J. Holder

University of Delaware, Ньюарк, Delaware, United States

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Publications (199)742.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We report on the results of two coordinated multiwavelength campaigns that focused on the blazar Markarian 421 during its 2006 and 2008 outbursts. These campaigns obtained UV and X-ray data us-ing the XMM-Newton satellite, while the gamma-ray data were obtained utilizing three imaging atmo-spheric Cerenkov telescopes, the Whipple 10 m telescope and VERITAS, both based in Arizona, as well as the MAGIC telescope, based on La Palma in the Canary Islands. The coordinated effort between the gamma-ray groups allowed for truly simultaneous data in UV/X-ray/gamma-ray wavelengths during a sig-nificant portion of the XMM-Newton observations. This simultaneous coverage allowed for a reliable search for correlations between UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray variability over the course of the observations. In-vestigations of spectral hysteresis and modeling of the spectral energy distributions are also presented.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2037
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    ABSTRACT: The TeV binary system LS I +61$^\circ$ 303 is known for its regular, non-thermal emission pattern which traces the orbital period of the compact object in its 26.5 day orbit around its B0 Ve star companion. The system typically presents elevated TeV emission around apastron passage with flux levels between 5% and 15% of the steady flux from the Crab Nebula (> 300 GeV). In this article, VERITAS observations of LS I +61$^\circ$ 303 taken in late 2014 are presented, during which bright TeV flares around apastron at flux levels peaking above 30% of the Crab Nebula flux were detected. This is the brightest such activity from this source ever seen in the TeV regime. The strong outbursts have rise and fall times of less than a day. The short timescale of the flares, in conjunction with the observation of 10 TeV photons from LS I +61$^\circ$ 303 during the flares, provides constraints on the properties of the accelerator in the source.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Outbursts from gamma-ray quasars provide insights on the relativistic jets of active galactic nuclei and constraints on the diffuse radiation fields that fill the Universe. The detection of significant emission above 100 GeV from a distant quasar would show that some of the radiated gamma rays escape pair-production interactions with low-energy photons, be it the extragalactic background light (EBL), or the radiation near the supermassive black hole lying at the jet's base. VERITAS detected gamma-ray emission up to 200 GeV from PKS 1441+25 (z=0.939) during April 2015, a period of high activity across all wavelengths. This observation of PKS 1441+25 suggests that the emission region is located thousands of Schwarzschild radii away from the black hole. The gamma-ray detection also sets a stringent upper limit on the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared EBL intensity, suggesting that galaxy surveys have resolved most, if not all, of the sources of the EBL at these wavelengths.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present coordinated multiwavelength observations of the bright, nearby BL Lac object Mrk 421 taken in 2013 January-March, involving GASP-WEBT, Swift, NuSTAR, Fermi-LAT, MAGIC, VERITAS, and other collaborations and instruments, providing data from radio to very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray bands. NuSTAR yielded previously unattainable sensitivity in the 3-79 keV range, revealing that the spectrum softens when the source is dimmer until the X-ray spectral shape saturates into a steep power law with a photon index of approximately 3, with no evidence for an exponential cutoff or additional hard components up to about 80 keV. For the first time, we observed both the synchrotron and the inverse-Compton peaks of the spectral energy distribution (SED) simultaneously shifted to frequencies below the typical quiescent state by an order of magnitude. The fractional variability as a function of photon energy shows a double-bump structure which relates to the two bumps of the broadband SED. In each bump, the variability increases with energy which, in the framework of the synchrotron self-Compton model, implies that the electrons with higher energies are more variable. The measured multi-band variability, the significant X-ray-to-VHE correlation down to some of the lowest fluxes ever observed in both bands, the lack of correlation between optical/UV and X-ray flux, the low degree of polarization and its significant (random) variations, the short estimated electron cooling time, and the significantly longer variability timescale observed in the NuSTAR light curves point toward in-situ electron acceleration, and suggest that there are multiple compact regions contributing to the broadband emission of Mrk 421 during low-activity states.