P. Francois

Paris Diderot University, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (217)530.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: As a brief revision, the origin of heavy elements and the role of abundances in extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are presented. Heavy element abundances in the EMP uranium-rich star CS 31082-001 based mainly on near-UV spectra from STIS/HST are presented. These results should be useful for a better characterisation of the neutron exposure(s) that produced the r-process elements in this star, as well as a guide for improving nuclear data and astrophysical site modelling, given that the new element abundances not available in previous works (Ge, Mo, Lu, Ta, W, Re, Pt, Au, and Bi) make CS 31082-001 the most completely well studied r-II object, with a total of 37 detections of n-capture elements.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Physics Conference Series
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    ABSTRACT: We present new accurate abundances for five neutron-capture (Y, La, Ce, Nd, Eu) elements in 73 classical Cepheids located across the Galactic thin disk. Individual abundances are based on high spectral resolution (R ~ 38,000) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ~ 50-300) spectra collected with UVES at ESO VLT for the DIONYSOS project. Taking account for similar Cepheid abundances provided either by our group (111 stars) or available in the literature, we end up with a sample of 435 Cepheids covering a broad range in iron abundances (-1.6 < [Fe/H] < 0.6). We found, using homogeneous individual distances and abundance scales, well defined gradients for the above elements. However, the slope of the light s-process element (Y) is at least a factor of two steeper than the slopes of heavy s- (La, Ce, Nd) and r- (Eu) process elements. The s to r abundance ratio ([La/Eu]) of Cepheids shows a well defined anticorrelation with of both Eu and Fe. On the other hand, Galactic field stars attain an almost constant value and only when they approach solar iron abundance display a mild enhancement in La. The [Y/Eu] ratio shows a mild evidence of a correlation with Eu and, in particular, with iron abundance for field Galactic stars. We also investigated the s-process index - [hs/ls] - and we found a well defined anticorrelation, as expected, between [La/Y] and iron abundance. Moreover, we found a strong correlation between [La/Y] and [La/Fe] and, in particular, a clear separation between Galactic and Sagittarius red giants. Finally, the comparison between predictions for low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars and the observed [La/Y] ratio indicate a very good agreement over the entire metallicity range covered by Cepheids. However, the observed spread, at fixed iron content, is larger than predicted by current models.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Low mass dwarf spheroidal galaxies are key objects for our understanding of the chemical evolution of the pristine Universe and the Local Group of galaxies. Abundance ratios in stars of these objects can be used to better understand their star formation and chemical evolution. We report on the analysis of a sample of 11 stars belonging to 5 different ultra faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies (UfDSph) based on X-Shooter spectra obtained at the VLT. Medium resolution spectra have been used to determine the detailed chemical composition of their atmosphere. We performed a standard 1D LTE analysis to compute the abundances. Considering all the stars as representative of the same population of low mass galaxies, we found that the [alpha/Fe] ratios vs [Fe/H] decreases as the metallicity of the star increases in a way similar to what is found for the population of stars belonging to dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The main difference is that the solar [alpha/Fe] is reached at a much lower metallicity for the UfDSph than the dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We report for the first time the abundance of strontium in CVnI. The star we analyzed in this galaxy has a very high [Sr/Fe] and a very low upper limit of barium which makes it a star with an exceptionally high [Sr/Ba] ratio. Our results seem to indicate that the galaxies which have produced the bulk of their stars before the reionization (fossil galaxies) have lower [X/Fe] ratios at a given metallicity than the galaxies that have experienced a discontinuity in their star formation rate (quenching).
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present a grid of computed non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) equivalent widths (EW) and NLTE abundance corrections for four Ba II lines: 4554, 5853, 6141, and 6496 A. The grid can be useful in deriving the NLTE barium abundance in stars having parameters in the following ranges: effective temperature from 4000 K to 6500 K, surface gravity log g from 0 to 5, microturbulent velocity 0 km s^-1 to 3 km s^-1, metallicity [Fe/H] from -2 to +0.5, and [Ba/Fe] from -0.4 to +0.6. The NLTE abundance can be either derived by EW interpolation (using the observed Ba II line EW) or by using the NLTE correction applied to a previously determined LTE abundance. Ba II line equivalent widths and the NLTE corrections were calculated using the updated MULTI code and the Ba II atomic model that was previously applied to determine the NLTE barium abundance in different types of stars. The grid is available on-line through the web, and we find that the grid Ba NLTE corrections are almost as accurate as direct NLTE profile fitting (to within 0.05-0.08 dex). For the weakest Ba II line (5853 A) the LTE abundances almost agree with the NLTE abundances, whereas the other three Ba II lines, 4554, 6141, and 6496 A, need NLTE corrections even at the highest metallicities tested here. The 4554 A line is extremely strong and should not be used for abundance analysis above [Fe/H]= -1. Furthermore, we tested the impact of different model atmospheres and spectrum synthesis codes and found average differences of 0.06 dex and 0.09 dex, respectively, for all four lines. At these metallicities we find an average Delta NLTE of +/-0.1 dex for the three useful Ba lines for subsolar cool dwarfs.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present the high resolution spectroscopic study of five -3.9<=[Fe/H]<=-2.5 stars in the Local Group dwarf spheroidal, Sculptor, thereby doubling the number of stars with comparable observations in this metallicity range. We carry out a detailed analysis of the chemical abundances of alpha, iron peak, light and heavy elements, and draw comparisons with the Milky Way halo and the ultra faint dwarf stellar populations. We show that the bulk of the Sculptor metal-poor stars follows the same trends in abundance ratios versus metallicity as the Milky Way stars. This suggests similar early conditions of star formation and a high degree of homogeneity of the interstellar medium. We find an outlier to this main regime, which seems to miss the products of the most massive of the TypeII supernovae. In addition to its value to help refining galaxy formation models, this star provides clues to the production of cobalt and zinc. Two of our sample stars have low odd-to-even barium isotope abundance ratios, suggestive of a fair proportion of s-process; we discuss the implication for the nucleosynthetic origin of the neutron capture elements.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We obtained spectra for two giants of Crater (Crater J113613-105227 and Crater J113615-105244) using X-Shooter at the VLT. The spectra have been analysed with the MyGIsFoS code using a grid of synthetic spectra computed from one dimensional, Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) model atmospheres. Effective temperature and surface gravity have been derived from photometry measured from images obtained by the Dark Energy Survey. The radial velocities are 144.3+-4.0 km/s for Crater J113613-105227 and and 134.1+-4.0 km/s for Crater J113615-105244. The metallicities are [Fe/H]=-1.73 and [Fe/H]=-1.67, respectively. Beside the iron abundance we could determine abundances for nine elements: Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni and Ba. For Na and Ba we took into account deviations from LTE, since the corrections are significant. The abundance ratios are similar in the two stars and resemble those of Galactic stars of the same metallicity. On the deep photometric images we could detect several stars that lie to the blue of the turn-off. conclusions heading (optional), leave it empty if necessary The radial velocities imply that both stars are members of the Crater stellar system. The difference in velocity between the two taken at face value, implies a velocity dispersion > 3.7 km/s at 95% confidence level. Our spectroscopic metallicities are in excellent agreement with that determined by previous investigations using photometry. Our deep photometry and the spectroscopic metallicity imply an age of 7 Gyr for the main population of the system. The stars to the blue of the turn-off can be interpreted as a younger population, of the same metallicity and an age of 2.2 Gyr. Finally, spatial and kinematical parameters support the idea that this system is associated to the galaxies Leo~IV and Leo~V. All the observations favour the interpretation of Crater as a dwarf galaxy. (Abridged).
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) is a large public spectroscopic survey at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. A key aim is to provide precise radial velocities (RVs) and projected equatorial velocities (v sin i) for representative samples of Galactic stars, that will complement information obtained by the Gaia astrometry satellite. We present an analysis to empirically quantify the size and distribution of uncertainties in RV and v sin i using spectra from repeated exposures of the same stars. We show that the uncertainties vary as simple scaling functions of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and v sin i, that the uncertainties become larger with increasing photospheric temperature, but that the dependence on stellar gravity, metallicity and age is weak. The underlying uncertainty distributions have extended tails that are better represented by Student's t-distributions than by normal distributions. Parametrised results are provided, that enable estimates of the RV precision for almost all GES measurements, and estimates of the v sin i precision for stars in young clusters, as a function of S/N, v sin i and stellar temperature. The precision of individual high S/N GES RV measurements is 0.22-0.26 km/s, dependent on instrumental configuration.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The inner disc, linking the thin disc with the bulge, has been somehow neglected in the past because of intrinsic difficulties in its study, due, e.g., to crowding and high extinction. Open clusters located in the inner disc are among the best tracers of its chemistry at different ages and distances. Aims. We analyse the chemical patterns of four open clusters located within 7 kpc of the Galactic Centre and of field stars to infer the properties of the inner disc with the Gaia-ESO survey idr2/3 data release. Methods. We derive the parameters of the newly observed cluster, Berkeley 81, finding an age of about 1 Gyr and a Galactocentric distance of 5.4 kpc. We construct the chemical patterns of clusters and we compare them with those of field stars in the Solar neighbourhood and in the inner-disc samples. Results. Comparing the three populations we observe that inner-disc clusters and field stars are both, on average, enhanced in [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe]. Using the idr2/3 results of M67, we estimate the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effect on the abundances of Mg and Si in giant stars. After empirically correcting for NLTE effects, we note that NGC 6705 and Be 81 still have a high [{\alpha}/Fe]. Conclusions. The location of the four open clusters and of the field population reveals that the evolution of the metallicity [Fe/H] and of [alpha/Fe] can be explained within the framework of a simple chemical evolution model: both [Fe/H] and [{\alpha}/Fe] of Trumpler 20 and of NGC 4815 are in agreement with expectations from a simple chemical evolution model. On the other hand, NGC 6705, and at a lower level Berkeley 81, have higher [{\alpha}/Fe] than expected for their ages, location in the disc, and metallicity. These differences might originate from local enrichment processes as explained in the inhomogeneous evolution framework.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: A robust classification of Cepheids into their different sub-classes and, in particular, between classical and Type II Cepheids, is necessary to properly calibrate the period-luminosity relations and for populations studies in the Galactic disc. Type II Cepheids are, however, very diverse, and classifications based either on intrinsic (period, light curve) or external parameters (e.g., [Fe/H], |z|) do not provide a unique classification. We want to ascertain the classification of two Cepheids, HQ Car and DD Vel, that are sometimes classified as classical Cepheids and sometimes as Type II Cepheids. To achieve this goal, we examine both their chemical composition and the presence of specific features in their spectra. We find emission features in the H{\alpha} and in the 5875.64 {\AA} He I lines that are typical of W Vir stars. The [Na/Fe] (or [Na/Zn]) abundances are typical of thick-disc stars, while BL Her stars are Na-overabundant ([Na/Fe]>+0.5 dex). Finally, the two Cepheids show a possible (HQ Car) or probable (DD Vel) signature of mild dust-gas separation that is usually observed only in long-period type II Cepheids and RV Tau stars. These findings clearly indicate that HQ Car and DD Vel are both Type II Cepheids from the W Vir sub-class. Several studies have reported an increase in the Cepheids' abundance dispersion towards the outer (thin) disc. A detailed inspection of the Cepheid classification, in particular for those located in the outer disc, will indicate whether this feature is real or simply an artefact of the inclusion of type II Cepheids belonging to the thick disc in the current samples.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: In the course of the TOPoS (Turn Off Primordial Stars) survey, aimed at discovering the lowest metallicity stars, we have found several carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. We here present our analysis of six CEMP stars. Calcium and carbon are the only elements that can be measured in all six stars. The range is -5.0<=[Ca/H]< -2.1 and 7.12<=A(C)<=8.65. For star SDSS J1742+2531 we were able to detect three FeI lines from which we deduced [Fe/H]=-4.80, from four CaII lines we derived [Ca/H]=-4.56, and from synthesis of the G-band we derived A(C)=7.26. For SDSS J1035+0641 we were not able to detect any iron lines, yet we could place a robust (3sigma) upper limit of [Fe/H]< -5.0 and measure the Ca abundance, with [Ca/H]=-5.0, and carbon, A(C)=6.90. No lithium is detected in the spectrum of SDSS J1742+2531 or SDSS J1035+0641, which implies a robust upper limit of A(Li)<1.8 for both stars. Our measured carbon abundances confirm the bimodal distribution of carbon in CEMP stars, identifying a high-carbon band and a low-carbon band. We propose an interpretation of this bimodality according to which the stars on the high-carbon band are the result of mass transfer from an AGB companion, while the stars on the low-carbon band are genuine fossil records of a gas cloud that has also been enriched by a faint supernova (SN) providing carbon and the lighter elements. (Abridged)
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the abundance analysis for a sample of 7 red giant branch stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4372 based on UVES spectra acquired as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey. This is the first extensive study of this cluster from high resolution spectroscopy. We derive abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Fe, Cr, Ni, Y, Ba, and La. We find a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.19 $\pm$ 0.03 and find no evidence for a metallicity spread. This metallicity makes NGC 4372 one of the most metal-poor galactic globular clusters. We also find an {\alpha}-enhancement typical of halo globular clusters at this metallicity. Significant spreads are observed in the abundances of light elements. In particular we find a Na-O anti-correlation. Abundances of O are relatively high compared with other globular clusters. This could indicate that NGC 4372 was formed in an environment with high O for its metallicity. A Mg-Al spread is also present which spans a range of more than 0.5 dex in Al abundances. Na is correlated with Al and Mg abundances at a lower significance level. This pattern suggests that the Mg-Al burning cycle is active. This behavior can also be seen in giant stars of other massive, metal-poor clusters. A relation between light and heavy s-process elements has been identified.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the analysis of UVES and GIRAFFE spectra acquired by the Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey in the fields of young clusters whose population includes pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. Both methods that have been extensively used in the past and new ones developed in the contest of the Gaia-ESO survey enterprise are available and used. The internal precision of these quantities is estimated by inter-comparing the results obtained by such different methods, while the accuracy is estimated by comparison with independent external data, like effective temperature and surface gravity derived from angular diameter measurements, on a sample of benchmarks stars. Specific strategies are implemented to deal with fast rotation, accretion signatures, chromospheric activity, and veiling. The analysis carried out on spectra acquired in young clusters' fields during the first 18 months of observations, up to June 2013, is presented in preparation of the first release of advanced data products. Stellar parameters obtained with the higher resolution and larger wavelength coverage from UVES are reproduced with comparable accuracy and precision using the smaller wavelength range and lower resolution of the GIRAFFE setup adopted for young stars, which allows us to provide with confidence stellar parameters for the much larger GIRAFFE sample. Precisions are estimated to be $\approx$ 120 K r.m.s. in Teff, $\approx$0.3 dex r.m.s. in logg, and $\approx$0.15 dex r.m.s. in [Fe/H], for both the UVES and GIRAFFE setups.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present new homogeneous measurements of Na, Al and three alpha-elements (Mg, Si, Ca) for 75 Galactic Cepheids. The abundances are based on high spectral resolution (R ~ 38,000) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ~ 50-300) spectra collected with UVES at ESO VLT. The current measurements were complemented with Cepheid abundances either provided by our group (75) or available in the literature, for a total of 439 Galactic Cepheids. Special attention was given in providing a homogeneous abundance scale for these five elements plus iron (Genovali et al. 2013, 2014). In addition, accurate Galactocentric distances (RG) based on near-infrared photometry are also available for all the Cepheids in the sample (Genovali et al. 2014). They cover a large fraction of the Galactic thin disk (4.1 <= RG <= 18.4 kpc). We found that the above five elements display well defined linear radial gradients and modest standard deviations over the entire range of RG. Moreover, the [element/Fe] abundance ratios are constant across the entire thin disk; only the Ca radial distribution shows marginal evidence of a positive slope. These results indicate that the chemical enrichment history of iron and of the quoted five elements has been quite similar across the four quadrants of the Galactic thin disk. The [element/Fe] ratios are also constant over the entire period range. This empirical evidence indicates that the chemical enrichment of Galactic Cepheids has also been very homogenous during the range in age that they cover (~10-300 Myr). Once again, [Ca/Fe] vs. log(P) shows a (negative) gradient, being underabundant among youngest Cepheids. Finally, we also found that Cepheid abundances agree quite well with similar abundances for thin and thick disk dwarf stars and they follow the typical Mg-Al and Na-O correlations.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Large spectroscopic surveys have enabled in the recent years the computation of three-dimensional interstellar extinction maps thanks to accurate stellar atmospheric parameters and line-of-sight distances. Such maps are complementary to 3D maps extracted from photometry, allowing a more thorough study of the dust properties. Our goal is to use the high-resolution spectroscopic survey Gaia-ESO in order to obtain with a good distance resolution the interstellar extinction and its dependency as a function of the environment and the Galactocentric position. We use the stellar atmospheric parameters of more than 5000 stars, obtained from the Gaia-ESO survey second internal data release, and combine them with optical (SDSS) and near-infrared (VISTA) photometry as well as different sets of theoretical stellar isochrones, in order to calculate line-of-sight extinction and distances. The extinction coefficients are then compared with the literature to discuss their dependancy on the stellar parameters and position in the Galaxy. Within the errors of our method, our work does not show that there is any dependence of the interstellar extinction coefficient on the atmospheric parameters of the stars. We do not find any evidence of the variation of E(J-H)/E(J-K) with the angle from the Galactic centre nor with Galactocentric distance. This suggests that we are dealing with a uniform extinction law in the SDSS ugriz bands and the near-IR JHKs bands. Therefore, extinction maps using mean colour-excesses and assuming a constant extinction coefficient can be used without introducing any systematic errors.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    M. Spite · F. Spite · P. Bonifacio · E. Caffau · P. François · L. Sbordone
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    ABSTRACT: It has been noted that, in classical extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, the abundance ratio of Sr and Ba, is always higher than [Sr/Ba] = -0.5, the value of the solar r-only process; however, a handful of EMP stars have recently been found with a very low Sr/Ba ratio. We try to understand the origin of this anomaly by comparing the abundance pattern of the elements in these stars and in the classical EMP stars. Four stars with very low Sr/Ba ratios were observed and analyzed within LTE approximation through 1D (hydrostatic) model atmosphere, providing homogeneous abundances of nine neutron-capture elements. In CS 22950-173, the only turnoff star of the sample, the Sr/Ba ratio is, in fact, found to be higher than the r-only solar ratio, so the star is discarded. The remaining stars (CS 29493-090, CS 30322-023, HE 305-4520) are cool evolved giants. They do not present a clear carbon enrichment. The abundance patterns of the neutron-capture elements in the three stars are strikingly similar to a theoretical s-process pattern. This pattern could at first be attributed to pollution by a nearby AGB, but none of the stars presents a clear variation in the radial velocity indicating the presence of a companion. The stellar parameters seem to exclude any internal pollution in a TP-AGB phase for at least two of these stars. The possibility that the stars are early-AGB stars polluted during the core He flash does not seem compatible with the theory.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The Gaia-ESO Survey is obtaining high-quality spectroscopic data for about 10^5 stars using FLAMES at the VLT. UVES high-resolution spectra are being collected for about 5000 FGK-type stars. These UVES spectra are analyzed in parallel by several state-of-the-art methodologies. Our aim is to present how these analyses were implemented, to discuss their results, and to describe how a final recommended parameter scale is defined. We also discuss the precision (method-to-method dispersion) and accuracy (biases with respect to the reference values) of the final parameters. These results are part of the Gaia-ESO 2nd internal release and will be part of its 1st public release of advanced data products. The final parameter scale is tied to the one defined by the Gaia benchmark stars, a set of stars with fundamental atmospheric parameters. A set of open and globular clusters is used to evaluate the physical soundness of the results. Each methodology is judged against the benchmark stars to define weights in three different regions of the parameter space. The final recommended results are the weighted-medians of those from the individual methods. The recommended results successfully reproduce the benchmark stars atmospheric parameters and the expected Teff-log g relation of the calibrating clusters. Atmospheric parameters and abundances have been determined for 1301 FGK-type stars observed with UVES. The median of the method-to-method dispersion of the atmospheric parameters is 55 K for Teff, 0.13 dex for log g, and 0.07 dex for [Fe/H]. Systematic biases are estimated to be between 50-100 K for Teff, 0.10-0.25 dex for log g, and 0.05-0.10 dex for [Fe/H]. Abundances for 24 elements were derived: C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Eu. The typical method-to-method dispersion of the abundances varies between 0.10 and 0.20 dex.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Fornax is one of the most massive dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. The Fornax field star population is dominated by intermediate age stars but star formation was going on over almost its entire history. It has been proposed that Fornax experienced a minor merger event. Despite recent progress, only the high metallicity end of Fornax field stars ([Fe/H]>-1.2 dex) has been sampled in larger number via high resolution spectroscopy. We want to better understand the full chemical evolution of this galaxy by better sampling the whole metallicity range, including more metal poor stars. We use the VLT-FLAMES multi-fibre spectrograph in high-resolution mode to determine the abundances of several alpha, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements in a sample of 47 individual Red Giant Branch stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We combine these abundances with accurate age estimates derived from the age probability distribution from the colour-magnitude diagram of Fornax. Similar to other dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the old, metal-poor stars of Fornax are typically alpha-rich while the young metal-rich stars are alpha-poor. In the classical scenario of the time delay between SNe II and SNe Ia, we confirm that SNe Ia started to contribute to the chemical enrichment at [Fe/H] between -2.0 and -1.8 dex. We find that the onset of SNe Ia took place between 12-10 Gyrs ago. The high values of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] reflect the influence of SNe Ia and AGB stars in the abundance pattern of the younger stellar population of Fornax. Our findings of low [alpha/Fe] and enhanced [Eu/Mg] are compatible with an initial mass function that lacks the most massive stars and with star formation that kept going on throughout the whole history of Fornax. We find that massive stars kept enriching the interstellar medium in alpha-elements, although they were not the main contributor to the iron enrichment.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The 4MOST[1] instrument is a concept for a wide-field, fibre-fed high multiplex spectroscopic instrument facility on the ESO VISTA telescope designed to perform a massive (initially >25×106 spectra in 5 years) combined all-sky public survey. The main science drivers are: Gaia follow up of chemo-dynamical structure of the Milky Way, stellar radial velocities, parameters and abundances, chemical tagging; eROSITA follow up of cosmology with x-ray clusters of galaxies, X-ray AGN/galaxy evolution to z∼5, Galactic X-ray sources and resolving the Galactic edge; Euclid/LSST/SKA and other survey follow up of Dark Energy, Galaxy evolution and transients. The surveys will be undertaken simultaneously requiring: highly advanced targeting and scheduling software, also comprehensive data reduction and analysis tools to produce high-level data products. The instrument will allow simultaneous observations of ∼1600 targets at R∼5,000 from 390-900nm and ∼800 targets at R<18,000 in three channels between ∼395-675nm (channel bandwidth: 45nm blue, 57nm green and 69nm red) over a hexagonal field of view of ∼ 4.1 degrees. The initial 5-year 4MOST survey is currently expect to start in 2020. We provide and overview of the 4MOST systems: optomechanical, control, data management and operations concepts; and initial performance estimates.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The Gaia-ESO Survey is a large public spectroscopic survey that aims to derive radial velocities and fundamental parameters of about 10^5 Milky Way stars in the field and in clusters. Observations are carried out with the multi-object optical spectrograph FLAMES, using simultaneously the medium resolution (R~20,000) GIRAFFE spectrograph and the high resolution (R~47,000) UVES spectrograph. In this paper, we describe the methods and the software used for the data reduction, the derivation of the radial velocities, and the quality control of the FLAMES-UVES spectra. Data reduction has been performed using a workflow specifically developed for this project. This workflow runs the ESO public pipeline optimizing the data reduction for the Gaia-ESO Survey, performs automatically sky subtraction, barycentric correction and normalisation, and calculates radial velocities and a first guess of the rotational velocities. The quality control is performed using the output parameters from the ESO pipeline, by a visual inspection of the spectra and by the analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra. Using the observations of the first 18 months, specifically targets observed multiple times at different epochs, stars observed with both GIRAFFE and UVES, and observations of radial velocity standards, we estimated the precision and the accuracy of the radial velocities. The statistical error on the radial velocities is sigma~0.4 km s^-1 and is mainly due to uncertainties in the zero point of the wavelength calibration. However, we found a systematic bias with respect to the GIRAFFE spectra (~0.9 km s^-1) and to the radial velocities of the standard stars (~0.5 kms^-1) retrieved from the literature. This bias will be corrected in the future data releases, when a common zero point for all the setups and instruments used for the survey will be established.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics

Publication Stats

5k Citations
530.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007-2015
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Observatoire de Haute-Provence
      Manosque, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 1997-2014
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2010-2013
    • Université de Picardie Jules Verne
      Amiens, Picardie, France
  • 1987-2011
    • Observatoire de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2006
    • National Institute of Astrophysics
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2000-2001
    • European Southern Observatory
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of Santiago, Chile
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile