follow-up HCV information was available for 681 (390 died, 15 withdrew, 80 missed visit) in 2004. Of these 681, 522 (76.7%) reported knowing their HCV diagnosis. Of these, 247 of 522 (47.3%) stated their providers recommended a liver biopsy, whereas 139 of 247 or 56.3% reported having a liver biopsy. A total of 170 of 522 (32.6%) reported being offered treatment and 74.1% (n = 126 of 170) reported receiving HCV treatment. In multivariate regression analyses, African-American race, Hispanic/Latina ethnicity, poverty, and current crack/cocaine/heroin use were negatively associated with treatment referrals, whereas elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was associated with increased likelihood of referral and increased likelihood of treatment.
One quarter of women with HCV in this cohort were not aware of their diagnosis. Among those aware of their HCV, 1 in 4 received liver biopsy and treatment for HCV. Both provider and patient education interventions regarding HCV testing and HCV treatment options and guidelines are needed to enhance HCV awareness and participation in HCV evaluation and treatment.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Journal of General Internal Medicine