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) is a ground-based array located at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona and is one of the world's most sensitive gamma-ray instruments at energies of 85 GeV to $>$30 TeV. VERITAS has a wide scientific reach that includes the study of extragalactic and Galactic objects as well as the search for astrophysical signatures of dark matter and the measurement of cosmic rays. In this paper, we will summarize the current status of the VERITAS observatory and present some of the scientific highlights from the last two years, focusing in particular on those results shown at the 2015 ICRC in The Hague, Netherlands.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report on simultaneous broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar Markarian 501 between 1 April and 10 August 2013, including the first detailed characterization of the synchrotron peak with Swift and NuSTAR. During the campaign, the nearby BL Lac object was observed in both a quiescent and an elevated state. The broadband campaign includes observations with NuSTAR, MAGIC, VERITAS, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), Swift X-ray Telescope and UV Optical Telescope, various ground-based optical instruments, including the GASP-WEBT program, as well as radio observations by OVRO, Mets\"ahovi and the F-Gamma consortium. Some of the MAGIC observations were affected by a sand layer from the Saharan desert, and had to be corrected using event-by-event corrections derived with a LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) facility. This is the first time that LIDAR information is used to produce a physics result with Cherenkov Telescope data taken during adverse atmospheric conditions, and hence sets a precedent for the current and future ground-based gamma-ray instruments. The NuSTAR instrument provides unprecedented sensitivity in hard X-rays, showing the source to display a spectral energy distribution between 3 and 79 keV consistent with a log-parabolic spectrum and hard X-ray variability on hour timescales. None (of the four extended NuSTAR observations) shows evidence of the onset of inverse-Compton emission at hard X-ray energies. We apply a single-zone equilibrium synchrotron self-Compton model to five simultaneous broadband spectral energy distributions. We find that the synchrotron self-Compton model can reproduce the observed broadband states through a decrease in the magnetic field strength coinciding with an increase in the luminosity and hardness of the relativistic leptons responsible for the high-energy emission.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: List of contributions from the CTA Consortium presented at the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference, 30 July - 6 August 2015, The Hague, The Netherlands.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2015

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Physical Review D
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    ABSTRACT: During moonlit nights, observations with ground-based Cherenkov telescopes at very high energies (VHE, $E>100$ GeV) are constrained since the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in the telescope camera are extremely sensitive to the background moonlight. Observations with the VERITAS telescopes in the standard configuration are performed only with a moon illumination less than 35$\%$ of full moon. Since 2012, the VERITAS collaboration has implemented a new observing mode under bright moonlight, by either reducing the voltage applied to the PMTs (reduced-high-voltage configuration, RHV), or by utilizing UV-transparent filters. While these operating modes result in lower sensitivity and increased energy thresholds, the extension of the available observing time is useful for monitoring variable sources such as blazars and sources requiring spectral measurements at the highest energies. In this paper we report the detection of $\gamma$-ray flaring activity from the BL Lac object 1ES 1727+502 during RHV observations. This detection represents the first evidence of VHE variability from this blazar. The integral flux is $(1.1\pm0.2)\times10^{-11}\mathrm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$ above 250 GeV, which is about five times higher than the low-flux state. The detection triggered additional \veritas\ observations during standard dark-time. Multiwavelength observations with the FLWO 48" telescope, and the Swift and Fermi satellites are presented and used to produce the first spectral energy distribution (SED) of this object during $\gamma$-ray flaring activity. The SED is then fitted with a standard synchrotron-self-Compton model, placing constraints on the properties of the emitting region and of the acceleration mechanism at the origin of the relativistic particle population in the jet.