Enio Marchezan

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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Publications (79)34.41 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of carbofuran commercial formulation on oxidative stress parameters were studied in carps (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to 50 µg/L for 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were increased in the brain of fish after 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. In the liver and muscle, TBARS levels increased after 7 and 30 days under laboratory conditions, whereas in rice field the levels increased only after 30 days. Protein carbonyl content in the liver increased after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was decreased in the brain and muscle after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions evaluated. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in the liver after 7 and 30 days under rice field condition, whereas under laboratory condition this enzyme increased only after 30 days. The catalase (CAT) activity in the liver decreased after 30 days under rice field condition, whereas no changes were observed under laboratory conditions. In rice field, glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreased after 7 days but increased after 30 days, whereas no change was observed in fish exposed to carbofuran under laboratory conditions. These results suggest that environmental relevant carbofuran concentrations may cause oxidative stress, affecting biochemical and enzymatic parameters on carps. Some parameters could be used as biomarkers to carbofuran exposure.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herbicidas do grupo das imidazolinonas, como imazethapyr e imazapic, podem persistir no solo e afetar culturas não-tolerantes cultivadas em sucessão. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito residual da mistura formulada de imazethapyr+imazapic sobre azevém semeado e conduzido sob condições de casa de vegetação. Para isso, inicialmente foi conduzido um experimento em campo, em que aplicou-se sobre a cultivar tolerante de arroz ("IRGA 422 CL") diferentes doses da mistura formulada de imazethapyr+imazapic, representadas por: 0L ha-1 (testemunha); 0,7L ha-1 em pré-emergência (PRE) seguido da aplicação de 0,7L ha-1 em pós-emergência (POS); 1,0L ha-1 em PRE; e 1,0L ha-1 em POS. Posteriormente, aos 194 dias após a aplicação das doses, foram coletadas amostras intactas de solo na camada de 0-10cm, as quais foram utilizadas na condução de um bioensaio com azevém. Foram avaliadas a porcentagem de plantas emergidas aos três e 22 DAE (dias após a emergência) e a matéria seca do azevém aos 40 DAE. Verificou-se que a aplicação dos herbicidas na cultura do arroz no verão não ocasiona danos ao azevém semeado 194 dias após a aplicação do produto.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · Ciência Rural
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imidazolinone herbicides, such as imazethapyr and imazapic, may persist in the soil and carryover to non-tolerant crops. This work aimed at evaluating the field carryover of the formulated mixture of imazethapyr+imazapic affecting ryegrass. For this reason, a field experiment was carried out, in which different rates of the formulated mixture of imazethapyr and imazapic were applied on a tolerant rice cultivar (';IRGA 422 CL';): 0L ha-1 (check plot); 0.7L ha-1 preemergence (PRE) followed by 0.7L ha-1 postemergence (POS); 1.0L ha-1 PRE; 1.0L ha-1 POS. Later, 194 days after herbicide application, intact soils cores samples were collected at 0 to 10cm depth to carry out a bioassay in greenhouse, sowing ryegrass. It was evaluated the percentage of plants established at three and 22 DAE (days after emergence) and ryegrass dry biomass at 40 DAE. The results showed that herbicides applied on rice crop during summer does not cause damage to the ryegrass sowed 194 days after herbicide application.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · Ciência Rural
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    Melissa Walter · Enio Marchezan · Luis Antonio de Avila
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the importance of rice in the diet, its composition and nutritional characteristics are related to human's health. This cereal is a source of energy, due to its high starch content, also providing proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals. The present review aimed at examining rice composition, its nutritional characteristics, and the improvement of these characteristics through genetic modification. Variations in rice composition are observed due to genotype and processing, affecting nutritional characteristics. Rice has a positive effect on the prevention of several chronic diseases due to different constituents, and its composition has been improved through genetic modifications, resulting in grains with more interesting nutritional characteristics.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Ciência Rural
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    Melissa Walter · Enio Marchezan · Luis Antonio de Avila
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Devido à importância do arroz na dieta, sua composição e suas características nutricionais estão diretamente relacionadas à saúde da população. Este cereal constitui-se em fonte de energia, devido ao alto teor de amido, fornecendo também proteínas, lipídios, vitaminas e minerais. O presente trabalho de revisão objetivou examinar a composição do arroz, suas características nutricionais e o melhoramento destas através da genética. São observadas variações na composição do arroz, tanto devido ao genótipo quanto ao processamento, afetando as características nutricionais. O arroz apresenta efeito positivo na prevenção de diversas doenças crônicas devido a diferentes constituintes, e sua composição vem sendo melhorada através da genética, obtendo-se grãos com características nutricionais mais interessantes.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Ciência Rural
