[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated the effects of active and passive smoking on renal functions in terms of glomerular filtration rate, microalbuminuria, and β-2 microglobulin excretion.
The volunteers included in this study were classified into three groups as active smokers (n = 24), passive smokers (n = 20), and controls (n = 20). Blood and urine samples were collected from all groups. Serum glucose, urea, creatinine, and cotinine levels in the collected blood samples were measured. Also, microalbumin, β-2 microglobulin, and creatinine levels were measured in the collected urine samples.
Serum cotinine levels were found to be higher in both passive and active smokers when compared with controls ( p < 0.01), whereas urinary microalbumin and creatinine levels were significantly higher in active smokers ( p < 0.01). The urinary microalbumin/creatinine ratio was significantly increased in both active and passive smokers compared with controls.
The kidney and the glomerular functions may be affected even by passive smoking. In addition, increased microalbumin/creatinine ratio may be a sign of increased atherosclerosis risk in these persons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased oxidative stress is a well-known phenomenon in dialysis patients. However, the contribution of hypertension to the oxidative stress in peritoneal dialysis patients has not yet been assessed. The present study aimed to investigate if hypertension had an additional effect on oxidative stress in peritoneal dialysis patients. A total of 50 patients treated with peritoneal dialysis were divided into two groups: The patients with mean of last three blood pressure results as 135/90 mmHg and above were considered hypertensive, the patients with lower blood pressure were considered normotensive. The control group included 25 healthy individuals. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were measured in all groups. MDA level, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, was significantly higher in the hypertensive group compared to the control group, while the increase in the normotensive group was not significant. However, the difference between the hypertensive and normotensive groups was significant. The levels of AOPP, an indicator of protein oxidation level, and MPO, an indicator of neutrophil activation, were not different between the groups, while the activities of antioxidant CAT and GSH-Px decreased in both normotensive and hypertensive groups compared to the control group, and there was no significant difference between the patient groups. This study shows that both normotensive and hypertensive peritoneal dialysis patients have increased-oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant levels and hypertension might have an additional effect on oxidative stress by increasing MDA level in peritoneal dialysis patients.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Cell Biochemistry and Function
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myringosclerosis, one of the most common complications of ventilation tube placement, is a kind of tympanosclerosis and is defined as subepithelial hyalinization of the tympanic membrane. There are two arguments in the development of myringosclerosis: inflammation triggering the development of myringosclerosis and free oxygen radicals released during inflammation causing myringosclerosis.
The aim of the present study was to explore the effects on the development of myringosclerosis of mitomycin, which has anti-inflammatory effects, and trimetazidine, which is believed to inhibit free oxygen radicals when given systemically.
The study was carried out on rabbits. Animals were divided into five groups, with six rabbits in each group: three control groups (paracentesis only, paracentesis+tube placement, and no intervention), a trimetazidine group, and a mitomycin group. Mitomycin (0.4 mg/mL) and trimetazidine (20 mg/mL) were applied topically to the tympanic membrane, and the presence and degree of sclerosis were graded histopathologically after Masson's trichrome staining.
In the histopathologic examination, sclerosis that developed in the tympanic membranes of rabbits that had undergone paracentesis or paracentesis plus tube application or received trimetazidine was significantly more extensive than sclerosis in the membranes of unoperated animals and those that had been administered mitomycin.
Paracentesis in rabbits, independent of tube placement, causes sclerosis of the tympanic membrane. Results show that topical use of mitomycin, due to its anti-inflammatory effect, had alleviating effects on myringosclerosis, whereas topical trimetazidine did not.