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a 4.5-month multi-instrument campaign (from radio to VHE gamma rays) on Mrk421 between January 2009 and June 2009, which included VLBA, F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, Swift, RXTE, Fermi-LAT, MAGIC, and Whipple, among other instruments and collaborations. Mrk421 was found in its typical (non-flaring) activity state, with a VHE flux of about half that of the Crab Nebula, yet the light curves show significant variability at all wavelengths, the highest variability being in the X-rays. We determined the power spectral densities (PSD) at most wavelengths and found that all PSDs can be described by power-laws without a break, and with indices consistent with pink/red-noise behavior. We observed a harder-when-brighter behavior in the X-ray spectra and measured a positive correlation between VHE and X-ray fluxes with zero time lag. Such characteristics have been reported many times during flaring activity, but here they are reported for the first time in the non-flaring state. We also observed an overall anti-correlation between optical/UV and X-rays extending over the duration of the campaign. The harder-when-brighter behavior in the X-ray spectra and the measured positive X-ray/VHE correlation during the 2009 multi-wavelength campaign suggests that the physical processes dominating the emission during non-flaring states have similarities with those occurring during flaring activity. In particular, this observation supports leptonic scenarios as being responsible for the emission of Mrk421 during non-flaring activity. Such a temporally extended X-ray/VHE correlation is not driven by any single flaring event, and hence is difficult to explain within the standard hadronic scenarios. The highest variability is observed in the X-ray band, which, within the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton scenario, indicates that the electron energy distribution is most variable at the highest energies.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of 71.6 hours of observations of the Geminga pulsar (PSR J0633+1746) with the VERITAS very-high-energy gamma-ray telescope array. Data taken with VERITAS between November 2007 and February 2013 were phase-folded using a Geminga pulsar timing solution derived from data recorded by the XMM-\emph{Newton} and \emph{Fermi}-LAT space telescopes. No significant pulsed emission above 100 GeV is observed, and we report upper limits at the 95% confidence level on the integral flux above 135 GeV (spectral analysis threshold) of 4.0$\times10^{-13}$ s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ and 1.7$\times10^{-13}$ s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ for the two principal peaks in the emission profile. These upper limits, placed in context with phase-resolved spectral energy distributions determined from five years of data from the \emph{Fermi}-LAT, constrain possible hardening of the Geminga pulsar emission spectra above $\sim$50 GeV.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: A flare from the TeV blazar Mrk 421, occurring in March 2010, was observed for 13 consecutive days from radio to very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-rays with MAGIC, VERITAS, Whipple, FermiLAT, MAXI, RXTE, Swift, GASP-WEBT, and several optical and radio telescopes. We model the day-scale SEDs with one-zone and two-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models, investigate the physical parameters, and evaluate whether the observed broadband SED variability can be associated to variations in the relativistic particle population. Flux variability was remarkable in the X-ray and VHE bands while it was minor or not significant in the other bands. The one-zone SSC model can describe reasonably well the SED of each day for the 13 consecutive days. This flaring activity is also very well described by a two-zone SSC model, where one zone is responsible for the quiescent emission while the other smaller zone, which is spatially separated from the first one, contributes to the daily-variable emission occurring in X-rays and VHE gamma-rays. Both the one-zone SSC and the two-zone SSC models can describe the daily SEDs via the variation of only four or five model parameters, under the hypothesis that the variability is associated mostly to the underlying particle population. This shows that the particle acceleration and cooling mechanism producing the radiating particles could be the main one responsible for the broadband SED variations during the flaring episodes in blazars. The two-zone SSC model provides a better agreement to the observed SED at the narrow peaks of the low- and high-energy bumps during the highest activity, although the reported one-zone SSC model could be further improved by the variation of the parameters related to the emitting region itself ($\delta$, $B$ and $R$), in addition to the parameters related to the particle population.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959+650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift UVOT, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 17 April 2012 and 1 June 2012 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters required to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected-emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected by a nearby cloud of gas, allowing the reflected emission to re-enter the blob and produce an elevated gamma-ray state with no simultaneous elevated synchrotron flux. The model applied here, although not required to explain the observed variability pattern, represents one possible scenario which can describe the observations. As applied to an elevated VHE state of 66% of the Crab Nebula flux, observed on a single night during the observation period, the reflected-emission scenario does not support a purely leptonic non-thermal emission mechanism. The reflected emission model does, however, predict a reflected photon field with sufficient energy to enable elevated gamma-ray emission via pion production with protons of energies between 10 and 100 TeV.