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of different herbicides on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase and TBARS formation in teleost fish (Leporinus obtusidens) were studied. Fish were exposed during 30 days at concentrations of herbicides used in rice field. AChE activity in the brain decreased significantly after exposure to the herbicides clomazone and quinclorac. However, AChE activity increased significantly in muscle tissue after exposure to clomazone, propanil and metsulfuron methyl. Fish exposed to quinclorac, propanil and metsulfuron methyl showed TBARS decreased levels in brain and muscle tissues. However, TBARS and catalase activity increased in liver tissue after clomazone and propanil exposure. This study pointed out long-term effects on AChE activity, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme catalase in tissues of L. obtusidens after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of rice field herbicides. These parameters have been used to monitor fish toxicity in rice field system.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Chemosphere
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of plant densities, nitrogen rates and foliar diseases control on the physical, physiological and sanitary qualities of rice seeds. The experiment was conducted during 2003/2004 growing seasons in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil. The treatments were: three plant densities (150, 260 and 380 plants m-2), five nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160kg ha-1), and control or no control of foliage diseases. The nitrogen fertilizer was top-dressed, and split in two times. There was no triple interaction among the parameters evaluated. Increasing nitrogen rates resulted in higher seed protein content. The chemical control of diseases contributed for better physiological and sanitary qualities such as better germination and vigor and lower incidence of pathogens associated with seeds.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Ciência Rural
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A field experiment was aimed at evaluating the effects of plant densities, nitrogen rates and chemical disease control on agronomic characteristics that affect grain yield of irrigated rice. The study was conducted during 2003/2004, in the Departamento de Fitotecnia of Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks with sub-plots and four replicates, in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil and the treatments were: three plant densities (150, 260 and 380plants m-2), five nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160kg ha-1) with and without chemical foliar disease control. The nitrogen was dressing was twice split at initial tillering and panicle differentiation. Grain yield increased in a quadratic fashion in response to nitrogen rates to up to 97kg ha-1. The use of fungicides to control foliar diseases resulted in higher grain yelds regardless of plant population or nitrogen fertilizer rates. Irrigated rice can compensate yield components between 150 and 380plants m-2. The most efficient rate of nitrogen was 97kg ha-1. Chemical foliar diseases control increases irrigated rice productivity even at low disease incidence.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · Ciência Rural
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No sistema pré-germinado de cultivo de arroz, a área é inundada antes da semeadura e, cerca de três dias após, promove-se a drenagem inicial para favorecer o estabelecimento das plântulas, ocasionando a perda de água e de nutrientes. Assim, testaram três manejos de irrigação: [M1], retirada da água três dias após a semeadura; [M2], retirada de água aos 30 dias após a semeadura e [M3], sem retirada de água, associados a cultivares de arroz, com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade do arroz e a perda de nutrientes via água de drenagem. Os manejos testados não influenciaram os parâmetros avaliados na cultura do arroz. Para a produtividade, os valores oscilaram conforme as características de cada ano, obtendo-se médias de 5.100, 9.565 e 7.078kg ha-1 para as safras 2002/03, 2003/04 e 2004/05, respectivamente. Apenas em 2003/04, as cultivares diferiram em produtividade. Nas safras 2002/03 e 2003/04, as perdas de fósforo foram semelhantes entre os tratamentos, mas, em 2004/05, ocorreram maiores perdas quando a água foi retirada aos três dias após a semeadura. Para potássio, as maiores concentrações também foram observadas nas amostras de água coletadas aos três dias após a semeadura. Os resultados indicam que deve-se manter lâmina contínua, pois este manejo proporciona a preservação dos nutrientes dentro da lavoura, não afeta a produtividade e reduz o impacto ambiental nos mananciais hídricos.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Ciência Rural
  • No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Ciência Rural
