[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The amount of available DNA is often a limiting factor in pursuing genetic analyses of large-scale population cohorts. An association between higher DNA yield from blood and several phenotypes associated with inflammatory states has recently been demonstrated, suggesting that exclusion of samples with very low DNA yield may lead to biased results in statistical analyses. Whole genome amplification (WGA) could present a solution to the DNA concentration-dependent sample selection. The aim was to thoroughly assess WGA for samples with low DNA yield, using the multiply-primed rolling circle amplification method. Fifty-nine samples were selected with the lowest DNA yield (less than 7.5 microg) among 799 samples obtained for one population cohort. The genotypes obtained from two replicate WGA samples and the original genomic DNA were compared by typing 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Multiple genotype discrepancies were identified for 13 of the 59 samples. The largest portion of discrepancies was due to allele dropout in heterozygous genotypes in WGA samples. Pooling the WGA DNA replicates prior to genotyping markedly improved genotyping reproducibility for the samples, with only 7 discrepancies identified in 4 samples. The nature of discrepancies was mostly homozygote genotypes in the genomic DNA and heterozygote genotypes in the WGA sample, suggesting possible allele dropout in the genomic DNA sample due to very low amounts of DNA template. Thus, WGA is applicable for low DNA yield samples, especially if using pooled WGA samples. A higher rate of genotyping errors requires that increased attention be paid to genotyping quality control, and caution when interpreting results.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2005 · Twin Research and Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed a SNP microarray for paternity testing, which contains 10 SNPs and in addition X and Y chromosome-specific markers. SNPs were selected with an emphasis on their high allele frequency in the Finnish population. Coding regions of known genes were excluded. With this setup of SNPs, we have calculated the average exclusion power in paternity testing to be 86.5%. The array was validated by comparison with the results in 120 paternity trios obtained with microsatellite markers (Profiler™ and SGM+™ kits, Applied Biosystems). We conclude that the SNP microarray provides a feasible method to obtain additional genotype information especially in complex paternity cases.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2004 · International Congress Series
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compared to mixed populations, population isolates such as Finland show distinct differences in the prevalence of disease mutations. However, little information exists of the differences on the prevalence of different disease alleles in regional populations with different history of multiple bottlenecks. We constructed a DNA-array and monitored the prevalence of 31 rare and common disease mutations underlying 27 clinical phenotypes in a large population-based study sample. Over 64 000 genotypes were assigned in 2151 samples from four geographical areas representing early and late settlement regions of Finland. Each sample was analyzed in duplicate and a total of 142 000 array-derived genotyping calls were made. On average one in three individuals was found to be a carrier of one of the 31 monitored mutations. This should remove fears of the stigmatizing effect of a carrier-screening program monitoring multiple diseases. Regional differences were found in the prevalence of mutations, providing molecular evidence for the deviating population histories of regional subisolates. The mutations introduced early into the population revealed relatively even distribution in different subregions. More recently introduced rare mutations showed local clustering of disease alleles, indicating the persistence of population subisolates and the effect of multiple bottlenecks in molding the population gene pool. Regional differences were observed also for common disease alleles. Such precise information of the carrier frequencies could form the basis for targeted genetic screens in this population. Our approach describes a general paradigm for large-scale carrier-screening programs also in other populations.
Preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To discuss the diagnostic criteria for Rett syndrome based on mutational screening of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene ( MECP2 ) in patients with classic Rett syndrome and patients with Rett-like features.
Thirty-nine patients with classical Rett syndrome, one with preserved speech variant (PSV), and 12 patients with developmental delay and some features of Rett syndrome were recruited for sequence analysis of the MECP2 gene coding region. The phenotype of the patients was correlated with the presence and type of the mutation as well as the X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) pattern.
found in 100% of the patients with classical Rett syndrome originating from Finland. One novel mutation, P127L, was detected in a patient with PSV. No mutations were found in other cases. The XCI status was found to be random in 72% of the patients with classical Rett syndrome, including the patient with PSV and all patients with developmental delay informative for the analysis.
An MECP2 mutation can be found in almost every patient with classical Rett syndrome. More patients need to be analyzed in order to clarify the mutation prevalence in patients with atypical Rett syndrome and in patients with mental retardation.