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from VERITAS observations of the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 spanning the years 2010, 2011, and 2012. The time-averaged spectrum, measured between 160 and 560\,GeV, is well described by a power law with a spectral index of $4.33 \pm 0.09$. The time-averaged integral flux above $200\,$GeV measured for this period was $(1.69 \pm 0.06) \times 10^{-11} \, \mathrm{ph} \, \mathrm{cm}^{-2} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1}$, corresponding to 6.9\% of the Crab Nebula flux. We also present the combined $\gamma$-ray spectrum from the Fermi Large Area Telescope and VERITAS covering an energy range from 100~MeV to 560~GeV. The data are well fit by a power law with an exponential cutoff at $\rm {101.9 \pm 3.2 \, \mathrm{GeV}} $. The origin of the cutoff could be intrinsic to PG~1553+113 or be due to the $\gamma$-ray opacity of our universe through pair production off the extragalactic background light (EBL). Given lower limits to the redshift of $\rm z \negthinspace > \negthinspace 0.395$ based on optical/UV observations of PG~1553+113, the cutoff would be dominated by EBL absorption. Conversely, the small statistical uncertainties of the VERITAS energy spectrum have allowed us to provide a robust upper limit on the redshift of PG 1553+113 of $z \negthinspace \leq \negthinspace 0.62$. A strongly-elevated mean flux of $(2.50 \pm 0.14) \times 10^{-11} \, \mathrm{ph} \, \mathrm{cm}^{-2} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1}$ (10.3\% of the Crab Nebula flux) was observed during 2012, with the daily flux reaching as high as $(4.44 \pm 0.71) \times 10^{-11} \, \mathrm{ph} \, \mathrm{cm}^{-2} \, \mathrm{s}^{-1}$ (18.3\% of the Crab Nebula flux) on MJD 56048. The light curve measured during the 2012 observing season is marginally inconsistent with a steady flux, giving a $\chi^2$ probability for a steady flux of 0.03\%.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report on multifrequency observations performed during 2012 December–2013 August of the first narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy detected in γ-rays, PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.5846). A γ-ray flare was observed by the Large Area Telescope on board Fermi during 2012 December–2013 January, reaching a daily peak flux in the 0.1–100 GeV energy range of (155 ± 31) × 10−8 ph cm−2 s−1 on 2013 January 1, corresponding to an apparent isotropic luminosity of ∼1.5 × 1048 erg s−1. The γ-ray flaring period triggered Swift and Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) observations in addition to radio and optical monitoring by Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Monitoring Of Jets in Active galactic nuclei with VLBA Experiments, and Catalina Real-time Transient Survey. A strong flare was observed in optical, UV, and X-rays on 2012 December 30, quasi-simultaneously to the γ-ray flare, reaching a record flux for this source from optical to γ-rays. VERITAS observations at very high energy (E > 100 GeV) during 2013 January 6–17 resulted in an upper limit of F>0.2 TeV < 4.0 × 10−12 ph cm−2 s−1. We compared the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the flaring state in 2013 January with that of an intermediate state observed in 2011. The two SEDs, modelled as synchrotron emission and an external Compton scattering of seed photons from a dust torus, can be modelled by changing both the electron distribution parameters and the magnetic field.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Mrk 501 is one of the brightest blazars at TeV energies and has been extensively studied since its first VHE detection in 1996. Our goal is to characterize in detail the source gamma-ray emission, together with the radio-to-X-ray emission, during the non-flaring (low) activity, which is less often studied than the occasional flaring (high) activity. We organized a multiwavelength (MW) campaign on Mrk 501 between March and May 2008. This multi-instrument effort included the most sensitive VHE gamma-ray instruments in the northern hemisphere, namely the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes MAGIC and VERITAS, as well as Swift, RXTE, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments. Mrk 501 was found to be in a low state of activity during the campaign, with a VHE flux in the range of 10%-20% of the Crab nebula flux. Nevertheless, significant flux variations were detected with various instruments, with a trend of increasing variability with energy. The broadband spectral energy distribution during the two different emission states of the campaign can be adequately described within the homogeneous one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model, with the (slightly) higher state described by an increase in the electron number density. This agrees with previous studies of the broadband emission of this source during flaring and non-flaring states. We report for the first time a tentative X-ray-to-VHE correlation during a low VHE activity. Although marginally significant, this positive correlation between X-ray and VHE, which has been reported many times during flaring activity, suggests that the mechanisms that dominate the X-ray/VHE emission during non-flaring-activity are not substantially different from those that are responsible for the emission during flaring activity.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Prompt emission from the very fluent and nearby (z=0.34) gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was detected by several orbiting telescopes and by ground-based, wide-field-of-view optical transient monitors. Apart from the intensity and proximity of this GRB, it is exceptional due to the extremely long-lived high-energy (100 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, which was detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope for ~70 ks after the initial burst. The persistent, hard-spectrum, high-energy emission suggests that the highest-energy gamma rays may have been produced via synchrotron self-Compton processes though there is also evidence that the high-energy emission may instead be an extension of the synchrotron spectrum. VERITAS, a ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, began follow-up observations of GRB 130427A ~71 ks (~20 hr) after the onset of the burst. The GRB was not detected with VERITAS; however, the high elevation of the observations, coupled with the low redshift of the GRB, make VERITAS a very sensitive probe of the emission from GRB 130427A for E > 100 GeV. The non-detection and consequent upper limit derived place constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton model of high-energy gamma-ray emission from this burst.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
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    Jamie Holder
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    ABSTRACT: This paper is the write-up of a rapporteur talk given by the author at the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2013. It attempts to summarize results and developments in ground-based gamma-ray observations and instrumentation from among the $\sim300$ submissions to the gamma-ray sessions of the meeting. Satellite observations and theoretical developments were covered by a companion rapporteur. Any review of this nature is unavoidably subjective, and incomplete. Nevertheless, the article should provide a useful status report for those seeking an overview of this exciting and fast-moving field.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Brazilian Journal of Physics
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a multi-wavelength campaign targeting the blazar 1ES 1218+30.4 with observations with the 1.3 m McGraw-Hill optical telescope, the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, and the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). The RXTE and VERITAS observations were spread over a 13 day period and revealed clear evidence for flux variability, and a strong X-ray and γ-ray flare on 2009 February 26 (MJD 54888). The campaign delivered a well-sampled broadband energy spectrum with simultaneous RXTE and VERITAS very high energy (VHE, >100 GeV) observations, as well as contemporaneous optical and Fermi observations. The 1ES 1218+30.4 broadband energy spectrum—the first with simultaneous X-ray and VHE γ-ray energy spectra—is of particular interest as the source is located at a high cosmological redshift for a VHE source (z = 0.182), leading to strong absorption of VHE gamma rays by photons from the optical/infrared extragalactic background light (EBL) via γVHE + γEBL → e +e – pair-creation processes. We model the data with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission model and with the extragalactic absorption predicted by several recent EBL models. We find that the observations are consistent with the SSC scenario and all the EBL models considered in this work. We discuss observational and theoretical avenues to improve on the EBL constraints.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

3k Citations
742.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1022-2015
    • University of Delaware
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Ньюарк, Delaware, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Physics
      Saint Louis, MO, United States
  • 2001-2013
    • University of Leeds
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Leeds, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008-2012
    • McGill University
      • Department of Physics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • National University of Ireland, Galway
      • School of Physics
      Galway, C, Ireland
  • 2011
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2009
    • Yamanashi Gakuin University
      Kōhu, Yamanashi, Japan
  • 1998-2008
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Institute for Cosmic Ray Research
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 2006
    • University of Utah
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Salt Lake City, UT, United States
  • 2000-2006
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      • Laboratoire de l'Accélérateur Linéaire (LAL)
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
  • 2005
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002
    • Iowa State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Ames, Iowa, United States
  • 1995-1999
    • Durham University
      • Department of Physics
      Durham, ENG, United Kingdom