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No sistema pré-germinado de cultivo de arroz irrigado, em função da drenagem inicial, as perdas de nutrientes podem ser significativas, dependendo do manejo da adubação adotado, podendo afetar o ambiente e a sustentabilidade do sistema. Nas safras agrícolas de 2000/2001 a 2003/2004 foram desenvolvidos experimentos na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, com o objetivo de avaliar métodos de adubação fosfatada e potássica na perda de nutrientes na drenagem inicial e na produtividade do arroz irrigado no sistema pré-germinado de cultivo. Os tratamentos foram compostos por sete manejos da adubação fosfatada e potássica, combinando época de aplicação e incorporação ou não dos fertilizantes. As concentrações de fósforo e nitrogênio medidas na água da drenagem inicial não foram influenciadas pelo momento e modo de aplicação dos fertilizantes, sendo quantificado na média dos quatro anos de estudo, em níveis de 0,07 e 0,81 mg L-1 de fósforo e nitrogênio respectivamente. No entanto, para potássio, observa-se que menor quantidade foi carreada juntamente com a água da drenagem inicial, naqueles tratamentos cuja adubação de base foi realizada aos 10 e 30 dias após a semeadura, bem como no tratamento-testemunha. Os manejos de adubação testados, não influenciaram os parâmetros agronômicos avaliados na cultura do arroz irrigado. A produtividade do arroz irrigado não é influenciada pelo momento e modo de realização da adubação fosfatada e potássica, porém se não for mantida lâmina contínua de água a aplicação de fósforo e potássio deve ser executada após a drenagem inicial, a fim de reduzir as perdas de potássio.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Bragantia
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In pregerminated rice system, initial water drainage promotes nutrient losses, depending on fertilizer management, leading to environmental problems. During the 2000/01 and 2003/04 growing seasons experiments were conducted at Universidade Federal de Santa Maria aiming to evaluate the effect of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer application methods on nutrient losses and pregerminated rice grain yield. The treatments were seven phosphorus and potassium fertilization methods combining application time and incorporated or not incorporated. Phosphorus and nitrogen concentration measured at initial water drainage were not affected by time or method of fertilizer application. The average of phosphorus and nitrogen were 0.07 and 0.81 mg L-1 respectively. However, less potassium runoff was verified in the treatments where the fertilizer was applied 10 and 30 days after sowing as well as on the check treatment. The treatments tested did not affect the rice agronomic traits. Rice yield was not affected by the phosphorus and potassium fertilization timing and method of application, but when the permanent flooding is not kept on the phosphorus and potassium application need to be done after the initial drainage to reduce potassium losses.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · Bragantia
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After several decades searching for tools to control red rice, imidazolinone tolerant rice was developed to selectively control red rice. To better understand this technology An experiment was conducted in 2004/2005, in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil to evaluate: 1) red rice control by imidazolinone herbicides in Clearfield™ rice; 2) evaluate the imidazolinone herbicide carryover effect on rygrass and non-tolerant rice (IRGA 417) and 3) evaluate the outcrossing rates between Clearfield rice and red rice. The experimental design was a randomized block design, with 3 treatments and 12 replications. To determine the outcrossing rates between Clearfield rice and red rice, virtually all the red rice panicle was collected and analyzed in the area. The carryover effect was tested using ryegrass and a non-tolerant rice cultivar (IRGA 417). The herbicides tested controlled red rice. Although injury to Clearfield rice was observed, the herbicide did not affect yield. Herbicide carry-over to non-tolerant rice was observed, reducing plant stand on rice seeded 361 days after herbicide application. Natural out-crossing occurred between Clearfield rice and red rice, at rates of 0.065%.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · Planta Daninha
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    Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · Planta Daninha
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Red rice (Oryza spp.) is one of the main limiting factors to rice (O. sativa) yield. An experiment was carried out to evaluate red rice control and the behavior of two rice genotypes tolerant to the imidazolinone herbicides in response to imazethapyr (75 g L -1) + imazapic (25 g L -1) application rates and timing. The experiment was conducted in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil in 2004/2005 and was arranged in a factorial scheme, in a randomized block design, with four replications. Factor A included the two rice genotypes tolerant to the imidazolinones, a cultivar (IRGA 422 CL) and a hybrid (Tuno CL); and factor D included the treatments for red rice control, which was a combination of rates and herbicide application timing. The hybrid was found to be more tolerant to the herbicide only than the cultivar. Application rates up to 200% on the hybrid genotype could be done without affecting rice yield. It is important to state that increasing the rate of herbicide application can create carryover problems to non-tolerant crops. Red rice control was total with split application of imazethapyr + imazapic in PRE and POST emergence with the total rate above 125%. The most efficient treatment was application of 75% in PRE followed by 50% in POST, which was the lowest rate promoting 100% control, with relatively low toxicity to the cultivar and without affecting rice yield.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2006 · Planta Daninha
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    Full-text · Article · Sep 2006 · Planta Daninha
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: O experimento foi realizado em várzea sistematizada com o objetivo de comparar os efeitos do uso de doses de N em cobertura, associadas a níveis de suplementação energética, sobre o desempenho animal e a qualidade e produção de forragem. Os tratamentos foram: 300N+0,8S = adubação com 300 kg de N/ha + suplementação com grão de milho moído (0,8% do PV/dia); 200N+0,4S = adubação com 200 kg de N/ha + suplementação com grão de milho moído (0,4% do PV/dia); e 100N = adubação com 100 kg de N/ha, sem suplementação. Foram utilizados novilhos de corte da raça Charolês e suas cruzas com Nelore com idade inicial de 8 a 10 meses. A pastagem foi manejada sob lotação contínua e carga variável, no período de 15/07 a 03/11/2000, totalizando 110 dias de utilização. O teor de PB, a digestibilidade in vitro da MO (DIVMO) e a oferta de forragem (OF) foram maiores no início do período de pastejo e apenas a OF diferiu entre os tratamentos. As doses de N em cobertura, associadas a níveis de suplementação energética em pastagem de azevém, não alteraram o ganho médio diário dos animais, mas resultaram em maior carga animal e maior ganho de peso vivo por hectare.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2006
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Looking for crop alternatives management for irrigated rice possible, different systems of ryegrass straw management and aplication of fertilizers were evaluated, in relation to nutrient concentration in the solution were at there places. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Santa Maria, located in Central Depression Region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil in the agricultural year of 2000/01. The experiment was in a randomized block with four replications, in split-split-plots design with three factors: ryegrass straw in three levels (i) no-tillage with ryegrass whole plant, (ii) ryegrass plant incorporated in soil and (iii) without ryegrass plant; time of fertilizers nitrogen and phosphorus application for rice (i) without fertilizer, (ii) fertilizer applied at the ryegrass sowing time and (iii) fertilizer applied at rice planting; and three places of sampling (i) surface water (ii) 3 cm depth and (iii) 30 cm depth in mini lysimeters. The results showed that ryegrass straw incorporation increases the potassium concentration in the water over the soil surface and contributes to percolation of calcium, magnesium, sodium, manganese and zinc in the soil profile. The concentration of there ions and potassium in the stagnant rice water remained below the established critical limits of environmental contamination stated by low.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The experiment was carried out in a leveled lowland area cultivated with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The objective was to compare the effect of nitrogen (N) and different energy supplementation levels on the following parameters: herbage quality, herbage yield, and animal production. The treatments were: 300N + 0.8S - Italian ryegrass pasture plus 300 kg.ha-1 of N and supplementation with ground corn (0.8% LW/day), 200N + 0.4S - Italian ryegrass pasture plus 200 kg.ha-1 of N and supplementation with ground corn (0.4% LW/day) and 100N - Italian ryegrass pasture plus 100 kg.ha-1 of N without supplementation. Beef steers averaging eight to ten months old were used in the beginning of the experiment and allotted to continuous stocking with fixed stocking rate. Crude protein concentration, in vitro organic matter digestibility and forage on offer were greater in the beginning of the grazing period. Difference among treatments was observed only for forage on offer. Nitrogen levels, associated to different energy supplementation levels, did not affect average daily live weight gain, but resulted in greater stocking rate and, consequently, higher live weight gain/ha.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Com vistas a viabilizar alternativas de manejo da cultura do arroz irrigado objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar diferentes sistemas de manejo da palha de azevém e da aplicação da adubação de base em relação à concentração de nutrientes na solução do solo em três locais. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, no ano agrícola de 2000/01. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em parcelas sub-subdivididas, com três fatores: a) manejo da resteva de azevém em três níveis (i) planta de azevém em pé, (ii) planta de azevém incorporada e (iii) sem a planta de azevém; b) épocas de aplicação da adubação para o arroz com fósforo e potássio em três níveis (i) sem adubação, (ii) adubação aplicada na semeadura do azevém e (iii) adubação aplicada na semeadura do arroz e, c) três locais de coleta da solução do solo: (i) na superfície do solo (lâmina de irrigação), (ii) a 3 cm de profundidade e (iii) a 30 cm de profundidade nos minilisímetros sem drenagem. A incorporação da palha de azevém aumenta a concentração de potássio na lâmina de água e contribui para a percolação dos nutrientes: cálcio, magnésio, manganês, sódio e zinco no perfil. Os resultados demonstram que as concentrações de cálcio, manganês, ferro, magnésio, sódio, potássio e zinco na lâmina de água de irrigação, na cultura do arroz, não atingem os níveis críticos de contaminação ambiental estabelecidos pela lei.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2006