A. Boselli

Aix-Marseille Université, Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

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Publications (453)1588.77 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We obtained using MegaCam at the CFHT a deep narrow band Halpha+[NII] wide field image of NGC 4569, the brightest late-type galaxy in the Virgo cluster. The image reveals the presence of long tails of diffuse ionised gas without any associated stellar component extending from the disc of the galaxy up to ~ 80 kpc (projected distance) with a typical surface brightness of a few 10^-18 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. These features provide direct evidence that NGC 4569 is undergoing a ram presure stripping event. The image also shows a prominent 8 kpc spur of ionised gas associated to the nucleus that spectroscopic data identify as an outflow. With some assumptions on the 3D distribution of the gas, we use the Halpha surface brightness of these extended low surface brightness features to derive the density and the mass of the gas stripped during the interaction of the galaxy with the ICM. The comparison with ad-hoc chemo-spectrophotometric models of galaxy evolution indicates that the mass of the Halpha emitting gas in the tail is comparable to that of the cold phase stripped from the disc, suggesting that the gas is ionised within the tail during the stripping process. The lack of star forming regions suggests that mechanisms other than photoionisation are responsible for the excitation of the gas (shocks, heat conduction, magneto hydrodynamic waves). This analysis indicates that ram pressure stripping is efficient in massive (M_star ~ 10^10.5 Mo) galaxies located in intermediate mass (~ 10^14 Mo) clusters under formation. It also shows that the mass of gas expelled by the nuclear outflow is ~ 1 % than that removed during the ram pressure stripping event. All together these results indicate that ram pressure stripping, rather than starvation through nuclear feedback, can be the dominant mechanism responsible for the quenching of the star formation activity of galaxies in high density environments.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: A correlation between the 24 {\mu}m continuum and the [NII] 205 {\mu}m line emission may arise if both quantities trace the star formation activity on spatially-resolved scales within a galaxy, yet has so far only been observed in the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 891. We therefore assess whether the [NII] 205 - 24 {\mu}m emission correlation has some physical origin or is merely an artefact of line-of-sight projection effects in an edge-on disc. We search for the presence of a correlation in Herschel and Spitzer observations of two nearby face-on galaxies, M51 and M83, and the interacting Antennae galaxies NGC 4038 and 4039. We show that not only is this empirical relationship also observed in face-on galaxies, but also that the correlation appears to be governed by the star formation rate (SFR). Both the nuclear starburst in M83 and the merger-induced star formation in NGC 4038/9 exhibit less [NII] emission per unit SFR surface density than the normal star-forming discs. These regions of intense star formation exhibit stronger ionization parameters, as traced by the 70/160 {\mu}m far-infrared colour, that suggest the presence of higher ionization lines that may become more important for gas cooling, thereby reducing the observed [NII] 205 {\mu}m line emission in regions with higher star formation rates. Finally, we present a general relation between the [NII] 205 {\mu}m line flux density and SFR density for normal star-forming galaxies, yet note that future studies should extend this analysis by including observations with wider spatial coverage for a larger sample of galaxies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The dust in nearby galaxies absorbs a fraction of the UV-optical-near-infrared radiation produced by stars. This energy is consequently re-emitted in the infrared. We investigate the fraction of the stellar radiation absorbed by spiral galaxies from the HRS by modelling their UV-to-submillimetre spectral energy distributions. Our models provide an attenuated and intrinsic SED from which we find that on average 32 % of all starlight is absorbed by dust. We define the UV heating fraction as the fraction of dust luminosity that comes from absorbed UV photons and find that this is 56 %, on average. This percentage varies with morphological type, with later types having significantly higher UV heating fractions. We find a strong correlation between the UV heating fraction and specific star formation rate and provide a power-law fit. Our models allow us to revisit the IRX-AFUV relations, and derive these quantities directly within a self-consistent framework. We calibrate this relation for different bins of NUV-r colour and provide simple relations to relate these parameters. We investigated the robustness of our method and we conclude that the derived parameters are reliable within the uncertainties which are inherent to the adopted SED model. This calls for a deeper investigation on how well extinction and attenuation can be determined through panchromatic SED modelling.