No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Journal of otolaryngology - head & neck surgery = Le Journal d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Liver and kidney are exposed to a lot of oxidant substances that are both from exogen and endogen sources. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of C vitamine, Melatonine (MLT) and N-acetylcystein (NAC) in carbon tetrachlorur (CCl4) induced oxidative stress in mouse. Methods: The study involved 6 groups; control group (Group 1), CCl4 group (Group 2), CCl4 + C vitamine group (Group 3), CCl4 + MLT group (Group 4), CCl4 + NAC group (Group 5) and combined (CCl4 + C vitamine + MLT + NAC) group (Group 6) with each group containing 10 mice. Starting from the 4th day of the study 0,4 ml/kg CCl4 were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to all groups except the control group. In Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6; 150 mg/kg/day C vitamine, 10 mg/kg/day MLT, 150 mg/kg/day NAC and C vitamine + MLT + NAC combination, respectively, were given for 7 days. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutatyon peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were measured in the tissues of liver and kidney of the mice. Results: The MDA and MPO levels in the tissues of liver and kidney of the toxicity group (Group 2) were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.01), but the GSH-Px and CAT activities were significantly lower than those of the control group (p<0.01). Compared with the toxicity group; in groups 3, 5 and 6 liver MDA and MPO levels showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) while GSH-Px and SOD activities in group 4 and GSH-Px activity in group 5 showed a significant increase (p<0.05). In kidney, MDA levels in groups 3 and 5 and MPO levels in groups 4 and 6 showed a significant decrease (p<0.05). SOD in group 3; GSH-Px and CAT in group 4; GSH-Px, SOD and CAT in group 5 and SOD activities in group 6 showed a significant increase. Conclusion: The results showed that C vitamine therapy and the combined therapy were effective in preventing oxidative stress in both liver and kidney while MLT increased antioxidant enzyme activities more effectively. Furthermore, NAC was more effective in preventing oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · European Journal of General Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of homocysteine and lipid profiles in patients included in hemodialysis programs for chronic renal failure (CRF). Material and Methods: The patients were divided into 2 groups and each group consisted of 30 patients, leading to a total of 60 patients. On the other hand, 20 healthy people comprised the control group. The first group (nontreated CRF) included new patients without a previous history of dialysis or any medical treatment; the second group (treated CRF) included patients who have received medical treatment [vitamin B12 (1 mg/month) and folic acid (15 mg/week)] and dialysis for at least the last 5 years. Serum total homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid, creatinine, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, cholesterol levels were measured in all patients and the control group. Results: Levels of homocysteine were high in group 1 and group 2 patients (respectively p< 0.01, p< 0.05), whereas serum HDL cholesterol levels in group 2 were low compared to those in the control group (p< 0.01). In addition, a negative correlation was observed between homocysteine and folic acid levels in group 2 patients (r=-0.48, p< 0.01). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that homocysteine levels in CRF increased and this increase was lower in group 2 patients. Administration of folic acid reduced the levels of homocycstein. Thus, we suggest that folic acid may be a significant factor to prevent the progression of chronic renal failure.
No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) seem to play a significant role in cell proliferation of mammalian. In this study, we were aimed at investigating the serum levels of gastrin and IGF-1 in patients with gastric cancer and esophagus cancer. In 68 patients with gastric (40 patients) and esophagus (28 patients) cancer and 30 healthy adults were measured serum levels of gastrin, IGF-1, CEA, CA 19-9, CA 125 and growth hormone. All these parameters have been increased in both cancer groups (gastric and esophagus) than those of control group and these increase were significantly for serum levels of gastrin, CEA, CA 125 and growth hormone (p<0.05). It is concluded that in patients with gastric and esophagus cancer a significant increase of serum gastrin can be found and increased gastrin levels play a role in gastric and esophageal carcinogenesis.
No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · UHOD - Uluslararasi Hematoloji-Onkoloji Dergisi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased bone turnover. Besides the hormones of calcium metabolism, locally produced factors are important in maintaining normal bone metabolism. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), in particular, has a major influence on bone turnover. In this study, serum IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels, as well as bone turnover markers and relationships between them, were investigated in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. A total of 20 female patients with hyperthyroidism, 15 with subclinical hyperthyroidism, 16 with hypothyroidism, and 15 with subclinical hypothyroidism constituted the patient groups. In all, 15 age-matched healthy female volunteers were recruited as controls. When compared with controls, serum TNF-alpha levels showed no significant difference in any of the patient groups (P>.05). In the groups with hyperthyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism, IL-6 levels were significantly higher compared with control group values (P<.05). Hyperthyroid patients showed higher levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin, and a higher urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine ratio, compared with controls (P<.05). In subclinical hyperthyroidism, only ALP was found to be higher compared with control values. No significant correlations were made in any group between serum IL-6 or TNF-alpha level and bone turnover markers. Results suggest that serum IL-6 level and markers of bone turnover rate seem to be increased in hyperthyroidism. This finding may support the role of IL-6 in induction of bone turnover in hyperthyroid states.
Full-text · Article · May 2006 · Advances in Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhinolithiasis is the presence of mineralized and calcareous formations located in the nasal cavity. They have rare occurrence and can be easily confused with infection or obstruction of upper airways. If they are undetected for a long time, they may grow large enough to cause of nasal obstruction, mimicking sinusitis. Seven cases of rhinolithiasis were presented, and their diagnosis was made by rigid endoscopic nasal examination. Also computerized tomography scan was used to describe the size and site of the rhinoliths accurately. Our purpose was to determine the role of rigid nasal endoscopy in the diagnosis and the treatment of rhinolithiasis.
In this study, seven cases of rhinolithiasis, who were diagnosed and treated by rigid nasal endoscopy were presented.
Between January 2000 and November 2004, seven cases (four males and three females; age ranged from 8 to 45 years) with rhinolithiasis were diagnosed. The most frequent symptoms were nasal obstruction with purulent rhinorhea, nasal and oral malodor. As complementary examinations, computerized tomography and simple X-ray of paranasal sinuses were used to locate and measure the dimension of calcareous mass, and to reveal possible invasion of the adjacent structures. The removal of rhinolithiasis was done with rigid nasal endoscopy under topical anesthesia in six cases and general anesthesia in one case.
Rhinolithiasis is a rare condition but must always be suspected in patients with long standing nasal obstruction, nasal and oral malodor, purulent rhinorrhea and chronic headache.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Preeclampsia, characterized by changes in the placenta and uteroplacental vasculature, is the most frequent complication of pregnancy. It is argued that an overproduction of placental cytokines may be associated with the pathophysiological changes found in preeclampsia. In this study, it is aimed to determine the levels of both pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α) and immunoregulatory (interleukin-6) cytokines and their relationships with von Willebrand factor and anti-thrombin III from both preeclamptic and healthy pregnant women. Material and Methods: Twenty-five pregnant women with preeclampsia and 25 healthy pregnant women were included in the study. The fasting blood samples were obtained at eight o'clock in the morning from the both groups and interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, von Willebrand factor and anti-thrombin III levels were measured. From the preeclamptic patients blood samples were obtained at twelve o'clock midnight to determine the diurnal variation in these two cytokine levels. Results: As compared to healthy pregnant group, levels of interleukin-6 and anti-thrombin III were significantly lower and von Willebrand factor level was significantly higher in the preeclamptic group (p<0.05). Tumor necrosis factor-α level did not differ significantly between the two groups. Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels did not show significant diurnal variation in preeclamptic group. A significant positive correlation was found between the tumor necrosis factor-α levels measured in the morning and night samples in the preeclamptic group (p<0.01, r=0.701). Also, a significant positive correlation was found between the tumor necrosis factor-α and von Willebrand factor levels in healthy pregnant group (p<0.05, r=0.648). Conclusions: These findings suggest that preeclampsia is associated with decreased interleukin-6, and anti-thrombin III, and with increased von Willebrand factor levels.
No preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Journal of the Turkish German Gynecology Association Artemis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study has been carried out to see whether renal function is acutely altered in patients undergoing sevoflurane anaesthesia. For this purpose, the urinary levels of markers of renal tubular function, namely leucine amino peptidase (LAP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and beta-2 microglobulin (beta-2M), and urinary albumin as a predictor of renal glomerular function were measured before and after sevoflurane anaesthesia.
This study was comprised of 20 patients (11 males and nine females) aged 18-55, who underwent various elective surgical procedures under general anaesthesia. Urine samples of all patients were collected before and 1, 2 and 8 h after the anaesthesia. The levels of LAP, GGT, beta-2M, and albumin were then expressed as factored by urinary creatinine. In all patients, the anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane (2% end-tidal) at a high flow-rate (6 L/min).
Urinary beta-2M and LAP levels after anaesthesia were unchanged (P > 0.05). While urinary GGT and ALP levels were found elevated in the first hour, LDH levels were higher in the second hour (P < 0.05). They returned to normal levels in the later periods after the anaesthesia. Urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was significantly elevated in the second hour after the anaesthesia (P < 0.001). Although UAE was decreased in the eighth hour after the anaesthesia, it still remained higher than the pre-anaesthesia level (P < 0.001).
These results suggest that a 2% end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane at a high flow-rate (6 L/min) acutely alters renal glomerular function but does not have a significant acute effect on biochemical markers of renal tubular damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin is a 167 amino acid protein encoded by the obesity gene that is synthesized in adipose tissue and interacts with receptors in the hypothalamus linked to the regulation of appetite and metabolism. It is known to suppress appetite and increase energy expenditure. Cyproheptadine is a piperidine antihistamine that increases appetite through its antiserotonergic effect on 5-HT2 receptors in the brain. Although both leptin and cyproheptadine are effective in controlling appetite, their interaction has not been addressed in clinical studies. This study evaluated serum leptin concentrations in patients who received cyproheptadine to treat a variety of disorders. Sixteen patients aged 7 to 71 years (mean, 26.25 years) were given cyproheptadine 2 to 6 mg/day for a minimum of 7 days. Body weight was measured and blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 1 week of treatment. Serum leptin levels were determined by leptin radioimmunoassay. The mean body weight at baseline (52.59 kg) did not differ significantly from that at 1 week after treatment (52.84 kg; P > .05), but the mean leptin level after 1 week of treatment with cyproheptadine (3.14 ng/mL) was 14.2% higher than that at baseline (2.75 ng/mL; P < .05). This increase may suggest that both leptin and cyproheptadine may affect appetite via similar receptors and that cyproheptadine does not impair leptin activity through these receptors. Further study will be necessary to clarify this relationship.
No preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Advances in Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Water extract of Ballota glandulosissima Hub.-Mor & Patzak (Lamiaceae) (BG) was investigated for anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test and for hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Biochemical parameters of hepatic damage such as serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin concentrations were determined. CCl(4) (0.8 mL/kg i.p. for 7 days) treatment increased the serum AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin levels significantly as compared to controls. Treatment of animals with BG (100 mg/kg, i.p.) +CCl(4) (0.8 mL/kg i.p.) for 7 days significantly ameliorated the levels of AST, ALT and ALP elevated by the CCl(4) treatment alone. The results of biochemical tests were also confirmed by histopathological examination. BG together with CCl(4) treatment decreased the balloning degeneration but did not produced apoptosis of hepatocytes, centrilobular and bridging necrosis observed in the CCl(4) treatment alone. BG, at 100 mg/kg per os, showed a significant reduction (34.22%) in rat paw oedema induced by carrageenan. The reference anti-inflammatory drugs etodolac (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and indomethacin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the oedeme by 43.42 and 95.70%, respectively. The present study reveals that the water extract of Ballota glandulosissima possesses promising protective activity against CCl(4) induced hepatic damage and anti-inflammatory activity in rats.
No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Journal of Ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antioxidant enzymes status was investigated in children with acute otitis media (AOM) and acute tonsillitis. The aim was to determine the effect of oxidative damage due to free radicals on the antioxidant enzymes status in children with AOM and acute tonsillitis.
We measured erythrocyte levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and activity of serum catalase, ceruloplasmin, albumin and total bilirubin in 23 children with AOM, 27 with acute tonsillitis and 17 control subjects.
There was statistically significant difference between the groups for all parameters. All antioxidant activities except for albumin level were increased in the studies groups. When the values of AOM and acute tonsillitis were compared, there was statistically significant difference between the groups for erythrocyte GPx.
Our findings indicate that not only a few antioxidant enzymes but almost all antioxidant activities showed a significant enhancement in children with AOM and acute tonsillitis.
No preview · Article · Dec 2004 · International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to investigate the serum levels of leptin, TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, insulin, and growth hormone in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer and cachexia. A total of 39 patients with various advanced stage (stage IV) gastrointestinal malignancies were enrolled. These cancer patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of cachexia. Fifteen healthy adults were recruited as the control group. Body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) was calculated. Serum leptin, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha interleukin (IL)-1 beta, interleukin (IL)-6, growth hormone, insulin, glucose, triglyceride, total protein, albumin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and CRP were measured. In both cancer groups (cachectic and non-cachectic) body mass index and serum leptin levels were lower than controls (p < 0.001). Serum IL-1 beta, IL-6, and growth hormone levels were higher in both cachectic and non-cachectic groups than those of controls (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-alpha level in non-cachectic group was also significantly higher than in control group (p < 0.01). There is no significant difference between three groups in terms of insulin resistance as assessed by HOMA index. Our results showed that some proinflammatory cytokine levels were increased and leptin level was decreased due to upper gastrointestinal cancers. Increased cytokine levels may lead to decreased food intake and caused a weight loss.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2004 · International Journal of Clinical Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is a hormone-dependent neoplasm. Conflicting results regarding the clinical correlation between breast cancer and thyroid diseases have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the goiter prevalence, thyroid hormones and antithyroid antibody levels in patients with breast cancer. For this purpose, thyroid ultrasonography was performed and serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO ab) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-TG ab) were determined in 50 operable breast cancer patients at the time of diagnosis and 30 healthy individuals as control group. Goiter prevalence was found to be significantly higher in the study group (50% vs 10%). FT3, FT4, and TSH levels of patients were not different compared to controls, whereas anti-TPO ab and anti-TG ab levels were significantly higher in patients than in the control group. In conclusion, goiter prevalence and thyroid antibody levels were found to be increased in breast cancer patients and thyroid functions should be monitored.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine clinical value of alone and combined use of serum cytokeratin (CK)-18, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 19-9 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. Serum tumor markers were measured in 60 patients who had esophageal squamous cell carcinoma or gastric adenocarcinoma. Thirty healthy subjects served as controls. In patients with gastric adecarcinoma serum CK-18 levels were significantly increased compared to both esophageal squamus cell carcinoma and control groups (p<0.01, p<0,05 respectively). But there was no significant difference in CK-18 levels between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients and healthy subjects (p>0.05). On the other hand, serum CEA and CA 19-9 levels did not differ between groups (p>0.05). The sensitivity of serum CK-18, CEA and CA19- 9 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were 53%, 70% and 66%, respectively. For gastric adenocarcinoma, the sensitivity of each tumor marker was similar 70%, 70% and 70%, respectively. CK-18/CA19-9 combination in the esophageal (83%) and gastric carcinomas (93%) were found to be more sensitive than other tumor markers when these markers were evaluated in combination. CEA exhibited the highest sensitivity for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma compared to CK-18, and CA19-9. However, the sensitivity of all tumor markers in gastric adenocarcinoma were similar. The combination of CK-18 and CA19-9 could increase the diagnostic sensitivity in esophageal and gastric carcinomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology, and recognised as a multi-system vasculitis. It has been postulated that an imbalance of the oxidant and antioxidant systems related to the disease are important in its pathogenesis. Previous publications have reported increased levels of enzymatic antioxidant defence systems in patients with BD. The non-enzymatic antioxidant systems, including vitamin C and uric acid, were looked for in the present study. For this aim, the serum malondialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation, and vitamin C and uric acid, as endogenous antioxidants, were determined in 20 patients with BD (11 in active and 9 in inactive periods) and 20 healthy subjects. The MDA level was significantly higher in both the active and inactive period patients compared with the control group (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively). The MDA level was also significantly higher in the active period patients compared with the inactive period patients (p < 0.05). The vitamin C levels were significantly lower in both the active and inactive period patients compared with the control group (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, respectively). There was no significant difference in the vitamin C level between the active and inactive period patients (p > 0.05). There was also no significant difference in uric acid levels between the groups (p > 0.05). In the patients group, a negative correlation was found between the levels of serum MDA and vitamin C (r=-0.517; p < 0.05). Our results indicate that decreased vitamin C and increased MDA levels reflect the increased levels of oxidative stress in BD patients, and this situation may be important in relation with its pathogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2003 · Yonsei Medical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatoprotective activity of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (FEO) was studied using carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) induced liver injury model in rats. The hepatotoxicity produced by acute CCl(4) administration was found to be inhibited by FEO with evidence of decreased levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin. The results of this study indicate that FEO has a potent hepatoprotective action against CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage in rats.