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We used wide-area surveys over 39 deg2 by the HerMES (Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey) collaboration, performed with the Herschel Observatory SPIRE multiwavelength camera, to estimate the low-redshift, 0.02 < z < 0.5, monochromatic luminosity functions (LFs) of galaxies at 250, 350 and 500 μm. Within this redshift interval, we detected 7087 sources in five independent sky areas, ∼40 per cent of which have spectroscopic redshifts, while for the remaining objects photometric redshifts were used. The SPIRE LFs in different fields did not show any field-to-field variations beyond the small differences to be expected from cosmic variance. SPIRE flux densities were also combined with Spitzer photometry and multiwavelength archival data to perform a complete spectral energy distribution fitting analysis of SPIRE detected sources to calculate precise k-corrections, as well as the bolometric infrared (IR; 8–1000 μm) LFs and their low-z evolution from a combination of statistical estimators. Integration of the latter prompted us to also compute the local luminosity density and the comoving star formation rate density (SFRD) for our sources, and to compare them with theoretical predictions of galaxy formation models. The LFs show significant and rapid luminosity evolution already at low redshifts, 0.02 < z < 0.2, with L$_{\text{IR}}^{\ast } \propto (1+z)^{6.0\pm 0.4}$ and $\Phi _{\text{IR}}^{\ast } \propto (1+z)^{-2.1\pm 0.4}$, L$_{250}^{\ast } \propto (1+z)^{5.3\pm 0.2}$ and $\Phi _{250}^{\ast } \propto (1+z)^{-0.6\pm 0.4}$ estimated using the IR bolometric and the 250 μm LFs, respectively. Converting our IR LD estimate into an SFRD assuming a standard Salpeter initial mass function and including the unobscured contribution based on the UV dust-uncorrected emission from local galaxies, we estimate an SFRD scaling of SFRD0 + 0.08z, where SFRD0 ≃ (1.9 ± 0.03) × 10−2 [M⊙ Mpc−3] is our total SFRD estimate at z ∼ 0.02.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: [Abridged] In high density environment, the gas content of galaxies is stripped, leading to a rapid quenching of their star formation activity. This dramatic environmental effect is generally not taken into account in the SFHs usually assumed to perform spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of these galaxies, yielding to a poor fit of their stellar emission and, consequently, a biased estimate of the SFR. We aim at reproducing the SFH of galaxies that underwent a rapid star formation quenching using a truncated delayed SFH that we implemented in the SED fitting code CIGALE. We show that the ratio between the instantaneous SFR and the SFR just before the quenching ($r_{SFR}$) is well constrained as long as rest frame UV data are available. This SED modelling is applied to the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS) containing isolated galaxies and sources falling in the dense environment of the Virgo cluster. The latter are HI-deficient due to ram pressure stripping. We show that the truncated delayed SFH successfully reproduces their SED while typical SFH assumptions fail. A good correlation is found between $r_{SFR}$ and HI-def, the parameter quantifying the gas deficiency of cluster galaxies, meaning that SED fitting results can be used to provide a tentative estimate of the gas deficiency of galaxies for which HI observations are not available. The HRS galaxies are placed on the SFR-$M_*$ diagram showing that the HI-deficient sources lie in the quiescent region confirming previous studies. Using the $r_{SFR}$ parameter, we derive the SFR of these sources before quenching and show that they were previously on the main sequence relation. We show that the $r_{SFR}$ parameter is also well recovered for deeply obscured high redshift sources, as well as in absence of IR data. SED fitting is thus a powerful tool to identify galaxies that underwent a rapid star formation quenching.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of the physical properties of the disc and tail of ESO137−001, a galaxy suffering from extreme ram-pressure stripping during its infall into the Norma cluster. With sensitive and spatially resolved MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) spectroscopy, we analyse the emission line diagnostics in the tail of ESO137−001, finding high values of [N ii]/Hα and [O i]/Hα that are suggestive of the presence of shocks in turbulent gas. However, the observed line ratios are not as strong as commonly seen in pure shock heating models, suggesting that other emission mechanisms may contribute to the observed emission. Indeed, part of the observed emission, particularly at close separations from the galaxy disc, may originate from recombination of photoionized gas stripped from the main body of ESO137−001. We also identify a large number of bright compact knots within in the tail, with line ratios characteristic of H ii regions. These H ii regions, despite residing in a stripped gas tail, have quite typical line ratios, densities, temperatures, and metallicity (∼0.7 solar). The majority of these H ii regions are embedded within diffuse gas from the tail, which is dynamically cool (σ ∼ 25–50 km s− 1). This fact, together with a lack of appreciable gradients in age and metallicity, suggests that these H ii regions formed in situ. While our analysis represents a first attempt to characterize the rich physics of the ESO137−001 tail, future work is needed to address the importance of other mechanisms, such as thermal conduction and magnetohydrodynamic waves, in powering the emission in the tail.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We use the GALEX data of the GUViCS survey to construct the NUV luminosity function of the Virgo cluster over ~ 300 deg.2, an area covering the cluster and its surrounding regions up to ~ 1.8 virial radii. The NUV luminosity function is also determined for galaxies of different morphological type and NUV-i colour, and for the different substructures within the cluster. These luminosity functions are robust vs. statistical corrections since based on a sample of 833 galaxies mainly identified as cluster members with spectroscopic redshift (808) or high-quality optical scaling relations (10). We fit these luminosity functions with a Schechter function, and compare the fitted parameters with those determined for other nearby clusters and for the field. The faint end slope of the Virgo NUV luminosity function (alpha = -1.19), here sampled down to ~ NUV = -11.5 mag, is significantly flatter than the one measured in other nearby clusters and similar to the field one. Similarly M* = -17.56 is one-to-two magnitudes fainter than measured in Coma, A1367, the Shapley supercluster, and the field. These differences seem due to the quite uncertain statistical corrections and the small range in absolute magnitude sampled in these clusters. We do not observe strong systematic differences in the overall NUV luminosity function of the core of the cluster with respect to that of its periphery. We notice, however, that the relative contribution of red-to-blue galaxies at the faint end is inverted, with red quiescent objects dominating the core of the cluster and star forming galaxies dominating beyond one virial radius. These observational evidences are discussed in the framework of galaxy evolution in dense environments.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We use imaging from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) to present a comparative study of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies associated with three prominent Virgo sub-clusters: those centered on the massive, red-sequence galaxies M87, M49 and M60. We show how UCDs can be selected with high completeness using a combination of half-light radius and location in color-color diagrams ($u^*iK_s$ or $u^*gz$). Although the central galaxies in each of these sub-clusters have nearly identical luminosities and stellar masses, we find large differences in the sizes of their UCD populations, with M87 containing ~3.5 and 7.8 times more UCDs than M49 and M60, respectively. The relative abundance of UCDs in the three regions scales in proportion to sub-cluster mass, as traced by X-ray gas mass, total gravitating mass, number of globular clusters, and number of nearby galaxies. We find that the UCDs are predominantly blue in color, with ~85% of the UCDs having colors similar to blue GCs and stellar nuclei of dwarf galaxies. We present evidence that UCDs surrounding M87 and M49 may follow a morphological sequence ordered by the prominence of their outer, low surface brightness envelope, ultimately merging with the sequence of nucleated low-mass galaxies, and that envelope prominence correlates with distance from either galaxy. Our analysis provides evidence that tidal stripping of nucleated galaxies is an important process in the formation of UCDs.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel-SPIRE imaging spectroscopy (194-671 μm) of the bright starburst galaxy M82. We use RADEX and a Bayesian Likelihood Analysis to simultaneously model the temperature, density, column density, and filling factor of both the cool and warm components of molecular gas traced by the entire CO ladder up to J=13-12. The high-J lines observed by SPIRE trace much warmer gas (~500 K) than those observable from the ground. The addition of 13CO (and [C I]) is new and indicates that [C I] may be tracing different gas than 12CO. At such a high temperature, cooling is dominated by molecular hydrogen; we conclude with a discussion on the possible excitation processes in this warm component. Photon-dominated region (PDR) models require significantly higher densities than those indicated by our Bayesian likelihood analysis in order to explain the high-J CO line ratios, though cosmic-ray enhanced PDR models can do a better job reproducing the emission at lower densities. Shocks and turbulent heating are likely required to explain the bright high-J emission.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: We report on CO (J = 2 → 1) mapping with the IRAM 30-m HEtrodyne Receiver Array (HERA) of CGCG 97-079, an irregular galaxy in the merging galaxy cluster Abell 1367 (z = 0.022). We find that ∼80 per cent of the detected CO (J = 2 → 1) is projected within a 16 arcsec2 (6.5 kpc2) region to the north and west of the optical/NIR centre, with the intensity maximum offset ∼10 arcsec (4 kpc) NW of the optical/NIR centre and ∼7 arcsec (3 kpc) south-east of the H i intensity maximum. Evolutionary synthesis models indicate CGCG 97-079 experienced a burst of star formation ∼108 yr ago, most likely triggered by a tidal interaction with CGCG 97-073. For CGCG 97-079 we deduce an infall velocity to the cluster of ∼1000 km s−1 and moderate ram pressure (Pram ≈ 10−11 dyne cm−2). The observed offset in CGCG 97-079 of the highest density H i and CO (J = 2 → 1) from the stellar components has not previously been observed in galaxies currently undergoing ram pressure stripping, although previous detailed studies of gas morphology and kinematics during ram pressure stripping were restricted to significantly more massive galaxies with deeper gravitational potential wells. We conclude the observed cold gas density maxima offsets are most likely the result of ram pressure and/or the high-speed tidal interaction with CGCG 97-073. However ram pressure stripping is likely to be playing a major role in the perturbation of lower density gas.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. In this work, we aim to provide a consistent analysis of the dust properties from metal-poor to metal-rich environments by linking them to fundamental galactic parameters. Methods. We consider two samples of galaxies: the Dwarf Galaxy Survey (DGS) and the Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH), totalling 109 galaxies, spanning almost 2 dex in metallicity. We collect infrared (IR) to submillimetre (submm) data for both samples and present the complete data set for the DGS sample. We model the observed spectral energy distributions (SED) with a physically-motivated dust model to access the dust properties: dust mass, total-IR luminosity, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mass fraction, dust temperature distribution, and dust-to-stellar mass ratio. Results. Using a different SED model (modified black body), different dust composition (amorphous carbon in lieu of graphite), or a different wavelength coverage at submm wavelengths results in differences in the dust mass estimate of a factor two to three, showing that this parameter is subject to non-negligible systematic modelling uncertainties. We find half as much dust with the amorphous carbon dust composition. For eight galaxies in our sample, we find a rather small excess at 500 μm (≤1.5σ). We find that the dust SED of low-metallicity galaxies is broader and peaks at shorter wavelengths compared to more metal-rich systems, a sign of a clumpier medium in dwarf galaxies. The PAH mass fraction and dust temperature distribution are found to be driven mostly by the specific star formation rate, sSFR, with secondary effects from metallicity. The correlations between metallicity and dust mass or total-IR luminosity are direct consequences of the stellar mass-metallicity relation. The dust-to-stellar mass ratios of metal-rich sources follow the well-studied trend of decreasing ratio for decreasing sSFR. The relation is more complex for low-metallicity galaxies with high sSFR, and depends on the chemical evolutionary stage of the source (i.e. gas-to-dust mass ratio). Dust growth processes in the ISM play a key role in the dust mass build-up with respect to the stellar content at high sSFR and low metallicity. Conclusions. We conclude that the evolution of the dust properties from metal-poor to metal-rich galaxies derives from a complex interplay between star formation activity, stellar mass, and metallicity.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence indicates that the star formation rate per unit stellar mass (sSFR) decreases with increasing mass in normal "main-sequence" star forming galaxies. Many processes have been advocated as responsible for such a trend (also known as mass quenching), e.g., feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the formation of classical bulges. We determine a refined star formation versus stellar mass relation in the local Universe. To this aim we use the Halpha narrow-band imaging follow-up survey (Halpha3) of field galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) in the Coma and Local superclusters. By complementing this local determination with high-redshift measurements from the literature, we reconstruct the star formation history of main-sequence galaxies as a function of stellar mass from the present epoch up to z=3. In agreement with previous studies, our analysis shows that quenching mechanisms occur above a threshold stellar mass M_knee that evolves with redshift as propto (1+z)^{2}. Moreover, visual morphological classification of individual objects in our local sample reveals a sharp increase in the fraction of visually-classified strong bars with mass, hinting that strong bars may contribute to the observed downturn in the sSFR above M_knee. We test this hypothesis using a simple but physically-motivated numerical model for bar formation, finding that strong bars can rapidly quench star formation in the central few kpc of field galaxies. We conclude that strong bars contribute significantly to the red colors observed in the inner parts of massive galaxies, although additional mechanisms are likely required to quench the star formation in the outer regions of massive spiral galaxies. Intriguingly, when we extrapolate our model to higher redshifts, we successfully recover the observed redshift evolution for M_knee.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Neutral hydrogen represents the major observable baryonic constituent of galaxies that fuels the formation of stars through the transformation in molecular hydrogen. The emission of the hydrogen recombination line Halpha is the most direct tracer of the process that transforms gas (fuel) into stars. We continue to present Halpha3 (acronym for Halpha-alpha-alpha), an extensive Halpha+[NII] narrow-band imaging campaign of galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA), using the instrumentation available at the San Pedro Martir observatory (Mexico). In only four years since 2011 we were able to complete in 48 nights the Halpha imaging observations of 724 galaxies in the region of the Coma supercluster 10^h < R.A. <16^h; 24^o < Dec. <28^o and 3900<cz<9000 kms^{-1}. Of these, 603 are selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) and constitute a 97% complete sample. They provide for the first time a complete census of the massive star formation properties of local gas-rich galaxies belonging to different environments (cluster vs filaments), morphological type (spirals vs dwarf Irr), over a wide range of stellar mass (10^{8}-10^{11.5} Modot) in the Coma Supercluster. The present Paper V provides the Halpha data and the derived star formation rates for the observed galaxies.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: A fraction of the early-type galaxy population hosts a prominent dust lane. Methods to quantify the dust content of these systems based on optical imaging data usually yield dust masses which are an order of magnitude lower than dust masses derived from the observed FIR emission. High-quality optical data from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) and FIR/submm observations from the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) allow us to revisit previous methods to determine the dust content in galaxies and explore new ones. We aim to derive the dust mass in NGC 4370 from both optical and FIR data, and investigate the need to invoke a putative diffuse dust component. We create color and attenuation maps, which are converted to approximate dust mass maps based on simple dust geometries. Dust masses are also derived from SED fits to FIR/submm observations. Finally, inverse radiative transfer fitting is performed to investigate more complex dust geometries. The empirical methods applied to the optical data yield lower limits of 3.4e5 solar masses, an order of magnitude below the total dust masses derived from SED fitting. In contrast, radiative transfer models yield dust masses which are slightly lower, but fully consistent with the FIR-derived mass. Dust is more likely to be distributed in a ring around the centre of NGC 4370 as opposed to an exponential disc or a simple foreground screen. Moreover, using inverse radiative transfer fitting, we are able to constrain most of the parameters describing these geometries. The resulting dust masses are high enough to account for the dust observed at FIR/submm wavelengths, so that no diffuse dust component needs to be invoked. We furthermore caution for the interpretation of dust masses and optical depths based on optical data alone, using overly simplistic star-dust geometries and the neglect of scattering effects. [ABRIDGED]
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: The Virgo direction has been observed at many wavelengths in the recent years, in particular in the ultraviolet with GALEX. The far ultraviolet (FUV) diffuse light detected by GALEX bears interesting information on the large scale distribution of Galactic dust, owing to the GALEX FUV band sensitivity and resolution. AIMS: We aim to characterise the ultraviolet large scale distribution of diffuse emission in the Virgo direction. A map of this emission may become useful for various studies by identifying regions where dust affects observations by either scattering light or absorbing radiation. METHODS: We construct mosaics of the FUV and near ultraviolet diffuse emission over a large sky region (RA 12 to 13 hours, DEC 0 to 20 degrees) surrounding the Virgo cluster, using all the GALEX available data in the area. We test for the first time the utilisation of the FUV diffuse light as a Galactic extinction E(B-V) tracer. RESULTS: The FUV diffuse light scattered on cirrus reveals details in their geometry. Despite a large dispersion, the FUV diffuse light correlates roughly with other Galactic dust tracers (coming from IRAS, Herschel, Planck), offering an opportunity to use the FUV emission to locate them in future studies with a better resolution (about 5 arcsec native resolution, 20 arcsec pixels maps presented in this paper) than several usual tracers. Estimating the Galactic dust extinction on the basis of this emission allows us to find a smaller dispersion in the NUV-i colour of background galaxies at a given E(B-V)than with other tracers. The diffuse light mosaics obtained in this work are made publicly available.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present new Halpha+[NII] imaging data of late-type galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey aimed at studying the star formation properties of a K-band-selected, volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies. The Halpha+[NII] data are corrected for [NII] contamination and dust attenuation using different recipes based on the Balmer decrement and the 24mic luminosities. We show that the L(Halpha) derived with different corrections give consistent results only whenever the uncertainty on the estimate of the Balmer decrement is <=0.1. We use these data to derive the SFR of the late-type galaxies of the sample, and compare these estimates to those determined using independent monochromatic tracers (FUV, radio) or the output of SED fitting codes. This comparison suggests that the 24mic based dust extinction correction for Halpha might be non universal, and that it should be used with caution in all objects with a SFA, where dust heating can be dominated by the old stellar population. Furthermore, because of the sudden truncation of the SFA of cluster galaxies occurring after their interaction with the surrounding environment, the stationarity conditions required to transform monochromatic fluxes into SFR might not always be satisfied in tracers other than L(Halpha). In a similar way, the parametrisation of the SFH generally used in SED fitting codes might not be adequate for these recently interacting systems. We then study the SFR luminosity distribution and the typical scaling relations of late-type galaxies. We observe a systematic decrease of the SSFR with increasing stellar mass, stellar mass surface density, and metallicity. We also observe an increase of the asymmetry and smoothness parameters measured in the Halpha-band with increasing SSFR, probably induced by an increase of the contribution of giant HII regions to the Halpha luminosity function in SF low-luminosity galaxies.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy (NGC6503-d1) during the Subaru extended ultraviolet (XUV) disk survey. It is a likely companion of the spiral galaxy NGC6503. The resolved images, in B, V, R, i, and Halpha, show an irregular appearance due to bright stars with underlying, smooth and unresolved stellar emission. It is classified as the transition type (dIrr/dSph). Its structural properties are similar to those of the dwarfs in the Local Group, with a V absolute magnitude ~ -10.5, half-light radius ~400 pc, and central surface brightness ~25.2. Despite the low stellar surface brightness environment, one HII region was detected, though its Halpha luminosity is low, indicating an absence of any appreciable O-stars at the current epoch. The presence of multiple stellar populations is indicated by the color-magnitude diagram of ~300 bright resolved stars and the total colors of the dwarf, with the majority of its total stellar mass ~4x10^6 Msun in an old stellar population.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The far-infrared (FIR) lines are important tracers of the cooling and physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) and are rapidly becoming workhorse diagnostics for galaxies throughout the universe. There are clear indications of a different behavior of these lines at low metallicity that needs to be explored. Aims. Our goal is to explain the main differences and trends observed in the FIR line emission of dwarf galaxies compared to more metal-rich galaxies, and how this translates in ISM properties. Methods. We present Herschel/PACS spectroscopic observations of the [C II] 157 μm, [O I] 63 and 145 μm, [O III] 88 μm, [N II] 122 and 205 μm, and [N III] 57 μm fine-structure cooling lines in a sample of 48 low-metallicity star-forming galaxies of the guaranteed time key program Dwarf Galaxy Survey. We correlate PACS line ratios and line-to-L_(TIR) ratios with L_(TIR), L_(TIR)/L_B, metallicity, and FIR color, and interpret the observed trends in terms of ISM conditions and phase filling factors with Cloudy radiative transfer models. Results. We find that the FIR lines together account for up to 3 percent of L_(TIR) and that star-forming regions dominate the overall emission in dwarf galaxies. Compared to metal-rich galaxies, the ratios of [O III]_(88)/[N II]_(122) and [N III]_(57)/[N II]_(122) are high, indicative of hard radiation fields. In the photodissociation region (PDR), the [C II]_(157)/[O I]_(63) ratio is slightly higher than in metal-rich galaxies, with a small increase with metallicity, and the [O I]_(145)/[O I]_(63) ratio is generally lower than 0.1, demonstrating that optical depth effects should be small on the scales probed. The [O III]_(88)/[O I]_(63) ratio can be used as an indicator of the ionized gas/PDR filling factor, and is found to be ~4 times higher in the dwarfs than in metal-rich galaxies. The high [C II]/L_(TIR), [O I]/L_(TIR), and [O III]/L_(TIR) ratios, which decrease with increasing L_(TIR) and L_(TIR)/L_B, are interpreted as a combination of moderate far-UV fields and a low PDR covering factor. Harboring compact phases of a low filling factor and a large volume filling factor of diffuse gas, the ISM of low-metallicity dwarf galaxies has a more porous structure than that of metal-rich galaxies.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Measuring star formation on a local scale is important to constrain star formation laws. It is not clear yet, however, whether and how the measure of star formation is affected by the spatial scale at which a galaxy is observed. Aims. We wish to understand the impact of the resolution on the determination of the spatially resolved star formation rate (SFR) and other directly associated physical parameters such as the attenuation. Methods. We carried out a multi-scale, pixel-by-pixel study of the nearby galaxy M 33. Assembling FUV, Hα, 8 μm, 24 μm, 70 μm, and 100 μm maps, we have systematically compared the emission in individual bands with various SFR estimators from a resolution of 33 pc to 2084 pc. Results. There are strong, scale-dependent, discrepancies of up to a factor 3 between monochromatic SFR estimators and Hα+24 μm. The scaling factors between individual IR bands and the SFR show a strong dependence on the spatial scale and on the intensity of star formation. Finally, strong variations of the differential reddening between the nebular emission and the stellar continuum are seen, depending on the specific SFR (sSFR) and on the resolution. At the finest spatial scales, there is little differential reddening at high sSFR. The differential reddening increases with decreasing sSFR. At the coarsest spatial scales the differential reddening is compatible with the canonical value found for starburst galaxies. Conclusions. Our results confirm that monochromatic estimators of the SFR are unreliable at scales smaller than 1 kpc. Furthermore, the extension of local calibrations to high-redshift galaxies presents non-trivial challenges because the properties of these systems may be poorly known.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: 2015yCat..35780008B - VizieR On-line Data Catalog: J/A+A/578/A8. Originally published in: 2015A&A...578A...8B
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,588.77 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2015
    • Aix-Marseille Université
      • Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille (UMR 7326 LAM)
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • Laboratoire d’Informatique Fondamentale de Marseille
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2001-2015
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut d'astrophysique spatiale (IAS)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2014
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 2013
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2012-2013
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2010
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Physics
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002-2009
    • Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2007
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Nagoya University
      • Institute for Advanced Research (IAR)
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Physics
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2002-2005
    • Observatoire Astrophysique de Marseille Provence
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 1990-2005
    • University of Milan
      • Department of Physics
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • National Research Council
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2000
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Institute of Theoretical Physics
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 1998
    • Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE)
      Cholula de Riva dabia, Puebla, Mexico
  • 1994-1997
    • Observatoire de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1996
    • Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1991
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy